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The Iraq Papers

The Iraq Papers

by John Ehrenberg, J. Patrice McSherry, Jose Ramon Sanchez, Caroleen Marji Sayej

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ISBN-10: 0195398599

ISBN-13: 9780195398595

Pub. Date: 01/15/2010

Publisher: Oxford University Press

No foreign policy decision in recent history has had greater repercussions than President George W. Bush's decision to invade and occupy Iraq. It launched a new doctrine of preemptive war, mired the American military in an intractable armed conflict, disrupted world petroleum supplies, cost the United States hundreds of billions of dollars, and damaged or ended


No foreign policy decision in recent history has had greater repercussions than President George W. Bush's decision to invade and occupy Iraq. It launched a new doctrine of preemptive war, mired the American military in an intractable armed conflict, disrupted world petroleum supplies, cost the United States hundreds of billions of dollars, and damaged or ended the lives of hundreds of thousands of Americans and Iraqis. Its impact on international politics and America's standing in the world remains incalculable.

The Iraq Papers offers a compelling documentary narrative and interpretation of this momentous conflict. With keen editing and incisive commentary, the book weaves together original documents that range from presidential addresses to redacted memos, carrying us from the ideology behind the invasion to negotiations for withdrawal. These papers trace the rise of the neoconservatives and reveal the role of strategic thinking about oil supplies. In moving to the planning for the war itself, the authors not only provide Congressional resolutions and speeches by President Bush, but internal security papers, Pentagon planning documents, the report of the Future of Iraq Project, and eloquent opposition statements by Senator Robert Byrd, other world governments, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the World Council of Churches. This collection addresses every aspect of the conflict, from the military's evolving counterinsurgency strategy to declarations by Iraqi resisters and political figures-from Coalition Provisional Authority orders to Donald Rumsfeld's dismissal of the insurgents as "dead-enders" and Iraqi discussions of state- and nationbuilding under the shadow of occupation. The economics of petroleum, the legal and ethical questions surrounding terrorism and torture, international agreements, the theory of the "unitary presidency," and the Bush administration's use of presidential signing statements all receive in-depth coverage.

The Iraq War has reshaped the domestic and international landscape. The Iraq Papers offers the authoritative one-volume source for understanding the conflict and its many repercussions.

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Oxford University Press
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6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.40(d)

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Table of Contents

1. From Containment to Preemptive War: Iraq and the United States in a Unipolar Moment
1.1 Francis Fukuyama, "The End of History?" National Interest, Summer 1989 (excerpt)
1.2 Henry Kissinger, "A False Dream," Los Angeles Times, February 24, 1991(excerpt)
1.3 Paul Wolfowitz, Lewis Libby, and Zalmay Khalilzad, "Defense Planning Guidance," February 18, 1992 (excerpt)
1.4 Patrick E. Tyler, "U.S. Strategy Plan Calls for Insuring No Rivals Develop," New York Times, March 8, 1992
1.5 "Dick Cheney, Secretary of Defense for President George H. W. Bush, Defends the Administration's Decision to Keep Saddam Hussein in Power," Frontline interview aired on January 28, 1997 (excerpt)
1.6 Robert Kagan, "American Power--A Guide for the Perplexed," Commentary, April 1996 (excerpt)
1.7 Zbigniew Brzezinski, Brent Scowcroft, and Richard Murphy, "Differentiated Containment," Foreign Affairs, May-June 1997 (excerpt)
1.8 Project for the New American Century, "Statement of Principles," June 3, 1997
1.9 Paul Wolfowitz, "Rebuilding the Anti-Saddam Coalition," Wall Street Journal, November 18, 1997
1.10 Project for the New American Century, Letter to President Clinton, January 26, 1998
1.11 William Kristol and Robert Kagan, "Bombing Iraq Isn't Enough," New York Times, January 30, 1998
1.12 George [H. W.] Bush and Brent Scowcroft, "Why We Didn't Remove Saddam," Time, March 2, 1998
1.13 Bill Clinton, "Iraq Liberation Act," Signed on October 31, 1998 (excerpt)
1.14 Bill Clinton, Explanation of Iraq Strike, December 16, 1998
1.15 Madeleine Albright, Explanation of Containment, Meet the Press, January 2, 2000
1.16 Condoleezza Rice, "Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest," Foreign Affairs, January-February 2000 (excerpt)

2. Organizing for Preemptive War: Iraq and the Presidency of George W. Bush
2.1 George W. Bush, Address to the Nation, September 11, 2001 (excerpt)
2.2 George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, January 29, 2002 (excerpt)
2.3 Charles Krauthammer, "The Axis of Petulance,"
2.4 Condoleezza Rice, Remarks on Terrorism and Foreign Policy, Johns Hopkins University, April 29, 2002 (excerpt)
2.5 George W. Bush, Graduation Speech at West Point, June 1, 2002 (excerpt)
2.6 The Downing Street Memo, July 23, 2002 (excerpt)
2.7 Brent Scowcroft, "Don't Attack Saddam,"
2.8 James A. Baker, "The Right Way to Change a Regime,"
2.9 Dick Cheney, Speech at Veterans of Foreign Wars 103rd National Convention, Nashville, Tennessee, August 26, 2002 (excerpt)
2.10 Condoleezza Rice and George W. Bush, "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America," September 2002 (excerpt)
2.11 George W. Bush, Speech Outlining Iraqi Threat, Cincinnati, Ohio, October 7, 2002
2.12 Joint Congressional Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces against Iraq, October 16, 2002 (excerpt)
2.13 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441, November 8, 2002 (excerpt)
2.14 Colin Powell, Address to the United Nations Security Council, February 6, 2003 (excerpt)
2.15 Robert C. Byrd, "We Stand Passively Mute," Remarks to the Senate, February 12, 2003
2.16 Hans Blix, Briefing to the UN Security Council, March 7, 2003
2.17 George W. Bush, Ultimatum to Iraq, March 17, 2003
2.18 George W. Bush, Announcement of the start of "Operation Iraqi Freedom," March 19, 2003

3. International Reaction to the War
3.1 European Parliament, Resolution on the Situation in Iraq, January 30, 2003
3.2 The Letter of Eight, "Europe and America Must Stand United," January 30, 2003
3.3 The Vilnius Statement, February 6, 2003
3.4 Security Council Press Release SC/7666, "Security Council Hears Over 60 Speakers in Two-day Debate on Iraq's Disarmament: Many Say Use of Force Should Be Last Resort, Others Urge Swift Action," February 19, 2003 (excerpt)
3.5 World Council of Churches, "Statement against Military Action in Iraq," February 21, 2003 (excerpt)
3.6 Statement of the Non-aligned Movement on the Situation in Iraq, February 25, 2003
3.7 Leaked Memo from National Security Agency Official Asking for Cooperation in Surveillance of UN Delegates, March 2, 2003 (excerpt)
3.8 Declaration of Russia, Germany, and France on War with Iraq, March 5, 2003
3.9 Spain, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and United States of America: Draft Resolution to Security Council, March 7, 2003
3.10 UN News Centre, "New York-Press Encounter with the Secretary-General at the Security Council Stakeout," March 17, 2003 (excerpt)
3.11 Tony Blair, Statement before Parliament, March 18, 2003 (excerpt)
3.12 Dominique de Villepin, Address before the United Nations Security Council, March 19, 2003 (excerpt)
3.13 Joschka Fischer, Statement on the Situation between Iraq and Kuwait, Public Meeting of the Security Council, March 19, 2003 (excerpt)
3.14 Foreign Ministry of China, Statement on War with Iraq, March 20, 2003
3.15 Call by International NGOs for Invoking Uniting for Peace Resolution/2003-03-15/P/RE/18121c-is, Vienna, March 27, 2003
3.16 Vladimir Putin, Press Statement on Iraq, April 3, 2003 (excerpt)
3.17 Australian Broadcasting Company, "The World Today-Kofi Annan Declares US Invasion of Iraq Illegal," September 16, 2004 (excerpt)

4. Liberators or Occupiers? The Coalition Provisional Authority
4.1 Article 43 of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
4.2 Article 55 of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
4.3 Douglas J. Feith, Statement to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, February 11, 2003 (excerpt)
4.4 George W. Bush, Announcement That Major Combat Operations in Iraq Have Ended, May 1, 2003 (excerpt)
4.5 Security Council Resolution 1483, May 22, 2003 (excerpt)
4.6 Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 1, May 16, 2003
4.7 Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 2, May 23, 2003
4.8 "Rumsfeld Blames Iraq Problems on 'Pockets of Dead-enders,'"
4.9 Coalition Provisional Authority Regulation Number 6, July 13, 2003
4.10 L. Paul Bremer, "Iraq's Path to Sovereignty,"
4.11 Agreement on Political Process, November 15, 2003
4.12 Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 12, June 8, 2003
4.13 Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 39, December 20, 2003 (excerpt)
4.14 Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 46, December 20, 2003
4.15 Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period, March 8, 2004 (excerpt)
4.16 Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 17, June 27, 2004 (excerpt)
4.17 Scott McClellan, Reading of Texts of Letters on Iraq Sovereignty, June 28, 2004 (excerpt)

5. Insurgency, Counterinsurgency, or Civil War?
U.S. Policies and Tactics in the Counterinsurgency
5.1 Joint Doctrine for Campaign Planning, January 2002 (excerpt)
5.2 U.S. Special Forces Counterinsurgency Manual FM 31-20-3, Foreign Internal Defense Tactics Techniques and Procedures for Special Forces (1994, 2004) (excerpt)
5.3. U.S. Department of Defense, FM3-24, Counterinsurgency Final Draft, June 16, 2006 (excerpt)
5.4 Multi-national Force-Iraq Commander's Counterinsurgency Guidance, June 21, 2008 (excerpt)
5.5 Memorandum for Senate Foreign Relations Committee, June 2005 (excerpt)
5.6 Stephen J. Hadley, Iraq Memo, November 8, 2006 (excerpt)
5.7 Department of Defense, "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, June 2008," Report to Congress in Accordance with the Department of Defense Appropriations Act (Section 9010, Public Law 109-289) (excerpt)
Iraqi Documents
5.8 Islamists Pledge Continued War on Coalition, May 2004
5.9. Letter from Abu Musab al-Zarqawi to Osama bin Laden, July 2005 (excerpt)
5.10 Interview with Shaykh Ahmad al-Kubaysi, Leader of the Association of Muslim Scholars, 2004 (excerpt)
5.11 Iraq First: The Iraqi National Security Strategy 2007-2010, July 2007 (excerpt)

6. Democracy from Above or Below?
U.S. Plans for Regime Change
6.1 Future of Iraq Project: Democratic Principles and Procedures Working Group, Final Report on the Transition to Democracy in Iraq, November 2002 (excerpt)
6.2 Treasury Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Moving the Iraqi Economy from Recovery to Sustainable Growth, May 2003 (excerpt)
6.3 Condoleezza Rice, Opening Remarks before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, October 19, 2005 (excerpt)
6.4 Donald H. Rumsfeld and Peter Pace, Joint Statement, April 18, 2008 (excerpt)
Iraqi Reactions to Regime Change: Visions for Democracy
6.5 Constitution of Iraq, October 2005 (excerpt)
6.6 Declaration of the Shi'a of Iraq, July 2002 (excerpt)
6.7 Statement by Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Kadhim al-Haeri, July 2002 (excerpt)
6.8 Statement by Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, May 14, 2001 (excerpt)
6.9 Collection of Fatwas by Grand Ayatollah Sistani, September 2002-October 2007
6.10 Sayyid Sistani, Statement on Islamic Unity and the Renunciation of Sedition and Sectarianism, February 3, 2007
6.11 Kurdistan Regional Government Unification Agreement, January 21, 2006
6.12 Law of the Supreme National Commission for Accountability and Justice, January 12, 2008 (excerpt)
6.13 Helsinki Agreement, September 2007
Joing U.S.- Iraqi Documents
6.14 Agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Iraq on the Withdrawal of the United States Forces from Iraq and the Organization of Their Activities during Their Temporary Presence in Iraq, November 17, 2008 (excerpt)
6.15 Strategic Framework Agreement for a Relationship of Friendship and Cooperation between the United States of America and the Republic of Iraq, November 17, 2008 (excerpt)

7. Securing Oil, Preempting Development
Iraq Economy-Planning Documents
7.1 Future of Iraq Project: Economic and Infrastructure Working Group, "An Economic Empowerment System," 2001 (excerpt)
7.2 Dick Cheney, Speech to London Institute of Petroleum, 1999 (excerpt)
7.3 National Energy Technology Laboratory, "Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation, and Risk Management," Executive Summary, 2005
7.4 Iraq Study Group Report, 2006 (excerpt)
7.5 Paul Wolfowitz, Testimony to the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense re Fiscal Year 2003 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan, March 27, 2003
7.6 Iraq Contingency Planning Memo-Released in Part-Unclassified, 2003 (excerpt)
Iraq Oil Documents
7.7 United States Combined Arms Center, "On Point II: Transition to the New Campaign: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom," May 2003-January 2005 (excerpt)
7.8 Ariel Cohen, "The Road to Economic Prosperity for a Post-Saddam Iraq," Heritage Foundation Report, March 5, 2003 (excerpt)
7.9 BearingPoint Corporation, "Options for Developing a Long Term Sustainable Iraqi Oil Industry," December 19, 2003 (excerpt)
7.10 Foreign Investment in the World's Major Oil Reserves, 2004
7.11 U.S. Congressional Memo on Hunt Oil PSA with Kurdish Regional Government, October 18, 2007
7.12 Letter from 108 Iraqi Technical, Academic, and Economic Experts Opposed to Oil Privatization, Addressed to the Iraqi Council of Representatives, July 16, 2007
Iraq Privatization Documents
7.13 Leo W. Gerard, United Steelworkers Letter to Congress Opposing Privatization of Iraqi Oil Industry, July 31, 2007 (excerpt)
7.14 "Fact Sheet: Achieving Political and Economic Progress in Iraq: President Bush Discusses Ways the Surge Is Helping Iraqis Reclaim Security and Restart Political and Economic Life," March 27, 2008 (excerpt)
7.15 Office of the President, Initial Benchmark-assessment Report, July 12, 2007
7.16 Charles P. Ries, "Beyond Bricks and Mortar: The 'Civilian Surge' in Iraq," March 11, 2008 (excerpt)
7.17 "IMF Executive Board Approves First Ever Stand-by Arrangement for Iraq," Press Release No. 05/307, December 23, 2005 (excerpt)
7.18 USAID Private Sector Development Program in Iraq, 2005

8. Human Rights and International Law: U.S. Methods and Operations in Preemptive War
Domestic and International Law
8.1 U.S. Constitution, Article 6 (excerpt)
8.2 Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Persons in Time of War, 1949 (excerpt)
8.3 The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (excerpt)
8.4 U.S. Criminal Code, §§2340 and 2340A (excerpts)
Secret Use of "Enhanced Interrogation Techniques"
8.5 Lt. Col. Jerald Phifer, "Request for Approval of Counter-resistance Strategies," October 11, 2002
Historical Context
8.6 Central Intelligence Agency, KUBARK Manual on Counterintelligence Interrogation, July 1963 (excerpt)
Reports on Violations of Law
8.7 U.S. Army, Article 15-6: Investigation of the 800th Military Police Brigade (The Taguba Report), 2004 (excerpt)
8.8 Malcolm Nance, "Waterboarding Is Torture . . . Period,"
8.9 American Civil Liberties Union, Khalid al-Masri Testimony on "Rendition" (excerpt)
8.10 International Committee of the Red Cross, Report on the Treatment by the Coalition Forces of Prisoners of War and Other Protected Persons by the Geneva Conventions in Iraq during Arrest, Internment, and Interrogation, February 2004 (excerpt)
8.11 Human Rights Watch, "The Road to Abu Ghraib," June 2004 (excerpt)
The Documentary Record: Key Memos by Members of the George W. Bush Administration
8.12 Alberto Gonzales, Memorandum to the President, "Decision re Application of the Geneva Convention on Prisoners of War to the Conflict with al Qaeda and the Taliban," January 25, 2002 (excerpt)
8.13 John Yoo, Letter to Alberto Gonzales, "Interrogation Methods to Be Used," August 1, 2002 (excerpt)
8.14 Jay Bybee to Alberto Gonzales, "Standards of Conduct for Interrogation under 18 U.S.C. §§2340-2340A," August 1, 2002 (excerpt)
8.15 Daniel Levin, Memorandum for James B. Comey, "Legal Standards Applicable under 18 U.S.C. §§2340-2340A," December 30, 2004 (excerpt)
8.16 American Civil Liberties Union, Press Release, "CIA Provides Further Details on Secret Interrogation Memos," January 10, 2007
8.17 CIA and Justice Department, Documents Released in Response to ACLU Lawsuit, July 2008
8.18 Brian Ross and Richard Esposito, "CIA's Harsh Interrogation Techniques Described," ABC News Report on Six "Enhanced Interrogation Techniques," November 18, 2005
8.19 National Lawyers Guild and International Association of Democratic Lawyers, "White Paper on the Law of Torture and Holding Accountable Those Who Are Complicit in Approving Torture of Persons in U.S. Custody," May 2008 (excerpt)

9. Policing Terror Versus a War on Terror
U.S. Government Terrorism Documents
9.1 U.S. National Security Council, "National Strategy for Combating Terrorism," February 2003 (excerpt)
9.2 Resolution 1566 Adopted by the Security Council at Its 5053rd Meeting, October 8, 2004
9.3 Counterterrorism Threat Assessment and Warning Unit, National Security Division, FBI, "Terrorism in the United States 1998" (excerpt)
9.4 Terrorism in the United States, 1990-1998 (Graphic)
9.5 Marvin J. Cetron and Peter S. Probst, "Terror 2000: The Future Face of Terrorism," U.S. Department of Defense, June 24, 1994 (excerpt)
9.6 Richard A. Clarke, Memorandum for Condoleezza Rice, Subject: Presidential Policy Initiative/Review-The al Quida [
9.7 Robert Parry, "Gore's Other Global Warning: Iraq War," Consortiumnews.com, February 25, 2007 (excerpt)
9.8 CIA, President's Daily Brief, "Bin Ladin [
9.9 The 9/11 Commission Report, 2004 (excerpt)
9.10 George W. Bush, Colin Powell, and John Ashcroft, President Urges Readiness and Patience, September 15, 2001
9.11 George W. Bush, "International Campaign against Terror Grows," September 25, 2001
9.12 "The Words That Were Used,"
9.13 Harlan K. Ullman and James P. Wade, "Shock and Awe: Achieving Rapid Dominance," National Defense University Report, October 1996 (excerpt)
International Terrorism Documents
9.14 "President Bush Attends Veterans of Foreign Wars National Convention, Discusses War on Terror," Kansas City, August 22, 2007 (excerpt)
9.15 Atiyah Letter Exposing New Leader in al Qa'ida High Command, September 25, 2006 (excerpt)
9.16 The al Qaeda Manual, Introduction, 2000 (excerpt)
9.17 Osama bin Laden, Speech Broadcast by al Jazeera on October 30, 2004 (excerpt)
9.18 "Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States," Declassified Key Judgments of the National Intelligence Estimate, April 2006 (excerpt)
9.19 Iraq Study Group Report, 2006 (excerpt)
Opposition to U.S. Terrorism Policy
9.20 George W. Bush, Remarks to Students and Faculty, National Defense University, May 1, 2001 (excerpt)
9.21 Seth G. Jones and M. C. Libicki, "How Terrorists Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa'eda," Rand Corporation, 2008 (excerpt)

10. Preemptive Democracy
U.S. Government Documents
10.1 Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National Security Agency Described by the President, January 19, 2006 (excerpt)
10.2 Ira Winkler, "Why NSA Spying Puts the U.S. in Danger: A Former NSA Analyst Speaks Out at the Illegal Practice of Warrantless Spying,"
10.3 Working Group Report on Detainee Interrogations in the Global War on Terrorism: Assessment of Legal, Historical, Policy, and Operational Considerations, Declassified by the U.S. Department of Defense, March 6, 2003 (excerpt)
10.4 Russ Feingold, Statement on the Anti-Terrorism Bill (USA Patriot Act), October 25, 2001 (excerpt)
10.6 American Bar Association Task Force on Presidential Signing Statements and the Separation of Powers Doctrine Report, July 2006 (excerpt)
10.7 American Bar Association Task Force, Recommendation on Presidential Signing Statements and the Separation of Powers Doctrine, 2006
10.8 George W. Bush, Statement on H.R. 1815, "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006," January 16, 2006
10.9 Federal Bureau of Investigation, Sample National Security Letter, Declassified on August 3, 2004
10.10 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Audit Division, "Follow-up Audit of the Terrorist Screening Center," Audit Report 07-41, September 2007 (excerpt)
10.11 Buddhika Jayamaha, Wesley D. Smith, Jeremy Roebuck, Omar Mora, Edward Sandmeier, Yance T. Gray, and Jeremy A. Murphy, "The War as We Saw It,"
10.12 "From the Editors; The
10.13 U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Hearing on Wartime Executive Power and the National Security Agency's Surveillance Authority, February 6, 2006 (excerpt)
10.14 Wayne E. White, Testimony to Senate Democratic Policy Committee during "Oversight Hearing on Pre-war Intelligence Relating to Iraq," June 26, 2006

11. The Limits of Preemption: The United States in the World

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