Ways of the World: A Global History with Sources, Volume 1: To 1500 / Edition 1

Ways of the World: A Global History with Sources, Volume 1: To 1500 / Edition 1

by Robert W. Strayer

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ISBN-10: 031248917X

ISBN-13: 9780312489175

Pub. Date: 06/04/2010

Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources is a docutext combining a brief narrative with written and visual primary source collections, providing the convenience of a text and reader in one volume. Ways of the World is thoroughly global in its thematic and comparative approach. The brief narrative highlights major developments, giving


Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources is a docutext combining a brief narrative with written and visual primary source collections, providing the convenience of a text and reader in one volume. Ways of the World is thoroughly global in its thematic and comparative approach. The brief narrative highlights major developments, giving students and instructors the room to explore the primary sources fully. Students can connect with Strayer’s distinctive voice and clear, powerful writing. A thoughtful prologue and part-opening essays emphasize the book’s “big picture” approach, and each chapter narrative ends with “Reflections,” a consideration of history and the human enterprise it explores.

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Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date:
Edition description:
First Edition
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7.30(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Preface Maps Special Features Working with Primary Sources


Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History
    The History of the Universe
    The History of a Planet
    The History of the Human Species … in a Single Paragraph:

      A Preview
    Why World History?
    Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of

      World History
    Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar

Part One First Things First: Beginnings in History,

  to 500 B.C.E.
The Big Picture Turning Points in Early World History The Emergence of Humankind  

The Globalization of Humankind  

The Revolution of Farming and Herding  

The Turning Point of Civilization  

A Note on Dates Landmarks of Early World History, to 500 B.C.E. 

1 First Peoples: Populating the Planet, to 10,000 B.C.E.
Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations 
  Into Eurasia  Into Australia  Into the Americas  Into the Pacific The Ways We Were 
The First Human Societies  

Economy and the Environment  

The Realm of the Spirit  

Settling Down: "The Great Transition”
Comparing Paleolithic Societies 
  The San of Southern Africa  

  The Chumash of Southern California Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance?  Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: The Long Road to the Global Presence of Humankind 
Snapshot: The Paleolithic Era in Perspective 
 Documents  Glimpses of Paleolithic Life 

1.1—A Paleolithic Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa,

          The Life and Words of an !Kung Woman, 1969-1976  

1.2—Australian Aboriginal Mythology: Stories from the

          Dreamtime, Twentieth Century
  Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources The Aboriginal Rock Painting of Australia 
  Namondjok, Namarrgon (Lightning Man),

    and Barrginj Nabulwinjbulwinj  

Hunting Scene
  Using the Evidence  


2 First Farmers: The Revolutions of Agriculture,

  10,000 B.C.E.–3000 B.C.E. 

The Agricultural Revolution in World History 

Comparing Agricultural Beginnings 
  Common Patterns  Variations The Globalization of Agriculture 
  Triumph and Resistance  The Culture of Agriculture Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture 
  Pastoral Societies  Agricultural Village Societies   

  Chiefdoms Reflections: The Legacies of Agriculture 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Agricultural Breakthroughs 
Snapshot: The History of Maize/Corn
Documents  Agricultural Village Societies 
 2.1—Germanic Peoples of Central Europe: Tacitus, Germania,

            First Century C.E.  

 2.2—Social Organization among the Gikuyu: Jomo Kenyatta,

            Facing Mount Kenya, 1938  

 2.3—Religion in a Caribbean Chiefdom: Bartolomé de las Casas,

           Apologetic History of the Indies, 1566
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Art and Life in the Early Agrarian Era 
  Çatalhüyük: An Early Map and Landscape Painting  

  Women, Men, and Religion in Çatalhüyük  

  An African Pastoral Community  

  The Mystery of Stonehenge  

  A Sculpture from the Nok Culture
  Using the Evidence 

3 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies,

  3500 B.C.E.–500 B.C.E. 
Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations 
Introducing the First Civilizations 

The Question of Origins An Urban Revolution The Erosion of Equality 
  Hierarchies of Class Hierarchies of Gender Patriarchy in Practice The Rise of the State 
Coercion and Consent  

Writing and Accounting 

The Grandeur of Kings Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt 
  Environment and Culture 

  Cities and States 

  Interaction and Exchange Reflections: "Civilization”: What’s in a Word? 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations 

Snapshot: Key Moments in Mesopotamian History 
Snapshot: Key Moments in Nile Valley Civilizations 
 Documents Life and Afterlife in Mesopotamia and Egypt 
3.1—In Search of Eternal Life: The Epic of Gilgamesh, ca.

          2700 B.C.E.–2500 B.C.E.  

3.2—Law and Justice in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of

          Hammurabi, ca. 1800 B.C.E.  

3.3—The Afterlife of a Pharaoh: A Pyramid Text, 2333 B.C.E.  

3.4—A New Basis for Egyptian Immortality: Book of the Dead,

          ca. 1550 1064 B.C.E.  

3.5—The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca.

           2066-1650 B.C.E.
  Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources 

Indus Valley Civilization 
Ancient Harappa  

A Seal from the Indus Valley  

Man from Mohenjo Daro  

Dancing Girl Using the Evidence 

Part Two The Classical Era in World History,

  500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
The Big Picture After the First Civilizations: What Changed and

  What Didn’t
  Continuities in Civilization  

  Changes in Civilization 

  Classical Civilizations 
Landmarks of the Classical Era, 500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. 
Snapshot: World Population during the Age of Agricultural Civilization

4 Eurasian Empires, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. 
Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks 
  The Persian Empire  

  The Greeks  

  Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars  

  Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese 
  Rome: From City-State to Empire  

  China: From Warring States to Empire  

  Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires  

  The Collapse of Empires Intermittent Empire: The Case of India 
Reflections: Classical Empires and the Twentieth Century 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in Classical Greek History 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of the Roman Empire 
Snapshot: Key Moments in Classical Chinese History 
Documents  Political Authority in Classical Civilizations 
4.1—In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles, Funeral Oration,

          431-430 B.C.E.  

4.2—In Praise of the Roman Empire: Aelius Aristides, The Roman

          Oration, 155 C.E.   

4.3—Governing a Chinese Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei,

           Third Century B.C.E.  

4.4—Governing an Indian Empire: Ashoka, The Rock Edicts,

           ca. 268-232 B.C.E.
Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources 

Qin Shihuangdi and China’s Eternal Empire 
An Eighteenth-Century Representation of Qin Shihuangdi  

The Terra-Cotta Army of Shihuangdi  

  Terra-Cotta Infantry  

  Terra-Cotta Archer  

A Bronze Horse-Drawn Chariot
 Using the Evidence 

5 Eurasian Cultural Traditions, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. 
China and the Search for Order 
  The Legalist Answer  

  The Confucian Answer  

  The Daoist Answer Cultural Traditions of Classical India  
South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation  

  The Buddhist Challenge  

  Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion Moving toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East 

  Judaism The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a

 Rational Order 
  The Greek Way of Knowing  

  The Greek Legacy
 Comparing Jesus and the Buddha
  The Lives of the Founders  

  Establishing New Religions  

  Creating Institutions Reflections: Religion and Historians 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the Classical Era 
Snapshot: Reflections on Human Love from Mediterranean

 Documents  The Good Life in Classical Eurasia 
5.1—Reflections from Confucius: Confucius, The Analects,

          ca. 479-221 B.C.E.  

5.2—Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. Fifth

           to Second Century B.C.E.  

5.3—Reflections from Socrates: Plato, Apology, ca. 399 B.C.E.  

5.4—Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70-100 C.E.
  Using the Evidence 226
Visual Sources  Representations of the Buddha 
  Footprints of the Buddha  

  A Classic Indian Buddha  

  A Bodhisattva of Compassion: Kannon of 1,000 Arms  

  The Chinese Maitreya Buddha  

  The Amitabha Buddha
  Using the Evidence 

6 Eurasian Social Hierarchies, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. 
Society and the State in Classical China 
  An Elite of Officials  

  The Landlord Class  


  Merchants Class and Caste in India 
  Caste as Varna  

  Caste as Jati  

  The Functions of Caste Slavery in the Classical Era: The Case of the Roman Empire 
Slavery and Civilization  

The Making of a Slave Society: The Case of Rome  

Resistance and Rebellion Comparing Patriarchies of the Classical Era 
A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China  

Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and the Buddha 

Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in Classical India  

Snapshot: Comparing Greco-Roman and American Slavery 

Documents  Patriarchy and Women’s Voices in the Classical Era 
6.1—A Male View of Chinese Women’s Lives: Fu Xuan, How

         Sad It Is to Be a Woman, Third Century C.E.  

6.2—A Chinese Woman’s Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhau,

         Lessons for Women, Late First Century C.E.  

6.3—An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters,

         First Century B.C.E.  

6.4—Roman Women in Protest: Livy, History of Rome, Late First

         Century B.C.E. to Early First Century C.E.
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Pompeii as a Window on the Roman World 
  Terentius Neo and His Wife  

  A Pompeii Banquet  

  Scenes in a Pompeii Tavern  

  A Domestic Shrine  

  Mystery Religions: The Cult of Dionysus
  Using the Evidence

7 Classical Era Variations: Africa and the Americas,

    500 B.C.E.–1200 C.E. 
The African Northeast  
Meroë: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization  

Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom Along the Niger River: Cities without States 
South of the Equator: The World of Bantu Africa 
  Cultural Encounters  Society and Religion Civilizations of Mesoamerica  
  The Maya: Writing and Warfare  

  Teotihuacán: America’s Greatest City Civilizations of the Andes 
Chavín: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement   

Moche: A Regional Andean Civilization North America in the Classical Era: From Chaco to Cahokia 
Pit Houses and Great Houses: The Ancestral Pueblo  

The Mound Builders of the Eastern Woodlands Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in World History 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study Snapshot: Continental Population in the Classical Era 
Documents  Axum and the World 
7.1—A Guidebook to the World of Indian Ocean Commerce:

         The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, First Century C.E.  

7.2—The Making of an Axumite Empire: Inscription on a Stone

         Throne, Second or Third Century C.E.  

7.3—The Coming of Christianity to Axum: Rufinus, On the

         Evangelization of Abyssinia, Late Fourth Century C.E.  

7.4—A Byzantine View of an Axumite Monarch: Julian, Report to the

         Byzantine Emperor on Axum, 530-531  

7.5—Axum and the Gold Trade: Cosmas, The Christian Topography,

         Sixth Century C.E.
 Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources  Art and the Maya Elite 
Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok: A Royal Couple of Yaxchilan  

The Presentation of Captives  

Bloodletting Ritual  

The Ball Game  

An Embracing Couple
  Using the Evidence 

Part Three An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500–1500 

 The Big Picture Defining a Millennium 
  Third-Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old,

    Something Blended  

  The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the

    Postclassical Era Landmarks in the Era of Accelerating Connections, 500 to 1500 

8 Commerce and Culture, 500–1500
Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia  
  The Growth of the Silk Roads   

  Goods in Transit  

  Cultures in Transit  

  Disease in Transit Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean 
  Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World  

  Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia

    and Srivijaya  

  Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa

    and Swahili Civilization
  Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara 

  Commercial Beginnings in West Africa  

  Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the

 Western Hemisphere 
 Reflections: Economic Globalization—Ancient and Modern 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Economic Exchange along the Silk Roads 
Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian Ocean Basin 
 Documents  Travelers’ Tales and Observations 
8.1—A Chinese Buddhist in India: Huili, A Biography of the

         Tripitaka Master and Xuanzang, Record of the Western

         Region, Seventh Century C.E.  

8.2—A European Christian in China: Marco Polo, The Travels of

         Marco Polo, 1299  

8.3—An Arab Muslim in West Africa: Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia

         and Africa, 1354
  Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Art, Religion, and Cultural Exchange in Central Asia 
  Greek Culture, Buddhism, and the Kushans  

  Buddhist Monks on the Silk Road  

  Manichaean Scribes  

  The Mongols in China  

   Islam, Shamanism, and the Turks
  Using the Evidence 

9 China and the World: East Asian Connections, 500–1300 
The Reemergence of a Unified China  
  A "Golden Age” of Chinese Achievement  

  Women in the Song Dynasty
 China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order

  in the Making 
  The Tribute System in Theory   

  The Tribute System in Practice  

  Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan 
  Korea and China  

  Vietnam and China  

  Japan and China China and the Eurasian World Economy 
  Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia  

  On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary China and Buddhism 
  Making Buddhism Chinese  

  Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism Reflections: Why Do Things Change? 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

   Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of Postclassical China 
Documents  The Making of Japanese Civilization 
9.1—Japanese Political Ideals: Shotoku, The Seventeen Article

         Constitution, 604  

9.2—Buddhism in Japan: The Zen Tradition: Dogen, Writings on

         Zen Buddhism, Thirteenth Century  

9.3—The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa, The Chronicle

         of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339  

9.4—Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon, Pillow Book, ca. 1000  

9.5—The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yosimasa, Advice to Young

         Samurai, ca. 1400, and Imagawa Ryoshun,

         The Imagawa Letter, 1412
Using the Evidence 
Images  The Leisure Life of China’s Elites 
 A Banquet with the Emperor  At Table with the Empress  A Literary

  Gathering  Solitary Reflection  An Elite Night Party
 Using the Evidence 

10 The Worlds of European Christendom: Connected and

      Divided, 500–1300 
Eastern Christendom: Building on the Roman Past 
  The Byzantine State  

  The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence  

  Byzantium and the World  The Conversion of Russia Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse  
  Political Life in Western Europe, 500–1000  

  Society and the Church, 500–1000  

  Accelerating Change in the West, 1000–1300  

  Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition The West in Comparative Perspective 
  Catching Up  

  Pluralism in Politics  

  Reason and Faith Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise

 in the Worlds of Christendom 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in Byzantine History 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Evolution of Western

Documents  The Making of Christian Europe . . . and a

 Chinese Counterpoint 
10.1—The Conversion of Clovis: Gregory of Tours, History of the

           Franks, late sixth century  

10.2—Advice on Dealing with "Pagans”: Pope Gregory, Advice

           to the English Church, 601  

10.3—Charlemagne and the Saxons: Charlemagne, Capitulary

           on Saxony, 785
 10.4 and 10.5—The Persistence of Tradition: Willibald, Life of

                           Boniface, ca 760 C.E., and The

                           Leechbook, tenth century 

10.6—The Jesus Sutras in China: The Jesus Sutras, 635-1005
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Reading Byzantine Icons
 Christ Pantokrator  The Nativity  Ladder of Divine Ascent
 Using the Evidence 

11 The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections, 600–1500 
 The Birth of a New Religion 
  The Homeland of Islam 

  The Messenger and the Message  

  The Transformation of Arabia The Making of an Arab Empire 
  War and Conquest  

  Conversion to Islam  

  Divisions and Controversies  

  Women and Men in Early Islam Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison 
  The Case of India  

  The Case of Anatolia  

  The Case of West Africa  

  The Case of Spain The World of Islam as a New Civilization 
  Networks of Faith  

  Networks of Exchange
 Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study Snapshot: Key Moments in the Early History of Islam 
Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science and Scholarship 
Documents  Voices of Islam 
11.1—The Voice of Allah: The Quran, seventh century  

11.2—The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadith, eighth

           and ninth centuries 

11.3—The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, ninth century   

11.4—The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription in Rumi’s Tomb, thirteenth

           century; Rumi, Poem, thirteenth century; and Rumi, "Drowned

           in God,” Mathnawi, thirteenth century
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Cources  Islamic Civilization in Persian Miniature Paintings
 An Arab Camp Scene  City Life in Islamic Persia  The Night Journey

  of Muhammad
 Using the Evidence 

12 Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol

     Moment, 1200–1500
Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of

 Pastoral Nomads 
  The World of Pastoral Societies  

  The Xiongnu: An Early Nomadic Empire  

  The Arabs and the Turks  

  The Masai of East Africa Breakout: The Mongol Empire 
  From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire  

  Explaining the Mongol Moment Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases 
  China and the Mongols  

  Persia and the Mongols  

  Russia and the Mongols The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network 
  Toward a World Economy  

  Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale  

  Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm  

  The Plague: A Eurasian Pandemic Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

   Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies 
Snapshot: Key Moments in Mongol History 
Documents  Perspectives on the Mongols 
12.1—Mongol History from a Mongol Source: The Secret History

           of the Mongols, ca. 1240  

12.2—A Letter from Chinggis Khan: Chinggis Khan, Letter to

           Changchun, 1219  

12.3—A Russian View of the Mongols: The Chronicle of

           Novgorod, 1238  

12.4—Chinese Perceptions of the Mongols: Epitaph for the

           Honorable Menggu, 1274  

12.5—Mongol Women through European Eyes: William of Rubruck,

           Journey to the Land of the Mongols, ca. 1255
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  The Black Death and Religion in Western Europe  
 The Flagellants  

 Burying the Dead  

 A Culture of Death  

 In the Face of Catastrophe—Questioning or Affirming the Faith
 Using the Evidence 

13 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century 
The Shapes of Human Communities 
Paleolithic Persistence  

Agricultural Village Societies   

Herding Peoples Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe 
  Ming Dynasty China    

  European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal    

  European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging
 Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World 
  In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires    

  On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas 
  The Aztec Empire  

  The Inca Empire Webs of Connection 
A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern

  Era, 1500–2000 
 Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History 
Second Thoughts 
  What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

  Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the 

 Fifteenth Century 
Snapshot: Key Moments in European Maritime Voyaging 
Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000  
 Documents  The Aztecs and the Incas through Spanish Eyes 
13.1—Diego Duran on the Aztecs: King Moctezuma I, Laws,

           Ordinances and Regulations, ca. 1450, and Diego Duran,

           Book of the Gods and Rites, 1574-76  

13.2— Pedro de Cieza de Léon on the Incas: Pedro de Cieza de

            Léon, Chronicles of the Incas, ca. 1550
Using the Evidence 
Visual Sourcws  Sacred Places in the World of the Fifteenth Century 
  Visual Source 13.1—The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest at the

                                   Temple of Heaven, Beijing, China
  Visual Source 13.2— Kinkakuji: A Buddhist Temple in Japan
  Visual Source 13.3— The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
  Visual Source 13.4— The Church of St. George, Lalibela, Ethiopia Using the Evidence 

Part Four The Early Modern World, 1450–1750 
The Big Picture Debating the Character of an Era 
  An Early Modern Era?  A Late Agrarian Era?
Landmarks of the Early Modern Era, 1450–1750  

14 Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750 
European Empires in the Americas 
  The European Advantage  The Great Dying  The

    Columbian Exchange Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas 
In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas  Colonies of Sugar  

Settler Colonies in North America The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire 
  Experiencing the Russian Empire  Russians and Empire Asian Empires  
  Making China an Empire  

  Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire   

  Muslims, Christians, and the Ottoman Empire Reflections: Countering Eurocentrism . . . or Reflecting It?  
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in

 Latin America 
Documents  State Building in the Early Modern Era  
14.1—The "Self-Portrait” of a Chinese Emperor: The Emperor

           Kangxi, Reflections, 1671-1722  

14.2—The Memoirs of Emperor Jahangir: Jahangir, Memoirs,


14.3—An Outsider’s View of Suleiman I: Ogier Ghiselin de

           Busbecq, The Turkish Letters, 1555-1562  

14.4 and 14.5—French State-Building and Louis XIV: Louis XIV,

                          Memoirs, 1670, and Jean-Baptiste Colbert,

                          Instructions for Intendants, 1680
Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  The Conquest of Mexico Through Aztec Eyes 
 Disaster Foretold  Moctezuma and Cortés  

 The Massacre of the Nobles  

 The Spanish Retreat from Tenochtitlan  

  Smallpox: Disease and Defeat
 Using the Evidence 

15 Global Commerce, 1450–1750 
Europeans and Asian Commerce 
A Portuguese Empire of Commerce  

Spain and the Philippines  

The East India Companies 

Asian Commerce Silver and Global Commerce 
The "World Hunt”: Fur in Global Commerce 
Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade 
The Slave Trade in Context  

The Slave Trade in Practice  

Comparing Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in the European Encounter with Asia 
Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers 
Documents  Voices from the Slave Trade 
15.1—The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting

           Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789  

15.2—The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips, A Journal

           of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London, 1694  

15.3—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso

           I, Letters to King Jao of Portugal, 1526  

15.4—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bonsu,

           Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820
  Using the Evidence 
Images  Exchange and Status in the Early Modern World 
 Tea and Porcelain in Europe   A Chocolate Party in Spain  An

  Ottoman Coffeehouse  

  Clothing and Status in Colonial Mexico   

  Procession and Display in the Kingdom of Dahomey
  Using the Evidence 

16 Religion and Science, 1450–1750 
The Globalization of Christianity 
Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation  

Christianity Outward Bound  

Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America   

An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions 
Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World  

China: New Directions in an Old Tradition  

India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science 
  The Question of Origins: Why Europe?  

  Science as Cultural Revolution  

  Science and Enlightenment  

  Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century  

  European Science beyond the West Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the

 Sixteenth Century 
Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the

 Scientific Revolution 
Documents  Cultural Change in the Early Modern World 
16.1—Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther, Table Talk,

           early sixteenth century   

16.2—Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet, Sketch

           of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793-1794  

16.3—Debating Confucianism: Wang Yangming, Conversations,

           early sixteenth century   

16.4—The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab,

           History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis, 1803  

16.5—The Poetry of Kabîr: Kabîr, Poetry, ca. late fifteenth century
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Global Christianity in the Early Modern Era 
 Pieter Seanredam, Interior of a Dutch Reformed Church  

Catholic Baroque: Interior of Pilgrimage Church, Mariazell, Austria  

Cultural Blending in Andean Christianity  

Making Christianity Chinese  

Christian Art at the Mughal Court
 Using the Evidence 


Part Five The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914
The Big Picture European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism 
Eurocentric Geography and History  Countering Eurocentrism Landmarks of the European Moment in World History, 1750–1914 

17 Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes, 1750–1914
Comparing Atlantic Revolutions 
The North American Revolution, 1775–1787   

The French Revolution, 1789–1815  

The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804  

Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825
Echoes of Revolution 
  The Abolition of Slavery  

  Nations and Nationalism   

  Feminist Beginnings Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of Atlantic Revolutions 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism 
 Documents  Claiming Rights  
17.1—The French Revolution and the "Rights of Man”: The

           Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789  

17.2—The Rights of Women: Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication

           of the Rights of Woman, 1792  

17.3—Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar, The

           Jamaica Letter, 1815  

17.4—Rights and Slavery: Frederick Douglass, What to the Slave

           Is the Fourth of July?, 1852  

17.5—Rights in the Colonial World: Raden Adjeng Kartini,

           Letter to a Friend, 1899
  Using the Evidence
 Visual Sources  Representing the French Revolution 
 The Early Years of the French Revolution: "The Joyous Accord”  

 A Reversal of Roles: The Three Estates of the Old Regime  

 Revolution and Religion: "Patience, Monsignor, your turn will come.”  

 An English Response to Revolution: "Hell Broke Loose or, the Murder of Louis”  

 Revolution, War, and Resistance: A German View of Napoleon
 Using the Evidence 

18 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914 
Explaining the Industrial Revolution 
  Why Europe?   

  Why Britain?
The First Industrial Society 
  The British Aristocracy  

  The Middle Classes  

  The Laboring Classes  

  Social Protest Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United

 States and Russia 
The United States: Industrialization without Socialism  

Russia: Industrialization and Revolution The Industrial Revolution in Latin America in the Nineteenth Century 
  After Independence in Latin America   

  Facing the World Economy  Becoming like Europe?
Reflections: History and Horse Races 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution 
Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide 
Documents  Varieties of European Marxism  
18.1—Socialism According to Marx: Karl Marx and Friedrich

           Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848  

18.2—Socialism without Revolution: Eduard Bernstein, Evolutionary

           Socialism, 1899  

18.3—Socialism and Women: Clara Zetkin, The German Socialist

           Women’s Movement, 1909  

18.4—Socialism in Song: Eugene Pottier, The Internationale, 1871  

18.5—Lenin and Russian Socialism: V.I. Lenin, What Is To

           Be Done?, 1902
 Using the Evidence 
Visua Sources  Art and the Industrial Revolution 
The Machinery Department of the Crystal Palace  

The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era  

Outside the Factory: Eyre Crowe, The Dinner Hour, Wigan  

Inside the Factory: Lewis W. Hine, Child Labor, 1912  

Philip James de Loutherbourg, Coalbrookdale by Night  

John Leech, Capital and Labour Using the Evidence 

19 Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, the

 Ottoman Empire, and Japan, 1800–1914 
The External Challenge: European Industry and Empire 
  New Motives, New Means  New Perceptions of the "Other” 
Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis 
The Crisis Within  

Western Pressures  

The Failure of Conservative Modernization
 The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century 
"The Sick Man of Europe”  

Reform and Its Opponents  

Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power 
The Tokugawa Background  

American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration  

Modernization Japanese Style  

Japan and the World Reflections: Success and Failure in History 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the Rise of Japan in the

 Nineteenth Century and Beyond 
Documents  Voices from the Opium War 
19.1—A Chinese Response to Lord Macartney: Emperor Qianlong,

           Message to King George III, 1793  

19.2 and 19.3—Debating the Opium Problem: Xu Naiji, An

                         Argument for Legalization, 1836, and Yuan Yulin,

                         An Argument for Suppression, 1836  

19.4—A Moral Appeal to Queen Victoria: Commissioner Lin Zexu,

           Letter to Queen Victoria, 1839   

19.5—War and Defeat: The Treaty of Nanjing, 1842
 Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  Changing Japanese Perceptions of the West 
  The Black Ships  

  Depicting the Americans  

  Women and Westernization  

  Kobayashi Kiyochika’s Critique of Wholesale Westernization   

  Japan, China, and Europe: A Reversal of Roles
 Using the Evidence 

20 Colonial Encounters, 1750–1914 
A Second Wave of European Conquests 
Under European Rule  
  Cooperation and Rebellion  

  Colonial Empires with a Difference Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies 
Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State  

Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market  

Economies of Wage Labor: Working for Europeans   

Women and the Colonial Economy: An African Case Study  

Assessing Colonial Development
 Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the

  Colonial Era  
  Education  Religion  "Race” and "Tribe”
Reflections: Who Makes History? 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire,

 Documents  Indian Responses to Empire 
20.1—The Wonders of British Calcutta: Nawab Muhabbat Khan,

           On Calcutta, late eighteenth century  

20.2—Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy, Letter to

           Lord Amherst, 1823  

20.3—The Indian Rebellion: Bahadur Shah, The Azamgarh

           Proclamation, 1857  

20.4—The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai

           Naoroji, Speech to a London Audience, 1871   

20.5—Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi, Indian

           Home Rule, 1908
Using the Evidence 
Visual Sources  The Scramble for Africa 
Prelude to the Scramble  

Conquest and Competition  

From the Cape to Cairo  

A French Critique of the Boer War  

The Ethiopian Exception Using the Evidence

Part Six The Most Recent Century, 1914–2010
The Big Picture The Twentieth Century: A New Period in

 World History? 
  Old and New in the Twentieth Century  Three Regions—

   One World Landmarks of the Most Recent Century, 1914–2010 

21 The Collapse and Recovery of Europe, 1914–1970s
The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918
 An Accident Waiting to Happen  

 Legacies of the Great War Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression 
 Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan 
  The Fascist Alternative in Europe  

  Hitler and the Nazis   

  Japanese Authoritarianism A Second World War 
The Road to War in Asia  

The Road to War in Europe  

World War II: The Outcomes of Global Conflict The Recovery of Europe 
Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression 
Snapshot: Key Moments in the History of World War II  
 Documents  Ideologies of the Axis Powers 
21.1—Mussolini on Fascism: Benito Mussolini, The Political and

           Social Doctrine of Fascism, 1933  

21.2—Hitler on Nazism: Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf (My Struggle),

           1925-1926  Document

21.3—The Japanese Way: Cardinal Principles of the National Entity

           of Japan, 1937
  Using the Evidence 
 Images  Propaganda and Critique in World War I Women and the War  

Defining the Enemy  

War and the Colonies  

The Battlefield   

The Aftermath of War Using the Evidence 

22 The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present 
Global Communism 
Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism 
Russia: Revolution in a Single Year  

China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle Building Socialism in Two Countries  
Communist Feminism   

Socialism in the Countryside  

Communism and Industrial Development  

The Search for Enemies East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War 
Military Conflict and the Cold War  

Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry  

The United States: Superpower of the West, 1945–1975     

The Communist World, 1950s–1970s Comparing Paths to the End of Communism 
 China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party  

 The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976 
 Documents  Experiencing Stalinism 
22.1—Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin, The Results of the First

           Five-Year Plan, 1933  

22.2—Living through Collectivization: Maurice Hindus,

           Red Bread, 1931  

22.3—Living through Industrialization: Personal Accounts of

           Industrialization, 1930s  

22.4—Living through the Terror: Personal Accounts of

           the Terror, 1930s Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources  Poster Art in Mao’s China 
Smashing the Old Society  

Building the New Society: The People’s Commune  

Women, Nature, and Industrialization  

The Cult of Mao  

Propaganda Posters after Mao Using the Evidence 

23 Independence and Development in the Global South,

Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence 
The End of Empire in World History   

Explaining African and Asian Independence Comparing Freedom Struggles 
The Case of India: Ending British Rule  

The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid
 Experiments with Freedom 
  Experiments in Political Order: Comparing African Nations

   and India  

  Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities,

   Varying Outcomes  

  Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey

   and Iran Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream 

Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Key Moments in South African History 

Snapshot: Economic Development in the Global South by the

 Early Twenty-first Century 

 Documents  Debating Development in Africa 
23.1—The Colonial Legacy for Modern Development: A. Adu

           Boahen, African Perspectives on Development, 1987  

23.2—Development and African Unity: Kwame Nkrumah,

           Africa Must Unite, 1963  

23.3—Development, Socialism, and Self-Reliance: Julius Nyerere,

           The Arusha Declaration, 1967  

23.4—Development and Women: Mildred Malineo Tau, Women:

           Critical to African Development, 1981  

23.5—Development, Elites, and the State: George B. N. Ayittey,

           Africa Betrayed, 1992, and Africa in Chaos, 1998
Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources  Representing Independence 
 Non-Co-operation Tree and Mahatma Gandhi  

 African National Congress  

 Vietnamese Independence and Victory over the United States  

 Winning a Jewish National State  

 A Palestinian Nation in the Making
 Using the Evidence 


24 Accelerating Global Interaction, Since 1945
The Transformation of the World Economy 

Growth, Instability, and Inequality  

Globalization and an American Empire The Globalization of Liberation: Comparing Feminist Movements 
Feminism in the West  

Feminism in the Global South   

International Feminism Religion and Global Modernity 
Fundamentalism on a Global Scale  

Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the

  World of Islam  

Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism The World’s Environment and the Globalization of Environmentalism
  The Global Environment Transformed  

  Green and Global Final Reflections: Pondering the Uses of History 
Second Thoughts 
What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions  

Next Steps: For Further Study
Snapshot: Indicators of Reglobalization 
Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950–2005  
 Documents  Contending for Islam 
24.1—A Secular State for an Islamic Society in Turkey: Mustafa

           Kemal Atatürk, Speech to the General Congress of the

           Republican Party, 1927  

24.2—Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood: Hassan al-Banna, Toward

           the Light, 1936  

24.3—The Ideas of the Ayatollah Khomeini: Ayatollah Khomeini,

           Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini, 1980  

24.4—A Liberal Viewpoint from an Islamic Woman: Benazir Bhutto,

           Politics and the Muslim Woman, 1985  

24.5—Islam and 9/11: Kabir Helminski: "Islam and

           Human Values,” 2009
Using the Evidence 
 Visual Sources  Experiencing Globalization 
Globalization and Work  

Globalization and Consumerism  

Globalization and Migration  

Globalization and Protest  

Globalization: One World or Many?
Using the Evidence 

Notes Index Acknowledgments About the Author

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