Chemical Principles, Enhanced Edition (with Enhanced WebAssign with eBook Printed Access Card) / Edition 6by Steven S. Zumdahl
Pub. Date: 07/20/2009
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Already known for helping you develop the qualitative, conceptual foundation that gets you thinking like a chemists, this Enhanced Edition has been specially updated to include instant access to ENHANCED WEBASSIGN, the most widely-used and reliable homework system. This market-leading text is designed for students with solid mathematical preparation and prior
Already known for helping you develop the qualitative, conceptual foundation that gets you thinking like a chemists, this Enhanced Edition has been specially updated to include instant access to ENHANCED WEBASSIGN, the most widely-used and reliable homework system. This market-leading text is designed for students with solid mathematical preparation and prior exposure to chemistry. The unique organization of the text supports this qualitative-to-quantitative approach. A strong emphasis on models and everyday applications of chemistry combines with a thoughtful, step-by-step problem solving approach to build conceptual understanding.
Table of Contents
Note: Each chapter concludes with Exercises. 1. CHEMISTS AND CHEMISTRY. Thinking Like a Chemist. A Real-World Chemistry Problem. The Scientific Method. Industrial Chemistry. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Real-World Chemistry. 2. ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONS. The Early History of Chemistry. Fundamental Chemical Laws. Dalton's Atomic Theory. Cannizzaro's Interpretation. Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom. The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction. Molecules and Ions. An Introduction to the Periodic Table. Naming Simple Compounds. 3. STOICHIOMETRY. Atomic Masses. The Mole. Molar Mass. Percent Composition of Compounds. Determining the Formula of a Compound. Chemical Equations. Balancing Chemical Equations. Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products. Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant. 4. TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Water, the Common Solvent. The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes. The Composition of Solutions. Types of Chemical Reactions. Precipitation Reactions. Describing Reactions in Solution. Selective Precipitation. Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions. Acid-Base Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations. Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations. 5. GASES. Early Experiments. The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro. The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Stoichiometry. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases. Effusion and Diffusion. Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls. Intermolecular Collisions. Real Gases. Characteristics of Several Real Gases. Chemistry in the Atmosphere. 6. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM. The Equilibrium Condition. The Equilibrium Constant. Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures. The Concept of Activity. Heterogeneous Equilibria. Applications of the Equilibrium Constant. Solving Equilibrium Problems. Le Châtelier's Principle. Equilibria Involving Real Gases. 7. ACIDS AND BASES. The Nature of Acids and Bases. Acid Strength. The pH Scale. Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions. Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions. Bases. Polyprotic Acids. Acid-Base Properties of Salts. Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration. Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration. Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary. 8. APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA. Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion. Buffered Solutions. Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions. Buffer Capacity. Titrations and pH Curves. Acid-Base Indicators. Titration of Polyprotic Acids. Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product. Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis. Complex Ion Equilibria. 9. ENERGY, ENTHALPY, AND THERMOCHEMISTRY. The Nature of Energy. Enthalpy. Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases. Calorimetry. Hess's Law. Standard Enthalpies of Formation. Present Sources of Energy. New Energy Sources. 10. SPONTANEITY, ENTROPY, AND FREE ENERGY. Spontaneous Processes and Entropy. The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas. The Definition of Entropy. Entropy and Physical Changes. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity. Free Energy. Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions. Free Energy and Chemical Reactions. The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure. Free Energy and Equilibrium. Free Energy and Work. Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary. Adiabatic Processes. 11. ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Galvanic Cells. Standard Reduction Potentials. Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy. Dependence of the Cell Potential on Concentration. Batteries. Corrosion. Electrolysis. Commercial Electrolytic Processes. 12. QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ATOMIC TEHORY. Electromagnetic Radiation. The Nature of Matter. The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen. The Bohr Model. The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Atom. The Particle in a Box. The Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom. The Physical Meaning of a Wave Function. The Characteristics of Hydrogen Orbitals. Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle. Polyelectronic Atoms. The History of the Periodic Table. The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table. Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals. 13. BONDING: GENERAL CONCEPTS. Types of Chemical Bonds. Electronegativity. Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments. Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes. Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds. Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds. The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model. Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions. The Localized Electron Bonding Model. Lewis Structure. Resonance. Exceptions to the Octet Rule. Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model. 14. COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS. Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model. The Molecular Orbital Model. Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules. Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules. Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models. Orbitals: Human Inventions. Molecular Spectroscopy: An Introduction. Electronic Spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy. Rotational Spectroscopy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 15. CHEMICAL KINETICS. Reaction Rates. Rate Laws: An Introduction. Determining the Form of the Rate Law. The Integrated Rate Law. Rate Laws: A Summary. Reaction Mechanisms. The Steady-State Approximation. A Model for Chemical Kinetics. Catalysis. 16. LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. Intermolecular Forces. The Liquid State. An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids. Structure and Bonding in Metals. Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids. Molecular Solids. Ionic Solids. Structures of Actual Ionic Solids. Lattice Defects. Vapor Pressure and Changes of State. Phase Diagrams. Nanotechnology. 17. PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS. Solution Composition. The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation. Factors Affecting Solubility. The Vapor Pressures of Solutions. Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression. Osmotic Pressure. Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions. Colloids. 18. THE REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS. A Survey of the Representative Elements. The Group 1A Elements. The Chemistry of Hydrogen. The Group 2A Elements. The Group 3A Elements. The Group 4A Elements. The Group 5A Elements. The Chemistry of Nitrogen. The Chemistry of Phosphorus. The Group 6A Elements. The Chemistry of Oxygen. The Chemistry of Sulfur. The Group 7A Elements. The Group 8A Elements. 19. TRANSITION METALS AND COORDINATION CHEMISTRY. The Transition Metals: A Survey. The First-Row Transition Metals. Coordination Compounds. Isomerism. Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model. The Crystal Field Model. The Molecular Orbital Model. The Biological Importance of Coordination Complexes. 20. THE NUCLEUS: A CHEMIST'S VIEW. Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay. The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay. Nuclear Transformations. Detection and Uses of Radioactivity. Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. Effects of Radiation. 21. ORGANIC AND BIOCHEMICAL MOLECULES. Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons. Alkenes and Alkynes. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon Derivatives. Polymers. Natural Polymers. APPENDIX 1: MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURES. Exponential Notation. Logarithms. Graphing Functions. Solving Quadratic Equations. Uncertainties in Measurements. Significant Figures. APPENDIX 2: UNITS OF MEASUREMENT AND CONVERSIONS AMONG UNITS. Measurements. Unit Conversions. Appendix 3: Spectral Analysis. Appendix 4: Selected Thermodynamic Data. Appendix 5: Equilibrium Constants and Reduction Potentials Glossary. Answers to Selected Exercises. Photo Credits. Index.
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