World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction / Edition 7

World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction / Edition 7

by Brian M. Fagan
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0132257084

ISBN-13: 9780132257084

Pub. Date: 05/25/2007

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Written by one of the leading archaeological writers in the world--in a simple, jargon-free narrative style--this brief, well-illustrated account of the major developments in the human past (from the origins of humanity to the origins of literate civilization) is ideal for those with no previous knowledge of the subject. Up to date and state of the art in content

Overview

Written by one of the leading archaeological writers in the world--in a simple, jargon-free narrative style--this brief, well-illustrated account of the major developments in the human past (from the origins of humanity to the origins of literate civilization) is ideal for those with no previous knowledge of the subject. Up to date and state of the art in content and perspective, it covers the entire world (not just the Americas or Europe), placing major emphasis on both theories and the latest archaeological and multidisciplinary approaches. The main focus is on four major developments--the origins of humanity; the appearance and spread of modern humans before and during the late Ice Age, including the first settlement of the Americas; the beginnings of food production; and the rise of the first civilizations. Features special boxes on Science (e.g., key dating methods and other scientific approaches), Sites (e.g., sites of unusual importance or interest, and Voices (e.g., quotes from writings of ancient times). Human Origins. African Exodus. Diaspora. The Origins of Food Production. The First Farmers. Chiefs and Chiefdoms. State-Organized Societies. Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean World. Egypt and Africa. South, Southeast, And East Asia. Lowland Mesoamerica. Highland Mesamerica. Andean Civilizations. For anyone interested in Archaeology, World Prehistory, Human Antiquity.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780132257084
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
05/25/2007
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
416
Product dimensions:
7.52(w) x 9.08(h) x 0.61(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
A Note on Chronologies and Measurementsxvi
Part IPrehistory1
Chapter 1Introducing World Prehistory3
Prologue4
"In the Beginning"4
Pseudoarchaeology6
Prehistory, Archaeology, and World Prehistory7
Major Developments in Human Prehistory9
Cyclical and Linear Time10
Written Records, Oral History, and Archaeology14
Studying World Prehistory15
Culture History, Time and Space, and "The Myth of the Ethnographic Present"17
Cultural Process and Past Lifeways22
The Mechanisms of Culture Change24
Culture as Adaptation26
Intangibles: Ideology and Interaction30
Summary32
Part IIThe World of the First Humans35
Chapter 2Human Origins37
Prologue8
The Great Ice Age (1.8 million to 15,000 years ago)39
Early Primate Evolution and Adaptation41
The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution (4 million to 1.5 million years ago)44
All Kinds of Australopithecines (3 million to 2.5 million years ago)50
Early Homo: Homo habilis (2.5 million to 2.0 million years ago)52
Who Was the First Human?56
The Earliest Human Technology57
Hunters or Scavengers?61
The Earliest Human Mind63
The Development of Language65
The Earliest Social Organization66
Summary67
Chapter 3African Exodus68
Prologue69
Ice Age Background69
Homo erectus (c. 1.9 million to after 200,000 years ago)72
The Lifeway of Homo erectus76
Archaic Homo sapiens (c. 400,000 to 130,000 years ago)81
The Neanderthals (c. 150,000 to 30,000 years ago)82
The Origins of Modern Humans (?c. 180,000 to 150,000 years ago)88
Out of Tropical Africa93
Summary94
Part IIIThe Birth of the Modern World95
Chapter 4Diaspora97
Prologue98
The Late Ice Age World (50,000 to 15,000 years ago)99
The Peopling of Southeast Asia and Australia (45,000 to 15,000 years ago)101
Late Ice Age Europe: The Cro-Magnons (40,000 to 15,000 years ago)103
Hunter-gatherers in Eurasia (35,000 to 15,000 years ago)109
East Asia (35,000 to 15,000 years ago)112
Early Human Settlement of Siberia (?before 20,000 to 15,000 years ago)114
The First Americans (?before 15,000 years ago to 11,000 B.C.)114
The Clovis People (c. 11,200 to 11,000 B.C.)118
Summary120
Chapter 5The Origins of Food Production121
Prologue122
The Holocene (after 10,000 B.C.)125
Changes in Forager Societies125
Social Complexity among Foragers127
Theories of Farming Origins129
The Recovery Revolution130
Multicausal Theories131
The Consequences of Food Production134
Nutrition and Early Food Production139
Summary140
Chapter 6The Earliest Farmers141
Prologue142
Domesticating Animals143
Domesticating Wheat and Barley144
Southwest Asian Farmers (c. 10,000 to 5000 B.C.)146
Early Egyptian and African Farmers (earlier than 6000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.)149
European Farmers (c. 6500 to 3000 B.C.)151
Early Agriculture in Asia (before 6000 B.C.)154
Early American Agriculture (8000 B.C. onward)158
Summary163
Chapter 7Chiefs and Chiefdoms165
Prologue166
Reciprocity and "Big Men"167
Navigators and Chiefs in the Pacific (2000 B.C. to modern times)169
The American Southwest (300 B.C. to modern times)173
Moundbuilders in Eastern North America (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1650)180
Summary187
Part IVEarly Civilizations189
Chapter 8State-Organized Societies191
Prologue192
What Is a State-Organized Society?192
Cities194
Theories of the Origins of States196
Social Approaches: Power in Three Domains202
People as Agents of Change206
The Collapse of Civilizations207
Summary209
Chapter 9Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean World210
Prologue211
Origins (5500 to 3000 B.C.)212
Sumerian Civilization (c. 3100 to 2334 B.C.)218
Akkadians and Babylonians (2334 to 1650 B.C.)221
Hittites and Sea Traders (1650 to 1200 B.C.)222
Minoans and Mycenaeans (1900 to 1200 B.C.)224
Sea Peoples and Phoenicians (1200 to 800 B.C.)229
Assyrians and Babylonians (900 to 539 B.C.)229
Summary230
Chapter 10Egypt and Africa232
Prologue233
Predynastic Egypt: Ancient Monopoly? (5000 to 3100 B.C.)233
Dynastic Egyptian Civilization (c. 3000 to 30 B.C.)237
Egypt and Afrocentrism247
Nubia: The Land of Kush (3000 to 633 B.C.)247
Meroe and Aksum249
Ancient African Kingdoms251
Summary256
Chapter 11South, Southeast, and East Asia257
Prologue258
South Asia: The Harappan Civilization (c. 2700 to 1700 B.C.)258
South Asia after the Harappans (1700 to 180 B.C.)264
The Origins of Chinese Civilization (2600 to 1100 B.C.)264
The War Lords (1100 to 221 B.C.)268
Southeast Asian Civilization (A.D. 1 to 1500)270
Summary275
Chapter 12Lowland Mesoamerica276
Prologue277
Beginnings: Preclassic Peoples in the Lowlands (2000 B.C. to A.D. 300)277
The Olmec (1500 B.C. to 500 B.C.)279
Classic Maya Civilization (A.D. 300 to 900)285
The Classic Maya Collapse290
Postclassic Maya Civilization (A.D. 900 to 1517)293
Summary295
Chapter 13Highland Mesoamerica297
Prologue298
The Rise of Highland Civilization: The Valley of Oaxaca (2000 to 500 B.C.)298
Monte Alban (500 B.C. to A.D. 750)300
Valley of Mexico: Teotihuacan (200 B.C. to A.D. 750)301
The Toltecs (A.D. 650 to 1200)305
Aztec Civilization (A.D. 1200 to 1521)306
Summary314
Chapter 14Andean Civilizations315
Prologue316
The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization318
Coastal Foundations (2500 to 900 B.C.)319
The Early Horizon and Chavin de Huantar (900 to 200 B.C.)320
The Initial Period321
The Moche State (200 B.C. to A.D. 700)326
The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari (A.D. 600 to 1000)328
The Late Intermediate Period: Sican and Chimu (A.D. 700 to 1460)330
The Late Horizon: The Inca State (A.D. 1476 to 1534)331
The Spanish Conquest (A.D. 1532 to 1534)336
Summary337
Epilogue338
Glossary of Technical Terms341
Glossary of Archaeological Sites and Cultural Terms345
Guide to Further Reading353
References in Text362
Photo Credits363
Index365

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