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Alcamo's Fundamentals Of Microbiology / Edition 8

Alcamo's Fundamentals Of Microbiology / Edition 8

by Jeffrey C. Pommerville

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ISBN-10: 0763737623

ISBN-13: 9780763737627

Pub. Date: 12/11/2006

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, Eighth Edition provides a firm foundation in microbiology with an emphasis on human disease. It is written for students in nursing and allied health programs and is appropriate for non-majors microbiology courses. The Eighth Edition of this classic text, revised by award winning educator Jeffrey Pommerville, retains the


Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, Eighth Edition provides a firm foundation in microbiology with an emphasis on human disease. It is written for students in nursing and allied health programs and is appropriate for non-majors microbiology courses. The Eighth Edition of this classic text, revised by award winning educator Jeffrey Pommerville, retains the late Ed Alcamo’s student friendly style. Microbiology is a rapidly advancing and dynamic discipline. Dr. Pommerville presents new content on recent discoveries, such as information on the avian flu and the 2006 Midwest mumps outbreak, in a manner that is directly applicable to students. Dr. Pommerville also integrates new teaching pedagogies, based on his years of teaching experience, to promote problem-based learningand facilitate mastery of concepts.

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Jones & Bartlett Learning
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Table of Contents

Preface     xv
Acknowledgments     xix
About the Author     xx
To the Student-Study Smart     xxii
Foundations of Microbiology     2
Microbiology: Then and Now     5
The Beginnings of Microbiology     8=970 14Microscopy-Discovery of the Very Small     8
Experimentation-Can Life Generate Itself Spontaneously?     10
Microorganisms and Disease Transmission     14
Epidemiology-Understanding Disease Transmission     15
Variolation and Vaccination-Prevention of Infectious Disease     16
The Stage Is Set     18
The Classical Golden Age of Microbiology (1854-1914)     19
Louis Pasteur Proposes That Germs Cause Infectious Disease     19
Pasteur's Work Stimulates Disease Control and Reiniforces Disease Causation     20
Robert Koch Formalizes Standards to Identify Germs with Infectious Disease     22
Competition Fuels the Study of Infectious Disease     23
Other Global Pioneers Contribute to New Disciplines in Microbiology     25
Studying Microorganisms     27
Why Study Microorganisms and Viruses Today?     27
The Spectrum of Microorganisms Is Diverse     28
The Second Golden Age of Microbiology(1943-1970)     30
Molecular Biology Relies on Microorganisms     30
Two Types of Cellular Organization Are Realized     30
Antibiotics Are Used to Cure Infectious Disease     31
The Third Golden Age of Microbiology-Now     33
Microbiology Continues to Face Many Challenges     33
Microbial Ecology and Evolution Are Helping to Drive the New Golden Age     35
Chapter Review     37
The Chemical Building Blocks of Life     40
The Elements of Life     42
Matter Is Composed of Atoms     42
Atoms Can Vary in the Number of Neutrons or Electrons     43
Electron Placement Determines Chemical Reactivity     44
Chemical Bonding     45
Ionic Bonds Form between Oppositely Charged Ions     45
Covalent Bonds Share Electrons     45
Hydrogen Bonds Form between Polar Groups or Molecules     48
Chemical Reactions Change Bonding Partners     48
Water, pH, and Buffers     49
Water Has Several Unique Properties     49
Acids and Bases Must Be Balanced in Cells     50
Buffers Are a Combination of a Weak Acid and Base     52
Major Organic Compounds of Living Organisms     52
Functional Groups Define Molecular Behavior     52
Carbohydrates Consist of Sugars and Sugar Polymers     53
Lipids Are Water-Insoluble Compounds     55
Nucleic Acids Are Large, Information-Containing Polymers     56
Proteins Are the Workhorse Polymers in Cells     59
Chapter Review     65
Concepts and Tools for Studying Microorganisms     69
The Prokaryotic/Eukaryotic Paradigm     71
Prokaryotic/Eukaryotic Similarities     71
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: The Similarities in Organizational Patterns     74
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: The Structural Distinctions     76
Cataloging Microorganisms     77
Classification Attempts to Catalog Organisms     77
Nomenclature Gives Scientific Names to Organisms     80
Classification Uses a Hierarchical System     81
Kingdoms and Domains: Trying to Make Sense of Taxonomic Relationships     81
The Three-Domain System Places the Prokaryotes in Separate Lineages     82
Distinguishing between Prokaryotes     83
Microscopy     86
Most Microorganisms Are in the Micrometer Size Range     86
Light Microscopy Is Used to Observe Most Microorganisms     86
Staining Techniques Provide Contrast      88
Light Microscopy Has Other Optical Configurations     93
Electron Microscopy Provides Detailed Images of Cells, Cell Parts, and Viruses     94
Chapter Review     97
The Bacteria and Archaea     102
Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function     105
Prokaryotic Diversity     106
The Domain Bacteria Contains Some of the Best Studied Prokaryotes     106
The Domain Archaea Contains Many Extremophiles     108
The Shapes and Arrangements of Prokaryotic Cells     110
Prokaryotes Vary in Cell Shape and Cell Arrangement     110
An Overview to Prokaryotic Cell Structure     112
External Prokaryotic Cell Structures     114
Pili Are Protein Fibers Extending from the Surface of Many Prokaryotes     114
Prokaryotic Flagella Are Long Appendages Extending from the Cell Surface     116
The Glycocalyx Is an Outer Layer External to the Cell Wall     118
The Cell Envelope     120
The Prokaryotic Cell Wall Is a Tough and Protective External Shell     120
The Archaeal Cell Wall Also Provides Mechanical Strength     122
The Cell Membrane Represents the Interface between the Cell Environment and the Cell Cytoplasm     124
The Archaeal Cell Membrane Differs from Bacterial and Eukaryal Membranes     125
The Cell Cytoplasm and Internal Structures     126
The Nucleoid Represents a Subcompartment Containing the Chromosome     126
Plasmids Are Found in Many Prokaryotic Cells     126
Other Subcompartments Exist in the Prokaryotic Cytoplasm     127
Prokaryotic Cells Have a "Cytoskeleton"     127
The Prokaryotic/Eukaryotic Cell-Revisited     128
Chapter Review     132
Prokaryotic Growth and Nutrition     137
Prokaryotic Reproduction     139
Most Prokaryotes Reproduce by Binary Fission     139
Prokaryotes Reproduce Asexually     140
Prokaryotic Growth     142
A Bacterial Growth Curve Illustrates the Dynamics of Growth     142
Endospores Are a Response to Nutrient Limitation     143
Optimal Prokaryotic Growth Is Dependent on Several Physical Factors     147
Culture Media and Growth Measurements     151
Culture Media Are of Two Types     151
Culture Media Can Be Devised to Select for or Differentiate between Prokaryotic Species     153
Population Measurements Are Made Using Pure Cultures     156
Population Growth Can Be Measured in Several Ways     156
Chapter Review     158
Metabolism of Prokaryotic Cells     161
Enzymes and Energy in Metabolism     163
Enzymes Catalyze All Cellular Reactions     163
Enzymes Act through Enzyme-Substrate Complexes     154
Enzymes Often Team Up in Metabolic Pathways     166
Enzyme Activity Is Regulated and Can Be Inhibited     166
Energy in the Form of ATP Is Required for Metabolism     167
The Catabolism of Glucose     169
Glucose Contains Stored Energy That Can Be Extracted     169
Cellular Respiration Is a Series of Catabolic Pathways for the Production of ATP     170
Glycolysis Is the First Stage of Energy Extraction     170
The Krebs Cycle Extracts More Energy from Pyruvate     170
Oxidative Phosphorylation Is the Process by Which Most ATP Molecules Form     174
Other Aspects of Catabolism     178
Other Nutrients Represent Potential Energy Sources     178
Anaerobic Respiration Produces ATP Using Other Final Electron Acceptors     179
Fermentation Produces ATP Using an Organic Final Electron Acceptor     180
The Anabolism of Carbohydrates     182
Photosynthesis Is a Process to Acquire Chemical Energy     182
Patterns of Metabolism     185
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Get Their Energy and Carbon in Different Ways     185
Chapter Review     187
Prokaryotic Genetics     190
Prokaryotic DNA     192
Prokaryotic DNA Is Organized within the Nucleoid     193
DNA within a Chromosome Is Highly Compacted     193
Many Prokaryotic Cells also Contain Plasmids     193
DNA Replication     194
DNA Replication Is a Highly Regulated Process     195
Protein Synthesis     195
The Central Dogma Identifies the Flow of Genetic Information     197
Transcription Copies Genetic Information into RNA     197
The Genetic Code Is Degenerate     199
Translation Is the Process of Making the Polypeptide     200
Antibiotics Interfere with Protein Synthesis     203
Protein Synthesis Can Be Controlled in Several Ways     203
Transcription and Translation Are Compartmentalized     204
Mutations     207
Mutations Are the Result of Natural Processes or Induced     207
Point Mutations Are a Result of Spontaneous or Induced Mutations     207
Repair Mechanisms Attempt to Correct Mistakes or Damage in the DNA     209
Transposable Genetic Elements Can Cause Mutations     211
Identifying Mutants      213
Plating Techniques Select for Specific Mutants of Characteristics     213
The Ames Test Can Identify Potential Mutagens     215
Chapter Review     217
Gene Transfer, Genetic Engineering, and Genomics     220
Genetic Recombination in Prokaryotes     222
Genetic Information in Prokaryotes Can Be Transferred Vertically and Horizontally     222
Transformation Is the Uptake and Expression of DNA in a Recipient Cell     223
Conjugation Involves Cell-to-Cell Contact for Horizontal Gene Transfer     226
Conjugation Can also Transfer Chromosomal DNA     227
Transduction Involves Viruses as Agents for Horizontal Transfer of DNA     229
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     233
Genetic Engineering Was Born from Genetic Recombination     233
Genetic Engineering Has Many Commercial and Practical Applications     235
Microbial Genomics     243
Many Microbial Genomes Have Been Sequenced     243
Segments of the Human Genome May Have "Microbial Ancestors"     243
Microbial Genomics Will Advance Our Understanding of the Microbial World     245
Comparative Genomics Brings a New Perspective to Defining Infectious Diseases and Studying Evolution     247
Chapter Review     249
Bacterial Diseases of Humans     252
Airborne Bacterial Diseases     255
Diseases of the Upper Respiratory Tract     256
Streptococcal Diseases Can Be Mild to Severe     256
Diphtheria Is a Life-Threatening Illness     259
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Is Highly Contagious     260
Bacterial Meningitis Can Be Life Threatening     261
Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract     264
Tuberculosis Is a Major Cause of Death Worldwide     264
"Typical" Pneumonia Can Be Caused by Several Bacteria     268
"Atypical" Pneumonia Can Be Caused by a Diverse Group of Bacterial Species     269
Some Rickettsiae and Chlamydiae Also Cause Pneumonia     272
Chapter Review     277
Foodborne and Waterborne Bacterial Diseases     280
Introduction to Foodborne and Waterborne Bacterial Diseases     282
Many Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Have a Bacterial Cause     282
There Are Several Ways Foods or Water Become Contaminated     282
Foodborne Intoxications     283
Bacterial Food Poisoning Can Result from an Intoxication     283
Foodborne and Waterborne Infections     286
Typhoid Fever Involves a Blood Infection     286
Salmonellosis Can Be Contracted from a Variety of Foods     288
Shigellosis (Bacterial Dysentery) Occurs Where Sanitary Conditions Are Lacking     289
Cholera Can Involve Enormous Fluid Loss     290
E. coli Diarrheas Cause Various Forms of Gastroenteritis     293
Gastric Ulcer Disease Can Be Spread Person to Person     293
Camplyobacteriosis Results from Consumption of Contaminated Poultry or Dairy Products     297
Listeriosis Usually Manifests Itself as Meningoencephalitis or Septicemia     298
Several Other Bacterial Species Can Be Transmitted through Food or Water     299
Chapter Review     305
Soilborne and Arthropodborne Bacterial Diseases     308
Soilborne Bacterial Diseases     310
Anthrax Is an Enzootic Disease     310
Tetanus Causes Hyperactive Muscle Contractions     312
Gas Gangrene Causes Massive Tissue Damage     312
Leptospirosis Is a Zoonotic Disease Found Worldwide     314
Arthropodborne Bacterial Diseases     316
Plague Can Be a Highly Fatal Disease     316
Tularemia Has More Than One Disease Presentation     318
Lyme Disease Can Be Divided into Three Stages     319
Relapsing Fever Is Carried by Ticks and Lice     321
Rickettsial and Ehrlichial Arthropodborne Diseases     322
Rickettsial Infections Are Transmitted by Arthropods     322
Ehrlichial Infections Are Emerging Diseases in the United States     326
Chapter Review     329
Sexually Transmitted, Contact, and Miscellaneous Bacterial Diseases     333
Sexually Transmitted Diseases     335
Syphilis Is a Chronic, Infectious Disease     335
Gonorrhea Can Be an Infection in Any Sexually Active Person     337
Chlamydial Urethritis Can Be Asymptomatic     338
Chancroid Causes Painful Genital Ulcers     342
Ureaplasmal Urethritis Produces Mild Symptoms     343
Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases Also Exist     343
Contact Bacterial Diseases     344
Leprosy (Hansen Disease) Is a Chronic, Systemic Infection     344
Staphylococcal Contact Diseases Have Several Manifestations     347
Trachoma Is Transmitted by Personal Contact     349
Bacterial Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye) Is Very Common     351
Yaws Starts as Skin Sores     351
Miscellaneous Bacterial Diseases     352
There Are Several Endogenous Bacterial Diseases     352
Animal Bite Diseases Occasionally Occur     353
Oral Diseases Cause Pain and Disability for Affected Individuals     354
Urinary Tract Infections Can Become Serious Health Problems     357
Nosocomial Infections Can Be Acquired in a Healthcare Setting     359
Chapter Review     362
Viruses and Eukaryotic Microorganisms     366
The Viruses and Virus-Like Agents     369
Foundations of Virology     370
Many Scientists Contributed to the Early Understanding of Viruses     370
What are Viruses?     373
Viruses Are Tiny Infectious Agents     373
Viruses Are Grouped by Their Shape     374
Viruses Have a Host Range and Tissue Specificity     376
The Classification of Viruses     376
Nomenclature and Classification Do Not Use Conventional Taxonomic Groups     376
Virus Replication and Its Control     378
The Replication of Bacteriophages Is a Five-Step Process     378
Animal Virus Replication Has Similarities to Phage Replication     380
Some Animal Viruses Can Exist as Proviruses     384
Antiviral Drugs Can Be Used to Treat a Limited Number of Human Viral Diseases     385
Interferon Puts Cells in an Antiviral State     385
The Cultivation and Detection of Viruses     388
Detection of Viruses Often Is Critical to Disease Identification     388
Cultivation and Detection of Viruses Most Often Uses Cells in Culture     390
Tumors and Viruses     393
Cancer Is an Uncontrolled Growth and Spread of Cells     393
Virsues are Responsible for Up to 20 Percent of Human Tumors     393
Oncogenic Viruses Transform Infected Cells     394
Emerging Viruses and Virus Evolution     398
Emerging Viruses Usually Arise Through Natural Phenomena     398
There Are Three Hypotheses for the Origin of Viruses     399
Virus-Like Agents     400
Viroids Are Infectious RNA Particles     400
Prions Are Infectious Proteins     400
Chapter Review     404
Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract and Skin     408
Viral Infections of the Upper Respiratory Tract     409
Influenza Is a Highly Communicable Acute Respiratory Infection     409
Rhinovirus Infections Produce Inflammation in the Upper Respiratory Tract     414
Adenovirus Infections Also Produce Symptoms Typical of a Common Cold     415
Viral Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract     416
Paramyxovirus Infections Affect the Lower Respiratory Tract     416
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Spreads through Close Person-to-Person Contact     418
Diseases of the Skin Caused by Herpesviruses     420
Human Herpes Simplex Infections Are Widespread and Often Recurrent     420
Chickenpox Is No Longer a Prevalent Disease in the United States     423
Human Herpesvirus 6 Infections Primarily Occur in Infancy     424
A Few Herpesvirus Infections Are Oncogenic     426
Other Viral Diseases of the Skin     427
Paramyxovirus Infections Can Cause Typical Childhood Diseases     427
Rubella (German Measles) Is an Acute, Mildy Infectious Disease     429
Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum) Produces a Mild Rash     430
Some Human Papillomavirus Infections Cause Warts     430
Poxvirus Infections Have Had Great Medical Impacts on Populations     431
Chapter Review     436
Viral Infections of the Blood, Lymphatic, Gastrointestinal, and Nervous Systems     440
Viral Diseases of the Blood and Lymphatic Systems     442
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Is Responsible for HIV Disease and AIDS     442
Two Herpesviruses Cause Blood Diseases     448
Several Hepatitis Viruses Are Bloodborne     451
Viral Diseases Causing Hemorrhagic Fevers     454
Flaviviruses Can Cause a Terrifying and Severe Illness      454
Bunyaviruses Are Spread by Infected Animals     455
Members of the Filoviridae Produce Severe Hemorrhagic Lesions of the Tissues     456
Members of the Arenaviridae Are Associated with Chronic Infections in Rodents     458
Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract     459
Hepatits Viruses A and E Are Transmitted by the Gastrointestinal Tract     459
Viral Gastroenteritis Is Caused by Several Unrelated Viruses     462
Viral Diseases of the Nervous System     464
The Rabies Virus Is of Great Medical Importance Worldwide     464
The Polio Virus May Be the Next Infectious Disease Eradicated     466
Different Flaviviruses Can Be Carried by Blood-Sucking Arthopods     468
Chapter Review     472
Eukaryotic Microorganisms: The Fungi     476
Characteristics of Fungi     477
Fungi Share a Combination of Characteristics     478
Fungal Growth Is Influenced by Several Factors     479
Reproduction in Fungi Involves Spore Formation     483
The Classification of Fungi     485
Fungi Can Be Classified into Five Different Phyla     485
Yeasts Represent a Term for Any Single-Celled Stage of a Fungus     491
Fungal Diseases of the Skin      494
Dermatophytosis Is an Infection of the Body Surface     494
Candidiasis Often Is a Mild, Superficial Infection     495
Sporotrichosis Is an Occupational Hazard     496
Fungal Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract     497
Cryptococcosis Usually Occurs in Immunocompromised Individuals     497
Histoplasmosis Can Produce a Systemic Disease     498
Blastomycosis Usually Is Acquired Via the Respiratory Route     498
Coccidioidomycosis Can Become a Potentially Lethal Infection     499
Pneumocystis Pneumonia Can Cause a Lethal Pneumonia     499
Other Fungi Also Cause Mycoses     500
Chapter Review     502
Eukaryotic Microorganisms: The Parasites     506
Classification and Characteristics of Protists     508
The Protista Are a Perplexing Group of Microorganisms     508
The Protozoa Encompass a Variety of Lifestyles     508
Parasite Life Cycles Have Some Unique Features     513
Protozoal Diseases of the Skin, and the Digestive and Urinary Tracts     514
Leishmania Can Cause a Cutaneous or Visceral Infection     514
Several Protozoal Parasites Cause Diseases of the Digestive System     515
A Protozoan Parasite Also Infects the Urinary Tract      519
Protozoal Diseases of the Blood and Nervous System     520
The Plasmodium Parasite Infects the Blood     520
The Trypanosoma Parasites Can Cause Life-Threatening Systemic Diseases     523
Babesia Is an Apicomplexan Parasite     524
Toxoplasma Causes a Relatively Common Blood Infection     525
Naegleria Can Infect the Central Nervous System     527
The Multicellular Helminths and Helminthic Infections     528
There Are Two Groups of Parasitic Helminths     528
Several Trematodes Can Cause Human Illness     529
Tapeworms Survive in the Human Intestines     532
Humans Are Hosts to at Least 50 Roundworm Species     534
Roundworms Also Infect the Lymphatic System     537
Chapter Review     539
Disease and Resistance     544
Infection and Disease     547
The Host-Microbe Relationship     548
The Human Body Maintains a Symbiosis with Microbes     549
Pathogens Differ in Their Ability to Cause Disease     550
Several Events Must Occur for Disease to Develop in the Host     551
Establishment of Infection and Disease     554
Diseases Progress through a Series of Stages     554
Pathogen Entry into the Host Depends on Cell Adhesion and the Infectious Dose     555
Breaching the Host Barriers Can Establish Infection and Disease     557
Successful Invasiveness Requires Pathogens to Have Virulence Factors     558
Pathogens Must Be Able to Leave the Host to Spread Disease     561
Infectious Disease Epidemiology     562
Epidemiologists Have Several Terms that Apply to the Infectious Disease Process     562
Infectious Diseases Can Be Transmitted in Several Ways     562
Epidemiologists Often Have to Identify the Reservoir of an Infectious Disease     566
Diseases also Are Described by How They Occur within a Population     567
Nosocomial Infections Are Serious Health Threats within the Health Care System     569
Infectious Diseases Continue to Challenge Public Health Organizations     569
Chapter Review     576
Resistance and the Immune System: Innate Immunity     580
An Overview to Host Immune Defenses     581
Blood Cells Form an Important Defense for Innate and Acquired Immunity     581
The Lymphatic System Is Composed of Cell and Tissues Essential to Immune Function     584
Innate and Acquired Immunity Are Essential Components of a Fully Functional Human Immune System     584
The Innate Immune Response     586
Mechanical, Chemical, and Microbiological Barriers Are Exposed First Lines of Defense     586
Phagocytosis Is a Nonspecific Defense Mechanism to Clear Microbes from Infected Tissues     587
Inflammation Plays an Important Role in Fighting Infection     589
Moderate Fever Benefits Host Defenses     592
Natural Killer Cells Recognize and Kill Abnormal Cells     593
Complement Marks Pathogens for Destruction     593
Innate Immunity Depends on Receptor Recognition of Common Pathogen-Associated Molecules     594
Chapter Review     598
Resistance and the Immune System: Acquired Immunity     601
An Overview and Introduction to the Acquired Immune Response     603
The Ability to Eliminate Pathogens Requires a Multifaceted Approach     603
Acquired Immunity Generates Two Complementary Responses to Most Pathogens     605
Clonal Selection Activates the Appropriate B and T Cells     606
The Immune System Originates from Groups of Stem Cells     608
The Humoral Immune Response     610
Humoral Immunity Is a Response Mediated by Antigen-Specific B Lymphocytes     610
There Are Five Immunoglobulin Classes     611
Antibody Responses to Pathogens Are of Two Types     612
Antibody Diversity Is a Result of Gene Rearrangements      613
Antibody Interactions Mediate the Disposal of Antigens (Pathogens)     615
The Cell Mediated Immune Response     617
Cellular Immunity Relies on T-Lymphocyte Receptors and Recognition     617
Naive T Cells Mature into Effector T Cells     618
Cytotoxic T Cells Recognize MHC-1 Peptide Complexes     619
T[subscript H]2 Cells Intiate the Cellular Response to Humoral Immunity     621
Chapter Review     625
Immunity and Serology     628
Immunity to Disease     630
Acquired Immunity Can Result by Actively Producing Antibodies to an Antigen     630
There Are Several Types of Vaccine Strategies     631
Acquired Immunity Also Can Result by Passively Receiving Antibodies to an Antigen     636
Herd Immunity Results from Effective Vaccination Programs     639
Do Vaccines Have Dangerous Side Effects?     641
Serological Reactions     643
Serological Reactions Have Certain Characteristics     643
Neutralization Involves Antigen-Antibody Reactions     644
Precipitation Requires the Formation of a Lattice Between Soluble Antigen and Antibody     644
Agglutination Involves the Clumping of Antigens     645
Complement Fixation Can Detect Antibodies to a Variety of Pathogens     647
Labeling Methods Are Used to Detect Antigen-Antibody Binding     648
Additional Laboratory Tests     652
Monoclonal Antibodies Are Becoming a "Magic Bullet" in Biomedicine     652
Gene Probes Are Single-Stranded DNA Segments     655
Chapter Review     658
Immune Disorders     661
Type I IgE-Mediated Hypersensitivity     663
Hypersensitivity Is Induced by Allergens     663
Systemic Anaphylaxis Is the Most Dangerous Form of a Type I Hypersensitivity     666
Atopic Disorders Are the Most Common Form of a Type I Hypersensitivity     667
Allergic Reactions Also Are Responsible for Triggering Many Cases of Asthma     669
Why Do Only Some People Have IgE-Mediated Hypersensitivities?     670
Therapies Sometimes Can Control Type I Hypersensitivities     671
Other Types of Hypersensitivity     673
Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity Involves Antibody-Mediated Cell Destruction     673
Immune Complex Hypersensitivity Is Caused by Antigen-Antibody Aggregrates     675
Cellular Hypersensitivity Is Mediated by Antigen-Specific T Cells     678
Autoimmune Disorders and Transplantation     680
An Autoimmune Disorder Is a Failure to Distinguish Self from Non-self      680
Transplantation of Tissues or Organs Is an Important Medical Therapy     683
Immunodeficiency Disorders     686
Immunodeficiencies Can Involve Any Aspect of the Immune System     686
Chapter Review     689
Control of Microorganisms     692
Physical and Chemical Control of Microorganisms     695
General Principles of Microbial Control     697
Sterilization and Sanitization Are Key to Good Public Health     697
Physical Methods of Control     698
Heat Is One of the Most Common Physical Control Methods     698
Dry and Moist Heat Are Applied Differently     699
Filtration Traps Microorganisms     705
Ultraviolet Light Can Be Used to Control Microbial Growth     706
Other Types of Radiation Also Can Sterilize Materials     707
Preservation Methods Retard Spoilage by Microorganisms in Foods     707
General Principles of Chemical Control     710
Medicinal Chemicals Came into Widespread Use in the 1800s     710
Antiseptics and Disinfectants Have Distinctive Properties     711
Antiseptics and Disinfectants Can Be Evaluated for Effectiveness     712
Chemical Methods of Control     713
Halogens Oxidize Proteins      713
Phenol and Phenolic Compounds Denature Proteins     715
Heavy Metals Interfere with Microbial Metabolism     716
Alcohols Denature Proteins and Disrupt Membranes     716
Soaps and Detergents Act as Surface-Active Agents     717
Hydrogen Peroxide Damages Cellular Components     718
Some Chemical Agents Can Be Used for Sterilization     718
Chapter Review     722
Antimicrobial Drugs     726
The History and Properties of Antimicrobial Agents     728
The History of Chemotherapy Originated with Paul Ehrlich     728
Alexander Fleming's Serendipitous Discovery of Penicillin Ushered in the Era of Antibiotics     729
Antimicrobial Agents Have a Number of Important Properties     730
The Synthetic Antibacterial Agents     732
Sulfanilamide and Other Sulfonamides Target Specific Metabolic Reactions     732
Other Synthetic Antimicrobials Have Additional Bacterial Cell Targets     733
The Beta-Lactam Family of Antibiotics     734
Penicillin Has Remained the Most Widely Used Antibiotic     734
Other Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Also Inhibit Cell Wall Synthesis     735
Other Bacterially Produced Antibiotics     737
Vancomycin Also Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis      737
Polypeptide Antibiotics Affect the Cell Membrane     737
Many Antibiotics Affect Protein Synthesis     737
Some Antibiotics Inhibit Nucleic Acid Synthesis     741
Antifungal and Antiparasitic Agents     743
Several Classes of Antifungal Drugs Cause Membrane Damage     743
The Goal of Antiprotozoal Agents Is to Eradicate the Parasite     743
Antihelminthic Agents Are Targeted at Nondividing Helminths     745
Antibiotic Assays and Resistance     746
There Are Several Antibiotic Susceptibility Assays     746
There Are Four Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance     747
Antibiotic Resistance Is of Grave Concern in the Medical Community     749
New Approaches to Antibiotic Therapy Are Needed     750
Chapter Review     754
Microbiology and Public Health     758
Microbiology of Foods     761
Food Spoilage     762
Food Spoilage Comes from Many Microbial Sources     763
Several Conditions Can Determine If Spoilage Will Occur     763
The Microorganisms Responsible for Spoilage Produce Specific Products     765
Meats and Fish Can Become Contaminated in Several Ways     765
Poultry and Eggs Can Spoil Quickly     766
Breads and Bakery Products Can Support Bacterial and Fungal Growth     767
Some Grains Are Susceptible to Spoilage     767
Milk and Dairy Products Sometimes Sour     767
Food Preservation     769
Heat Denatures Proteins     770
Low Temperatures Slow Microbial Growth     773
Drying and Osmotic Pressure Help Preserve Foods     774
Chemical Preservatives Help Keep Foods Fresh     776
Radiation Can Sterilize Foods     776
Foodborne Diseases Can Result from an Infection or Intoxification     777
HACCP Systems Attempt to Identify Potential Contamination Points     779
Foods from Microorganisms     780
Many Foods Are Fermented Products     780
Many Milk Products Are the Result of Fermentation     782
Chapter Review     785
Environmental Microbiology     789
Water Pollution     791
Unpolluted and Polluted Water Contain Different Microbial Populations     791
There Are Three Types of Water Pollution     793
Diseases Can Be Transmitted by Water     794
The Treatment of Water and Sewage     796
Water Purification Is a Three-Step Process     796
Sewage Treatment Can Be a Multistep Process      798
Biofilms Are Prevalent in the Environment     800
The Bacteriological Analysis of Water Tests for Indicator Organisms     801
The Cycles of Elements in the Environment     802
The Carbon Cycle Is Influenced by Microorganisms     802
The Sulfur Cycle Recycles Sulfate Molecules     803
The Nitrogen Cycle Is Dependent on Microorganisms     806
Chapter Review     810
Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     814
Microorganisms in Industry     816
Microorganisms Produce Many Useful Organic Compounds     816
Microorganisms Also Produce Important Enzymes and Other Products     818
Alcoholic Beverages     820
Beer Is Produced by the Fermentation of Malted Barley     820
Wine Is Produced by the Fermentation of Fruit or Plant Extracts     821
Distilled Spirits Contain More Alcohol than Beer or Wine     824
Other Microbial Products     825
Many Antibiotics Are the Result of Industrial Production     825
Some Microbial Products Can Be Used to Control Insects     826
Fungal Organisms Also Are Being Commercially Developed     828
Bioremediation Helps Clean Up Pollution Naturally     829
Industrial Genetic Engineering Continues to Make Advances      830
Chapter Review     834
Metric Measurement     A-1
Temperature Conversion Chart     A-1
Answers to Even-Numbered End-of-Chapter Questions     A-2
Answers to MicroInquiry Questions     A-13
Glossary     G-1
Index     I-1

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