Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 2

Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 2

by John V. Pavlik, Shawn McIntosh
     
 

ISBN-10: 0195379101

ISBN-13: 9780195379105

Pub. Date: 01/05/2010

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

From reading news on tablets to video calling on smartphones, digital media has changed the ways in which we communicate. Placing convergence at the center of the discussion, Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication, Fifth Edition, uses the technologies we employ every day to explain our current media environment-and to consider where we might

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Overview

From reading news on tablets to video calling on smartphones, digital media has changed the ways in which we communicate. Placing convergence at the center of the discussion, Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication, Fifth Edition, uses the technologies we employ every day to explain our current media environment-and to consider where we might be headed.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195379105
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
01/05/2010
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
544
Product dimensions:
8.50(w) x 10.90(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface
About the Authors

Part 1 The Changing Media Landscape

Chapter 1 Mass Communication and Its Digital Transformation
Telephony: Case Study in Convergence
Three Types of Convergence
TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE
ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE
CULTURAL CONVERGENCE
Implications of Convergence
MEDIA ORGANIZATION
MEDIA TYPE
MEDIA CONTENT
MEDIA USE
MEDIA DISTRIBUTION
MEDIA AUDIENCE
MEDIA PROFESSION
ATTITUDES AND VALUES
Mass Communication in the Digital Age
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
MASS COMMUNICATION
MASS COMMUNICATION AND CONVERGENCE
Functions of Mass Communication
SURVEILLANCE
CORRELATION
CULTURAL TRANSMISSION
ENTERTAINMENT
Theories of Communication
TRANSMISSION MODELS
CRITICAL THEORY AND CULTURAL STUDIES
Television: The Future of Convergence
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: The Nature of D"IntermassD" Communication
MEDIA PIONEERS: Steve Jobs
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Crying in a BMW
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: User-Generated Content: Creativity or Piracy?
ETHICS IN MEDIA: Interactively Mapping Gun Owners

Chapter 2 Media Literacy in the Digital Age
Education and Media
What Is Media Literacy?
What Makes Mediated Communication Different?
SEMIOTICS
FRAMING
Early Concerns of Media Effects
Media Grammar
PRINT MEDIA
RADIO AND RECORDED MUSIC
FILM AND TELEVISION
DIGITAL-MEDIA GRAMMAR
Implications of Commercial Media
COMMERCIAL-MEDIA DEBATE
CONCENTRATION OF MEDIA OWNERSHIP
Media Bias
Developing Critical Media-Literacy Skills
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: Testing Your Media Literacy
MEDIA PIONEERS: Marshall McLuhan
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Mobile Telephony in the Developing World
ETHICS IN MEDIA: When Media Report Rape Allegations
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Dos and Don'ts When Evaluating Online Information

Part 2 Mass-Communication Formats

Chapter 3 Print Media: BOOKS, NEWSPAPERS, AND MAGAZINES
Functions of Print Media
TRANSMISSION OF CULTURE
DIFFUSION OF IDEAS AND KNOWLEDGE
ENTERTAINMENT
Distinctive Functions of Books
History of Books to Today
MONASTIC SCRIBES
JOHANNES GUTENBERG
BEGINNINGS OF MASS COMMUNICATION AND MASS LITERACY
CHEAPER AND SMALLER BOOKS
Dime Novels
Mass-Market Paperbacks
Print-on-Demand
Ebooks
Current Book-Industry Issues
Sales and Readership of Books
Outlook for Books
Distinctive Functions of Newspapers
LOCAL NEWSPAPERS
NATIONAL NEWSPAPERS
History of Newspapers to Today
THE COMMERCIAL PRESS AND THE PARTISAN PRESS
COLONIAL READERSHIP AND FINANCES
THE GOLDEN AGE OF NEWSPAPERS
Current Newspaper-Industry Issues
NEWSPAPER CHAINS
Benefits of Chains
Problems with Chains
LEADING NEWSPAPER CHAINS
DECLINING NUMBER OF DAILY NEWSPAPERS
Sales and Readership of Newspapers
CIRCULATION AND READERSHIP
ADVERTISING
Outlook for Newspapers
Distinctive Functions of Magazines
History of Magazines to Today
Current Magazine-Industry Issues
Sales and Readership of Magazines
Outlook for Magazines
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: Print Media
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Global Ebook Marketplace
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Freesheets: Riding the Rails of Newspapers' Future?
MEDIA PIONEERS: Ruben Salazar

Chapter 4 Audio Media: MUSIC RECORDINGS, RADIO
The Recording Industry
Distinctive Functions of the Recording Industry
History of Recorded Music
FROM TIN PAN ALLEY TO HOLLYWOOD
ROOTS OF ROCK AND ROLL
REDEFINING ROCK
The Recording Industry Today
Recording-Industry Business Model
CREATION
PROMOTION
DISTRIBUTION
PRICING STRUCTURE
Outlook for the Recording Industry
DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT AND ILLEGAL FILE SHARING
NEW BUSINESS MODELS EMERGING
What Is Broadcasting?
Radio
Distinctive Functions of Radio
History of Radio
WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY
EXPLORING RADIO'S EARLY POTENTIAL
VOICE TRANSMISSION
RADIO BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER WWI
WIDESPREAD PUBLIC ADOPTION OF RADIO
FM RADIO, EDWIN HOWARD ARMSTRONG, AND DAVID SARNOFF
CREATING A VIABLE BUSINESS MODEL FOR RADIO
THE RISE OF RADIO NETWORKS
CONSOLIDATION IN RADIO STATION OWNERSHIP
The Radio Industry Today
Radio Station Programming
Outlook for the Radio Industry
PODCASTING
SATELLITE RADIO
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised; It Will Be Mashed Up
MEDIA PIONEERS: Amanda Palmer
ETHICS IN MEDIA: Mash-up'd and Mixed-up Musical Ethics
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: NPR and PRI: America's Public Radio Networks
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves

Chapter 5 Visual Media: PHOTOGRAPHY, MOVIES, AND TELEVISION
Photography
HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY
PHOTOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY TODAY
Movies
History of the Movie Industry
SILENT ERA: NEW MEDIUM, NEW TECHNOLOGIES, NEW
STORYTELLING
Méliès and Griffith
Murnau, Flaherty, and Eisenstein
SOUND AND COLOR
HOLLYWOOD MOVIE MOGULS
Warner Brothers
Walt Disney
Samuel Goldwyn
Marcus Loew
Louis B. Mayer
Hollywood Star System
THE DIRECTOR AS AUTEUR
TECHNOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON MOVIE GENRES
OTHER ENTERTAINMENT SOURCES FOR MOVIES
DVDS AND STREAMING
Movie Industry Today
Marketing and Distribution for Movies
Movie-Industry Business Model
Outlook for the Movie Industry
Television
History of Television
SEEING THE LIGHT: THE FIRST TELEVISION SYSTEMS
MODERN TELEVISION TAKES SHAPE
PROGRAMMING AND GENRE INFLUENCES
Pushing the Programming Envelope
Cable Comes of Age
Filling the Days
Filling the Nights
Sports
Reality Shows
DIGITAL TELEVISION: PREPARING THE WAY FOR CONVERGENCE
THE RISE OF FLAT-PANEL DISPLAYS
Television Distribution
BROADCAST TV
CABLE TV
SATELLITE TV
Television Industry Today
CABLE SYSTEM STRUCTURE
SATELLITE VS. CABLE
Television-Industry Business Model
Outlook for the Television Industry
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: Eye-Q Test
ETHICS IN MEDIA: The Photojournalist's Dilemma: Immersion in Conflict
MEDIA PIONEERS: Kathleen Kennedy, Producer
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: 3-D Movies: What Will Be the Impact?

Chapter 6 Interactive Media: THE INTERNET, VIDEO GAMES, AND AUGMENTED REALITY
Interactivity Defined
Interactive Media vs. Mass Media
Historical Development of User Interfaces
TELEVISION INTERFACES
INTUITIVE INTERFACES
Keyboards
Computer Mouse
Touch Screens
Natural Input Methods
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES
Historical Development of the Internet and the World Wide Web
INTERNET PROTOCOL
WORLD WIDE WEB
GRAPHICAL WEB BROWSERS
BROADBAND
DISTRIBUTION DYNAMICS
Video Games
Historical Development of Video Games
Types of Video Games
Video-Game Industry
Trends in Video Games
Gamification
Augmented Reality
Ethics of Interactive Media
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: Engaging with Interactive Media
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: The Internet of Babel
MEDIA PIONEERS: Super Mario
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Is Playing Video Games Bad for You?

Part 3 Media Perspectives

Chapter 7 The Impact of Social Media
Defining Social Media
DIALOGIC COMMMUNICATION
SOCIAL PRODUCTION
What Is D"SocialD" About Social Media?
CHOICE
CONVERSATION
CURATION
CREATION
COLLABORATION
Types of Social Media
EMAIL
DISCUSSION BOARDS AND WEB FORUMS
CHAT ROOMS
BLOGS AND MICROBLOGS
WIKIS
SOCIAL-NETWORKING SITES
Producers and Produsers
REPUTATION, RATINGS, AND TRUST
PRIVACY
TRANSPARENCY
Social Media: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
ARE SOCIAL MEDIA MAKING US LESS SOCIAL?
ARE SOCIAL MEDIA MAKING US DUMBER?
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: How Connected Are You?
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Social Networks of Influential Languages
MEDIA PIONEERS: Jack Dorsey
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Are We Really Separated by Six Degrees?
ETHICS IN MEDIA: Cyberbullying: New Twists on an Old Problem

Chapter 8 Journalism: FROM INFORMATION TO PARTICIPATION
What Is News?
The Historical Development of Journalism
NEWS VALUES AND THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
PULITZER AND HEARST: THE CIRCULATION WARS,
SENSATIONALISM, AND STANDARDS
Joseph Pulitzer
William Randolph Hearst
THE RISE OF ELECTRONIC JOURNALISM
Murrow and News in TV's Golden Age
Changes in Television News
Foundations of Journalism
THE HUTCHINS COMMISSION AND A FREE AND RESPONSIBLE PRESS
SEPARATION OF EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS
FAIRNESS AND BALANCE IN NEWS COVERAGE
FRAMING THE NEWS
EXPERT SOURCES
From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created
GATHERING THE NEWS
PRODUCING THE NEWS
DISTRIBUTING THE NEWS
Types of Journalism
ALTERNATIVE JOURNALISM
PUBLIC JOURNALISM
CITIZEN JOURNALISM
AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
Journalism in the Digital World
NONTRADITIONAL SOURCES
ONLINE USER HABITS
PERSONALIZATION
CONTEXTUALIZATION
CONVERGENCE
The Business of Journalism
SALARIES
DIVERSITY IN THE NEWSROOM
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: A Nose for News
MEDIA PIONEERS: Mary Ann Shadd Cary and the Role of Minority Newspapers
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Covering Islam
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Platypus Journalism: The Future, or Evolutionary Dead End?
ETHICS IN MEDIA: Maintaining Standards in the Digital Age

Chapter 9 Advertising and Public Relations: The Power of Persuasion
Strategic Communications
PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATIONS
THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN PERSUASION
Advertising
THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ADVERTISING
Advertising Agencies
Commercial Television
Internet
THE RISE OF BRANDING
SELLING PRODUCTS, SELLING IDEAS
ADVERTISING CHANNELS
Print Media
Electronic Media
Outdoor
Direct Mail
ADVERTISING IN A DIGITAL WORLD
Cookies
Email Marketing
Banner Ads
Pop-Ups and Video
Classifieds and Auction Sites
Search-Engine Ads
Mobile Advertising
Behavioral Advertising
Viral Marketing
Native Advertising
THE ADVERTISING BUSINESS
ADVERTISING AGENCIES
Public Relations
THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
PR AND MEDIA RELATIONS
Pseudo-Events
Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age
Finding Sources Online
PR FIRMS AND THE PR INDUSTRY
Changing Trends in Advertising and PR
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: The Dynamics of Persuasion
MEDIA PIONEERS: Madam C. J. Walker
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: MMORPG, FPS-and IGA
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Hair-Raising Subway Billboard Ad Gets Noticed
MEDIA PIONEERS: Doris E. Fleischman
ETHICS IN MEDIA: Fooling Most of the People Most of the Time . . . Digitally

Part 4 Media and Society

Chapter 10 Media Ethics
Ethics, Morals, and Laws
Major Systems of Ethical Reasoning
CHARACTER, OR VIRTUE ETHICS
The Golden Rule
The Golden Mean
Virtue Ethics in Action
DUTIES
The Categorical Imperative
Discourse Ethics
Duties-based Ethics in Action
CONSEQUENCES
Utilitarianism
Social Justice
Consequence-based Ethics in Action
RELATIONSHIPS, OR DIALOGICAL ETHICS
Ethics of Care
Dialogical Ethics in Action
MORAL RELATIVISM
Issues in Ethical Decision Making
Role of Commercialism in Media Ethics
MEDIA TYPES INFLUENCING CONTENT
Ethics in Journalism
PRIVACY RIGHTS VERSUS THE PUBLIC'S RIGHT TO KNOW
GOING UNDERCOVER
VICTIMIZING THE VICTIMS
MISPRESENTATION AND PLAGIARISM
SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL JOURNALISTS CODE OF ETHICS
Ethical Issues in Advertising
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING
PUFFERY
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN ADVERTISING
ADVERTISING CODES OF ETHICS
Ethics in Public Relations
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN PR
PUBLIC RELATIONS CODES OF ETHICS
Ethics in Entertainment
STEREOTYPES IN ENTERTAINMENT
SEX AND VIOLENCE
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: How Moral Are You?
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Mistaken Identity: One Life Lost, Another Ruined
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Forbidden Fruit
MEDIA PIONEERS: Kalle Lasn

Chapter 11 Communication Law and Regulation in the Digital Age
The Legal Framework
The Foundations of Freedom of Expression
NATIONAL SECURITY
Clear and Present Danger
Prior Restraint
LIBEL
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Protecting Journalists Against Libel
Shield Laws
CENSORSHIP
The Censorship of Comics
The Hays Code
Indecent Content
Obscenity
Criticism, Ridicule, or Humor
Regulating Electronic Media
EARLY DAYS AND THE RADIO ACT OF 1912 (1911-1926)
INCREASING REGULATION AND THE FEDERAL RADIO COMMISSION
(1927-1933)
THE COMMUNICATIONS ACT AND SPECTRUM SCARCITY (1934-1995)
THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT AND THE INTERNET (1996- PRESENT)
INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC MEDIA REGULATION
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
UNIVERSAL SERVICE
THE FCC, LICENSE RENEWAL, AND REGULATORY POWER
SPECTRUM AUCTION
Regulating Commercial and Political Speech
COMMERCIAL SPEECH
Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Advertising
Unclear Regulatory Boundaries
POLITICAL SPEECH
Equal-Time Rule
Fairness Doctrine
Children's Programming Protections
THE CHILDREN'S TELEVISION ACT
VIOLENT AND SEXUAL PROGRAMMING: THE V-CHIP
Intellectual Property Rights
FAIR USE
Privacy
Legal Issues in the Digital World
DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT
PRIVACY
CONTENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: Legal Limits
MEDIA PIONEERS: ANTHONY LEWIS and Legal Journalism
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: The Great Network Neutrality Debate
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: The Rise and Fall of Russian Media
ETHICS IN MEDIA: Does the Punishment Fit the Crime?

Chapter 12 Media Theory and Research
Role of Theory and Research
Mass Society, Mass Communication
Media-Effects Research
PROPAGANDA AND THE MAGIC BULLET
PAYNE FUND
RADIO'S WIDER IMPACT
TELEVISION AND VIOLENCE
LIMITED EFFECTS
Cultivation Analysis
Spiral of Silence
Third-Person Effect
CRITICISMS OF MEDIA-EFFECTS RESEARCH
Understanding the Audience
AUDIENCES CREATING MEANING
Uses and Gratifications
Encoding/Decoding
Reception Analysis
FRAMING
Cultural Studies
IDEOLOGY AND THE CULTURE INDUSTRY
CRITICISMS OF CULTURAL STUDIES
Sociohistorical Frameworks
INFORMATION SOCIETY
POLITICAL ECONOMY
MEDIA ECOLOGY
AGENDA SETTING
New Directions in Media Research
Media Research: What Type of Science Is It?
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH WORKING TOGETHER
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: Theory and Practice
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: How Free Is Academic Freedom?
MEDIA PIONEERS: danah boyd
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Theories Old, Theories New, Theories BorrowedDEL
ETHICS IN MEDIA: Advertising's Negative Effects on the Sexes

Chapter 13 Mass Communication and Politics in the Digital Age
Journalism and Political Coverage
POLITICIANS USING THE NEWS
SOUND BITES AND HORSE RACES
THE CHANGING TONE OF TELEVISION POLITICAL COVERAGE
OPINION POLLS
Political Advertising
IMPACT OF NEGATIVE ADVERTISING
EFFECTIVENESS OF NEGATIVE ADVERTISING
Politics and Entertainment
POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS AND ENTERTAINMENT
POLITICAL DEBATES
Social Media and Political Campaigns
CHANGES WITH SOCIAL MEDIA
CHANGING RULES FOR POLITICIANS
Social Media and Civic Engagement
DATABASES AND GOVERNMENT TRANSPARENCY
SMART MOBS
Political Polarization and Media Habits
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: Playing Politics
ETHICS IN MEDIA: Can Imagery Lead to Action?
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Image Is Everything
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Crowdsourcing Election Monitoring
MEDIA PIONEERS: BILL ADAIR and PolitiFact

Chapter 14 Global Media in the Digital Age
Four Theories of International Mass Communication
AUTHORITARIAN THEORY
LIBERTARIAN THEORY
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THEORY
SOVIET THEORY
The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Opinion
Political and Socioeconomic Issues with Global Media
MEDIA IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
SEARCHING FOR TRUTH: SELF-CENSORSHIP IN CHINA
THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
Global Media, Local Values
NEW WORLDS-OR CULTURAL IMPERIALISM?
CONVERGENCE AND ITS DISCONTENTS
GLOBALIZATION OF MEDIA PRODUCTION
GLOBAL MEDIA FLOW
PROTECTING LOCAL VOICES
Some Developing Nations
A Neighbo(u)ring Nation
PROMOTING GLOBAL VOICES
CYBERSECURITY AND MEDIA
Media Careers
LOOKING BACK AND MOVING FORWARD
FURTHER READING

Features
MEDIA MATTERS: Global Media
ETHICS IN MEDIA: J-Ethinomics-Teaching Ethics and Economics in Journalism
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Through a PRISM of Global Surveillance
MEDIA PIONEERS: Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim-YouTube Founders

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