American English / Edition 2

American English / Edition 2

by Walt Wolfram
     
 

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ISBN-10: 1405112662

ISBN-13: 2901405112665

Pub. Date: 09/28/2005

Publisher: Wiley

This book provides a very readable and up-to-date description of language variation in American English, covering regional, ethnic, and gender-based differences. The authors include situations ranging from historically isolated, rural dialects to developing, urban ethnic varieties as they consider the descriptive, theoretical, and applied ramifications of dialects in

Overview

This book provides a very readable and up-to-date description of language variation in American English, covering regional, ethnic, and gender-based differences. The authors include situations ranging from historically isolated, rural dialects to developing, urban ethnic varieties as they consider the descriptive, theoretical, and applied ramifications of dialects in American society.

The second edition of American English includes new chapters on social and ethnic dialects, including more comprehensive discussions of Latino, Native American, Cajun English, and other varieties, samples from a wider array of US regions, and a separate chapter on African American English. Updated chapters and exercises as well as features such as a phonetic symbols key, and a section on the notion of speech community, combine to make the new edition a valuable resource for students and specialists alike.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
2901405112665
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
09/28/2005
Series:
Language in Society Series
Edition description:
2nd Edition
Pages:
468

Table of Contents

Series Editor's Prefaceix
Prefacex
Phonetic Symbolsxiv
1Dialects, Standards, and Vernaculars1
1.1Defining Dialect2
1.2Dialect: The Popular Viewpoint2
1.3Dialect Myths and Reality7
1.4Standards and Vernaculars9
1.5Vernacular Dialects14
1.6Labeling Vernacular Dialects17
1.7Why Study Dialects?19
1.8A Tradition of Study23
1.9Further Reading26
2Why Dialects?28
2.1Sociohistorical Explanation29
2.1.1Settlement29
2.1.2Migration30
2.1.3Geographical factors31
2.1.4Language contact32
2.1.5Economic ecology34
2.1.6Social stratification35
2.1.7Social interaction, social practices, and speech communities36
2.1.8Group and individual identity41
2.2Linguistic Explanation43
2.2.1Rule extension46
2.2.2Analogy47
2.2.3Transparency and grammaticalization51
2.2.4Pronunciation phenomena54
2.2.5Words and word meanings60
2.3The Final Product62
2.4Further Reading63
3Levels of Dialect64
3.1Lexical Differences64
3.2Slang70
3.3Phonological Differences74
3.4Grammatical Differences85
3.5Language Use and Pragmatics93
3.6Further Reading101
4Dialects in the United States: Past, Present, and Future103
4.1The First English(es) in America104
4.2Earlier American English: The Colonial Period114
4.3American English Extended118
4.4The Westward Expansion of English122
4.5The Present and Future State of American English124
4.6Further Reading132
5Regional Dialects134
5.1Eliciting Regional Dialect Forms135
5.2Mapping Regional Variants138
5.3The Distribution of Dialect Forms140
5.4Dialect Diffusion153
5.5Perceptual Dialectology159
5.6Region and Place163
5.7Further Reading165
6Social and Ethnic Dialects167
6.1Defining Class168
6.2Beyond Social Class170
6.3The Patterning of Social Differences in Language172
6.4Linguistic Constraints on Variability177
6.5The Social Evaluation of Linguistic Features182
6.6Social Class and Language Change188
6.7Ethnicity190
6.8Latino English194
6.8.1Chicano English196
6.8.2The range of Latino English200
6.9Cajun English202
6.10Lumbee English206
6.11Further Reading209
7African American English211
7.1The Status of European American and African American Vernaculars213
7.2The Origin and Early Development of AAE219
7.3The Contemporary Development of AAE224
7.4Conclusion230
7.5Further Reading232
8Gender and Language Variation234
8.1Gender-based Patterns of Variation as Reported in Dialect Surveys237
8.2Explaining General Patterns241
8.3Localized Expressions of Gender Relations243
8.4Communities of Practice: Linking the Local and the Global245
8.5Language-use-based Approaches: The "Female Deficit" Approach248
8.6The "Cultural Difference" Approach253
8.7The "Dominance" Approach255
8.8Further Implications256
8.9Talking about Men and Women257
8.9.1Generic he and man258
8.9.2Family names and addresses259
8.9.3Relationships of association260
8.9.4Labeling260
8.10The Question of Language Reform262
8.11Further Reading264
9Dialects and Style266
9.1Types of Style Shifting266
9.2Attention to Speech271
9.2.1The patterning of stylistic variation across social groups272
9.2.2Limitations of the attention to speech approach276
9.3Audience Design279
9.3.1The effects of audience on speech style281
9.3.2Limitations of the audience design approach283
9.3.3Newer approaches to audience design285
9.4Speaker Design Approaches286
9.5Further Considerations290
9.6Further Reading291
10On the Applications of Dialect Study294
10.1Applied Dialectology294
10.2Dialects and Testing296
10.2.1Language achievement297
10.2.2Speech and language development tests301
10.2.3Predicting dialect interference303
10.3Testing Language304
10.3.1Using language to access information305
10.3.2The testing situation308
10.3.3The language diagnostician310
10.4Teaching Standard English312
10.4.1What standard?312
10.4.2Approaches to standard English316
10.4.3Can standard English be taught?318
10.5Further Reading327
11Dialect Awareness: Extending Application329
11.1Dialects and Reading329
11.1.1Dialect readers333
11.2Dialect Influence in Written Language335
11.3Written Dialect339
11.4Proactive Dialect Awareness Programs344
11.5A Curriculum on Dialects346
11.6Community-based Dialect Awareness Programs354
11.7Scrutinizing Community Partnerships356
11.8Further Reading359
AppendixAn Inventory of Distinguishing Dialect Features361
Glossary385
References410
Index432

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