Global Marketing Management / Edition 5

Global Marketing Management / Edition 5

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by Masaaki (Mike) Kotabe, Kristiaan Helsen
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0470381116

ISBN-13: 9780470381113

Pub. Date: 01/07/2010

Publisher: Wiley

The Global Perspectives, Cases, Videoboxes, Maps, Review Questions, Discussion Questions, Information Sources for Global Marketing Management, Instructor's Manual available.

Overview

The Global Perspectives, Cases, Videoboxes, Maps, Review Questions, Discussion Questions, Information Sources for Global Marketing Management, Instructor's Manual available.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780470381113
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/07/2010
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
752
Product dimensions:
8.50(w) x 10.90(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents


Globalization Imperative     1
Why Global Marketing is Imperative     2
Globalization of Markets: Convergence and Divergence     8
International Trade versus International Business     10
Who Manages International Trade?     11
Evolution of Global Marketing     12
What is Marketing?     12
Domestic Marketing     13
Export Marketing     15
International Marketing     16
Multinational Marketing     16
Global Marketing     17
The Impact of Economic Geography and Climate on Global Marketing     18
Short Cases     22
Theories of International Trade and the Multinational Enterprise     23
Economic Environment     31
Intertwined World Economy     32
Foreign Direct Investment     35
Portfolio Investment     36
Country Competitiveness     38
Changing Country Competitiveness     38
Human Resources and Technology     38
Emerging Economies     40
China     42
India     46
Russia     51
Evolution of Cooperative Global Trade Agreements     55
GeneralAgreements on Tariffs and Trade     55
World Trade Organization     56
Information Technology and the Changing Nature of Competition     61
Value of Intellectual Property in Information Age     61
Proliferation of E-Commerce and Regulations     63
Regional Economic Arrangements     64
Free Trade Area     64
Customs Union     67
Common Market     67
Monetary Union     67
Political Union     67
Multinational Corporations     68
Short Cases     72
Financial Environment     75
Historical Role of The U.S. Dollar     76
Development of the Current International Monetary System     77
The Bretton Woods Conference     77
The International Monetary Fund     78
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development     79
Fixed versus Floating Exchange Rates     80
Currency Blocs     80
Foreign Exchange And Foreign Exchange Rates     82
Purchasing Power Parity     82
Forecasting Exchange Rate Fluctuation     84
Coping with Exchange Rate Fluctuations     84
Spot versus Forward Foreign Exchange      86
Exchange Rate Pass-Through     87
Balance of Payments     89
The Internal and External Adjustments     91
Economic and Financial Turmoil Around the World     93
Asian Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath     93
The South American Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath     95
Financial Crises in Perspective     96
Responses to the Regional Financial Crises     96
Marketing in Euro-Land     99
Historical Background     99
Ramifications of the Euro for Marketers     102
Short Cases     107
Global Cultural Environment and Buying Behavior     110
Definition of Culture     112
Elements of Culture     113
Material Life     113
Language     114
Social Interactions     117
Aesthetics     118
Religion     121
Education     123
Value Systems     124
Cross-Cultural Comparisons     127
High- versus Low-Context Cultures     127
Hofstede's Classification Scheme     128
Project Globe     131
World Value Survey (Wvs)     131
Adaptation To Cultures      133
Culture and The Marketing Mix     135
Product Policy     135
Pricing     136
Distribution     137
Promotion     137
Organizational Cultures     138
Global Account Management (GAM)     140
Global Accounts' Requirements     140
Managing Global Account Relationships     141
Global Customer Relationship Management (CRM)     142
Motivations     143
Gains from CRM     143
Challenges     144
Guidelines for Successful CRM Implementation     144
Short Cases     147
Political and Legal Environments     149
Political Environment-Individual Governments     150
Home Country versus Host Country     150
Structure of Government     152
Government Policies and Regulations     153
Political Environment-Social Pressures and Political Risk     161
Social Pressures and Special Interests     162
Management of the Political Environment     163
Terrorism and The World Economy     168
International Agreements     170
Group of Seven (G-7) and Group of Eight (G-8)     171
Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Controls (COCOM)     172
International Law and Local Legal Environment     172
International Law     173
Local Legal Systems and Laws     173
Jurisdiction     177
Issues Transcending National Boundaries     177
ISO 9000 and 14000     177
Intellectual Property Protection     178
International Treaties for Intellectual Property Protection     183
Antitrust Laws of the United States     184
Antitrust Laws of the European Union     187
U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977     187
Short Cases     193
Global Marketing Research     196
Research Problem Formulation     198
Secondary Global Marketing Research     200
Secondary Data Sources     200
Problems with Secondary Data Research     202
Primary Global Marketing Research     203
Focus Groups     204
Survey Methods for Cross-Cultural Marketing Research     205
Market Size Assessment     209
Method of Analogy     209
Trade Audit     212
Chain Ratio Method     212
Cross-Sectional Regression Analysis      213
New Market Information Technologies     214
Management of Global Marketing Research     217
Selecting a Research Agency     217
Coordination of Multicountry Research     217
Global Segmentation and Positioning     222
Reasons For International Market Segmentation     223
Country Screening     223
Global Marketing Research     224
Entry Decisions     224
Positioning Strategy     224
Resource Allocation     225
Marketing Mix Policy     225
International Market Segmentation Approaches     227
Segmentation Scenarios     229
Bases For Country Segmentation     230
Demographics     231
Socioeconomic Variables     231
Behavior-Based Segmentation     235
Lifestyle     235
International Positioning Strategies     237
Uniform versus Localized Positioning Strategies     237
Universal Positioning Appeals     240
Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer Culture Positioning     241
Short Cases     245
Segmentation Tools     246
Global Marketing Strategies     248
Information Technology and Global Competition     249
Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce)     249
Real-Time Management     251
Online Communication     251
E-Company     252
Faster Product Diffusion     252
Global Citizenship     253
Global Strategy     253
Global Industry     253
Competitive Structure     256
Gaining Competitive Advantage     259
Interdependency     263
Global Marketing Strategy     263
Benefits of Global Marketing     264
Limits to Global Marketing     266
Regionalization of Global Marketing Strategy     269
Cross-Subsidization of Markets     269
Identification of Weak Market Segments     272
Use of the "Lead Market" Concept     272
Marketing Strategies for Emerging Markets     274
Competitive Analysis     275
Short Cases     279
Global Market Entry Strategies     283
Selecting The Target Market     284
Choosing The Mode of Entry     286
Decision Criteria for Mode of Entry     286
Mode-of-Entry Choice: A Transaction Cost Explanation     290
Exporting      291
Licensing     293
Benefits     293
Caveats     294
Franchising     295
Benefits     295
Caveats     295
Contract Manufacturing (Outsourcing)     296
Benefits     297
Caveats     297
Expanding Through Joint Ventures     298
Benefits     299
Caveats     299
Drivers Behind Successful International Joint Ventures     300
Entering New Markets Through Wholly Owned Subsidiaries     302
Benefits     303
Caveats     303
Acquisitions and Mergers     303
Greenfield Operations     305
Creating Strategic Alliances     305
Types of Strategic Alliances     305
The Logic behind Strategic Alliances     306
Cross-Border Alliances That Succeed     306
Timing of Entry     307
Exit Strategies     309
Reasons for Exit     309
Risks of Exit     310
Guidelines     311
Short Cases     315
Alternative Country Screening Procedure     317
Global Sourcing Strategy     318
Extent and Complexity of Global Sourcing Strategy     320
Trends In Global Sourcing Strategy     323
The Decline of the Exchange Rate Determinism of Sourcing     324
New Competitive Environment Caused by Excess Worldwide Capacity     324
Innovations in and Restructuring of International Trade Infrastructure     324
Enhanced Role of Purchasing Managers     325
Trend toward Global Manufacturing     325
Value Chain and Functional Interfaces     327
R&D/Manufacturing Interface     328
Manufacturing/Marketing Interface     330
Marketing/R&D Interface     332
Procurement: Types of Sourcing Strategy     333
Intrafirm Sourcing     334
Outsourcing (Contract Manufacturing)     335
Long-Term Consequences of Global Sourcing     338
Sustainable versus Transitory Core Competencies     339
Benefits of Virtual Network     340
Outsourcing of Service Activities     341
Short Cases     346
Global Product Policy Decisions I: Developing New Products for Global Markets     349
Global Product Strategies     351
Product and Communication Extension-Dual Extension     351
Product Extension-Communications Adaptation      351
Product Adaptation-Communications Extension     352
Product and Communications Adaptation-Dual Adaptation     352
Product Invention     353
Standardization Versus Customization     353
Multinational Diffusion     357
Development of New Products for Global Markets     359
Identifying New Product Ideas     359
Screening     360
Concept Testing     362
Test Marketing     365
Timing of Entry: Waterfall versus Sprinkler Strategies     366
Truly Global Innovation     369
Global Product Policy Decisions II: Marketing Products and Services     373
Global Branding Strategies     374
Global Branding     374
Local Branding     378
Global or Local Branding?     379
Brand-Name Changeover Strategies     383
Private Label Branding (Store Brands)     386
Umbrella Branding     387
Brand Name Protection     388
Management of Multinational Product Lines     389
Product Piracy     393
Strategic Options against Product Piracy     393
Country-of-Origin (COO) Stereotypes     395
Country-of-Origin Influences on Consumers     397
Strategies to Cope with COO Stereotypes     398
Global Marketing of Services     399
Challenges in Marketing Services Internationally     399
Opportunities in the Global Service Industries     400
Global Service Marketing Strategies     401
Short Cases     404
Global Pricing     407
Drivers of Foreign Market Pricing     408
Company Goals     408
Company Costs     409
Customer Demand     410
Competition     410
Distribution Channels     412
Government Policies     413
Managing Price Escalation     413
Pricing In Inflationary Environments     414
Global Pricing and Currency Movements     416
Currency Gain/Loss Pass Through     417
Currency Quotation     420
Transfer Pricing     420
Determinants of Transfer Prices     420
Setting Transfer Prices     421
Minimizing the Risk of Transfer Pricing Tax Audits     422
Global Pricing and Antidumping Regulation     424
Price Coordination     425
Global-Pricing Contracts (GPCs)     426
Aligning Pan-Regional Prices     427
Implementing Price Coordination     429
Countertrade     429
Forms of Countertrade     429
Motives behind Countertrade     431
Shortcomings of Countertrade     432
Short Cases     436
Communicating With The World Consumer     438
Global Advertising and Culture     439
Language Barriers     439
Other Cultural Barriers     441
Global Advertising Budget     443
Percentage of Sales Method     443
Competitive Parity Method     443
Objective-and-Task Method     444
Resource Allocation     445
Creative Strategy     446
The Standardization versus Adaptation Debate     446
Merits of Standardization     446
Barriers to Standardization     448
Approaches to Creating Advertising Copy     449
Global Media Decisions     452
Media Infrastructure     452
Media Limitations     453
Recent Developments in the Global Media Landscape     454
Advertising Regulations     457
Choice of An Advertising Agency     460
Coordination of International Advertising     461
Monetary Incentives (Cooperative Advertising)     462
Advertising Manuals     462
Lead-Country Concept     462
Global or Pan-Regional Meetings     462
Other Forms of Communication     463
Sales Promotions     464
Direct Marketing     465
Event Sponsorships     466
Trade Shows     467
Globally Integrated Marketing Communications (GIMC)     469
Short Cases     472
Sales Management     475
Market Entry Options and Salesforce Strategy     477
Role of Foreign Governments     480
Cultural Considerations     480
Personal Selling     480
Cultural Generalization     481
Corporate (Organizational) Culture     482
Relationship Marketing     483
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator     483
Impact of Culture On Sales Management and Personal Selling Process     485
Salesforce Objectives     486
Salesforce Strategy     487
Recruitment and Selection     488
Training     488
Supervision     489
Evaluation     491
Cross-Cultural Negotiations     491
Stages of Negotiation Process     492
Cross-Cultural Negotiation Strategies     492
Expatriates     495
Advantages of Expatriates     496
Difficulties of Sending Expatriates Abroad     496
The Return of the Expatriate-Repatriation     500
Generalizations about When Using Expatriates Is Positive/Negative     501
Short Cases     503
Global Logistics and Distribution     506
Definition of Global Logistics     507
Management of Global Logistics     509
Modes of Transportation     510
Warehousing and Inventory Management     512
Third-Party Logistic (3PL) Management     515
Free Trade Zones     518
Maquiladora Operation     520
Global Retailing     522
"Push" versus "Pull"     523
On-Time Retail Information Management     524
Retailing Differences across the World     526
Short Cases     532
Export and Import Management     536
Organizing for Exports     538
Research for Exports     538
Export Market Segments     539
Indirect Exporting      540
Direct Exporting     542
Mechanics of Exporting     543
Automated Export System (AES) on the Internet     543
Legality of Exports     543
Export Transactions     545
Terms of Shipment and Sale     546
Payment Terms     546
Currency Hedging     548
Role of the Government In Promoting Exports     549
Export-Import Bank     550
Tariff Concessions     551
Export Regulations     552
Managing Imports-The Other Side of the Coin     553
Mechanics of Importing     555
Import Documents and Delivery     556
Import Duties     556
Gray Markets     557
Short Cases     566
Planning, Organization, and Control of Global Marketing Operations     569
Global Strategic Marketing Planning     570
Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Strategic Planning     570
Pitfalls     570
Key Criteria In Global Organizational Design     571
Environmental Factors     571
Firm-Specific Factors     572
Organizational Design Options     573
International Division Structure     573
Global Product Division Structure     573
Geographic Structure     574
Matrix Structure     578
The Global Network Solution     579
Organizing for Global Brand Management     581
Global Branding Committee     581
Brand Champion     582
Global Brand Manager     582
Informal, Ad Hoc Branding Meetings     582
Life Cycle of Organization Structures     582
Centralization Or Decentralization?     584
Control of Global Marketing Efforts     586
Formal ("Bureaucratic") Control Systems     586
Informal Control Methods     588
Soft" versus "Hard" Levers     589
Short Cases     592
Global Marketing and the Internet     594
The Internet and the Global Marketplace     595
Asia-Pacific     595
Europe     597
Latin America     598
Structural Barriers To Global E-Commerce     598
Language Barriers     598
Cultural Barriers     599
Infrastructure     600
Knowledge Barrier     600
Access Charges     602
Legal Constraints and Government Regulations     603
Use of the Internet for Understanding Global Buyers     604
Competitive Advantage and Cyberspace     605
Global Internet Consumers     606
Internet Ramifications for Global Marketing Strategies     606
Globally Integrated versus Locally Responsive Web Marketing Strategies     608
One-on-One Marketing     609
Product Policy     609
Marketing of Services     610
Global Pricing     611
Distribution     612
Global Communication and the Web     615
Short Cases     618
Cases     621
Club Med: Making A Comeback     622
Honda in Europe     627
Anheuser-Busch International, Inc.: Making Inroads into Brazil and Mexico     632
Volkswagen AG Navigates China     637
Wal-Mart Operations in Brazil: An Emerging Giant     643
Louis Vuitton in Japan: The Magic Touch     648
Index     655

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