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Biofuels / Edition 1
     

Biofuels / Edition 1

by Wim Soetaert
 

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ISBN-10: 047002674X

ISBN-13: 2900470026747

Pub. Date: 01/27/2009

Publisher: Wiley

The use of biofuels is rapidly gaining momentum all over the world, and can be expected to have an ever increasing impact on the energy and agricultural sector in particular.

Overview

The use of biofuels is rapidly gaining momentum all over the world, and can be expected to have an ever increasing impact on the energy and agricultural sector in particular.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
2900470026747
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/27/2009
Series:
Wiley Series in Renewable Resource Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
256

Table of Contents

Series Preface ix

Preface xi

List of Contributors xiii

1 Biofuels in Perspective Wim Soetaert Erick J. Vandamme 1

1.1 Fossil versus Renewable Energy Resources 1

1.2 Economic Impact 2

1.3 Comparison of Bio-energy Sources 4

1.4 Conclusion 7

References 7

2 Sustainable Production of Cellulosic Feedstock for Biorefineries in the USA Matthew T. Carr James R. Hettenhaus 9

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Availability of Cellulosic Feedstocks 11

2.3 Feedstock Options 13

2.4 Sustainable Removal 16

2.5 Erosion Control 18

2.6 Tilling Practice 19

2.7 Transitioning to No-till 21

2.8 Realizing Removal 22

2.9 Removal Economics 25

2.10 Climate Change Mitigation 27

2.11 Pretreatment 29

2.12 Farmer in Value Chain 32

2.13 The Start: Preprocessing Pentose Sugars and Lignin 32

2.14 Continuing Downstream: Fungible Fermentation Sugars 32

2.15 Looking Upstream 33

2.16 Logistics 33

2.17 Conclusions 33

2.18 Policy Recommendations 34

References 35

3 Bio-Ethanol Development in the USA Brent Erickson Matthew T. Carr 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Federal Policy 40

3.3 The US Ethanol Market 41

3.4 Corn Ethanol Technology 46

3.5 Cellulosic Ethanol 49

3.6 The Future 52

References 53

4 Bio-Ethanol Development(s) in Brazil Arnaldo Walter 55

4.1 Overview 55

4.2 Introduction 56

4.3 The Brazilian Experience with Ethanol 56

4.4 Policy and Regulatory Instruments Applied to Deploy Large-Scale Ethanol Production 59

4.5 Cost Reductions 61

4.6 Technological Development 62

4.7 Is the Ethanol Production in Brazil Sustainable? 65

4.8 Is the Brazilian Experience Replicable? 72

4.9 Conclusions 73

References 74

5 Process Technologies for BiodieselProduction Martin Mittelbach 77

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 Biodiesel Production Worldwide 77

5.3 Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production 79

5.4 Chemical Principles of Biodiesel Production 80

5.5 Catalysts for Transesterification and Esterification Reactions 81

5.6 Transesterification in Supercritical Alcohols 86

5.7 Alternative Approaches 87

5.8 Overview of Process Technologies 87

References 91

6 Bio-based Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Production Technologies Robin Zwart Rene van Ree 95

6.1 Introduction 95

6.2 Theoretical Background Catalytic FT-Diesel Synthesis Process 96

6.3 Biomass Gasification-Based FT-Diesel Production Concepts 100

6.4 Economics of Biomass-Based FT-Diesel Production Concepts 110

6.5 Conclusions 113

References 114

7 Plant Oil Biofuel: Rationale, Production and Application Barnim Jeschke 117

7.1 Introduction 117

7.2 Plant Oil Biofuels: the Underlying Idea 118

7.3 Perspectives of the Plant Oil Fuel Market 119

7.4 System Requirements 122

7.5 Plant Oil Conversion Technology 124

7.6 The User Perspective 125

References 127

8 Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel Hideki Fukuda 129

8.1 Introduction 129

8.2 Enzymatic Transesterification by Lipase 130

8.3 Use of Extracellular Lipases 131

8.4 Use of Intracellular Lipase as Whole-Cell Biocatalyst 136

8.5 Use of Cell-Surface Displaying Cells as Whole-Cell Biocatalyst 143

8.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects 147

References 147

9 Production of Biodiesel from Waste Lipids Roland Verhe Christian V. Stevens 153

9.1 Introduction 153

9.2 Alternative Resources for Biodiesel Production 155

9.3 Conversion of Waste Frying and Cooking Oils into Biodiesel 155

9.4 Conclusion 168

References 169

10 Biomass Digestion to Methane in Agriculture: A Successful Pathway for the Energy Production and Waste Treatment Worldwide Peter Weiland Willy Verstraete Adrianus Van Haandel 171

10.1 Overview 171

10.2 Introduction 172

10.3 Biogas Production Potential 174

10.4 Biogas Production Configurations 183

10.5 Outlook 191

10.6 Conclusions 193

References 194

11 Biological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Microorganisms Serve W.M. Kengen Heleen P. Goorissen Marcel Verhaart Alfons J.M. Stams Ed W.J. van Niel Pieternel A.M. Claassen 197

Abbreviations 197

11.1 Introduction 198

11.2 Hydrogen Formation in Natural Ecosystems 198

11.3 Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Formation 199

11.4 Enzymology 204

11.5 Enterobacteria 206

11.6 The Genus Clostridium 207

11.7 The Genus Caldicellulosiruptor 208

11.8 The Genus Thermoanaerobacter 210

11.9 The Genus Thermotoga 211

11.10 The Genus Pyrococcus/Thermococcus 212

11.11 Approaches for Improving Hydrogen Production 213

11.12 Concluding Remarks 214

References 215

12 Improving Sustainability of the Corn-Ethanol Industry Paul W. Gallagher Hosein Shapouri 223

12.1 Introduction 223

12.2 Energy Balance 224

12.3 Crop Production and Greenhouse Gas Emissions 226

12.4 CO2 Adjustment in a Changing Ethanol Industry 228

12.5 Conclusions 232

References 233

Index 235

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