Effective Crisis Communication: Moving From Crisis to Opportunity / Edition 2
  • Effective Crisis Communication: Moving From Crisis to Opportunity / Edition 2
  • Effective Crisis Communication: Moving From Crisis to Opportunity / Edition 2

Effective Crisis Communication: Moving From Crisis to Opportunity / Edition 2

by Robert R. Ulmer, Timothy L. Sellnow, Matthew W. Seeger
     
 

In this fully updated Second Edition, three of today’s most respected crisis/risk communication scholars provide the latest theory, practice, and innovative approaches for handling crisis. This acclaimed book presents the discourse of renewal as a theory to manage crises effectively. The book provides 15 in-depth case studies that highlight successes

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Overview

In this fully updated Second Edition, three of today’s most respected crisis/risk communication scholars provide the latest theory, practice, and innovative approaches for handling crisis. This acclaimed book presents the discourse of renewal as a theory to manage crises effectively. The book provides 15 in-depth case studies that highlight successes and failures in dealing with core issues of crisis leadership, managing uncertainty, communicating effectively, understanding risk, promoting communication ethics, enabling organizational learning, and producing renewing responses to crisis. Unlike other crisis communication texts, this book answers the question, “What now?” and explains how organizations can and should emerge from crisis.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781412980340
Publisher:
SAGE Publications
Publication date:
11/03/2010
Edition description:
Second Edition
Pages:
239
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvi

Part I The Lessons 1

Chapter 1 Defining Crisis Communication 2

A Definition of Crisis Communication 5

A Working Definition 7

Crisis and Risk 8

Types of Crises 9

The Significance of Crisis in a Global Environment 13

Defining Crisis Communication Theory and Practice 14

Crisis Communication Theories That Describe, Explain, and Prescribe 20

Understanding and Defining the Threat Bias in Crisis Communication 21

Summary 22

References 22

Chapter 2 Lessons on Managing Crisis Uncertainty 25

Defining Uncertainty 26

Unexpected Crises and Uncertainty 26

Nonroutine Crisis Events and Uncertainty 27

Threat Perception and Uncertainty 28

Short Response Time and Uncertainty 28

The Impact of Crisis-Induced Uncertainty on Stakeholders 30

Managing Communication Ambiguity Ethically During Crisis 32

Consistent Questions of Ambiguity 33

Training, Simulations, and Uncertainty 36

Belief Structures and Uncertainty 37

Summary 38

Lessons on Uncertainty and Crisis Communication 39

References 40

Chapter 3 Lessons on Effective Crisis Communication 41

Determining Your Goals 42

Partnering With Crisis Audiences 42

Understanding the Diversity of Your Audiences 44

Primary and Secondary Stakeholders Defined 45

Communicating With Underrepresented Populations During Crisis 47

A Word on Partnerships and Listening 48

What Information Do Stakeholders Need Following a Crisis? 50

Is Certain Communication Always the Best Approach? 52

Be Careful of Overreassuring Your Stakeholders 53

Tell Your Stakeholders How to Protect Themselves 54

Reducing and Intensifying Uncertainty Before, During, and After Organizational Crises 55

Social Media and Effective Crisis Communication 58

The Power of Positive Thinking 59

Summary 61

Lessons on Communicating Effectively in Crisis Situations 61

References 62

Chapter 4 Lessons on Effective Crisis Leadership 63

The Importance of Effective Leadership 64

Why Visibility Following a Crisis Is Important 64

Developing Networks of Support 66

Being Available, Open, and Honest 67

The Impact of Leadership on Renewal Following a Crisis 67

Ineffective Leadership During a Crisis 68

What Makes an Effective Crisis Leader? 70

Leadership Virtues 72

Managing Uncertainty, Responding, Resolving, and Learning From Crisis 73

Summary 78

Lessons on Effective Crisis Leadership 78

References 79

Part II Applying the Lessons 81

Chapter 5 Examples of Success and Failure in Industrial Accidents 82

Example 5.1 Lessons on Uncertainty: Tennessee Valley Authority and the Kingston Ash Slide 83

Missed Opportunities in Crisis Preparation and Planning 84

Tennessee Valley Authority's Response to an Uncertain Crisis 84

You Make the Call 88

Managing Uncertainty in Industrial Accidents: Lessons on Uncertainty and Crisis Communication 88

Summary 89

Example 5.2 Lessons on Effective Crisis Communication: A Plant Fire at Maiden Mills 90

Crisis Preparation and Planning 91

Courageous Communication in the Wake of a Disaster 91

You Make the Call 92

Communication Effectiveness and Ineffectiveness in Industrial Accidents: Lessons on Communicating Effectively in Crisis Situations 93

Summary 94

Example 5.3 Lessons on Leadership: A Fire at Cole Hardwood 95

Crisis Planning and Preparation 95

Leading Instinctively After a Disaster 96

You Make the Call 97

Leadership Successes and Failures in Industrial Accidents: Lessons on Effective Crisis Leadership 97

Summary 98

References 99

Chapter 6 Examples of Success and Failure During Outbreaks of Food-Borne Illness 100

Example 6.1 Lessons on Uncertainty: King Car's Response to the 2008 Melamine Crisis 101

Reducing Crisis Uncertainty 101

A Guiding Vision for King Car's Crisis Communication 102

Initial Crisis Communication 102

The Recall 103

Critical Acclaim 103

You Make the Call 104

Managing Uncertainty in Food-Borne Illness Outbreaks: Lessons on Uncertainty and Crisis Communication 104

Summary 106

Example 6.2 Lessons on Effective Crisis Communication: Long-Term Complexities in the Tainted Odwalla Apple Juice Crisis 106

Challenges for Multiple Stakeholders 106

Odwalla's Crisis Response 107

Impact on Stakeholders 107

You Make the Call 108

Lessons on Communicating Effectively in Crisis Situations: Communicating Effectively and Ineffectively During Food-Borne Illness Outbreaks 109

Summary 110

Example 6.3 The Largest Food-Borne Illness Outbreak in History: Schwan's Sales Enterprises 110

A Guiding Philosophy 112

Schwan's Crisis Response 112

Learning From the Crisis 113

You Make the Call 114

Leadership Successes and Failures in Food-Borne Illness Outbreaks: Lessons on Effective Crisis Leadership 114

Summary 115

References 116

Chapter 7 Examples of Success and Failure in Response to Terrorism 117

Example 7.1 Crisis Uncertainty: The Case of 9/11 118

You Make the Call 121

Managing Uncertainty During Terrorism: Lessons on Uncertainty and Crisis Communication 121

Summary 123

Example 7.2 Effective Crisis Communication: The Oklahoma City Bombing 123

You Make the Call 126

Communicating Effectively and Ineffectively During Terrorism: Lessons on Communicating Effectively in Crisis Situations 126

Summary 128

Example 7.3 Leadership During a Terrorist Attack: Coping With 9/11 by Rebuilding 128

Cantor Fitzgerald's Precrisis Reputation 128

Howard Lutnick's Crisis Response 129

Reservoir of Goodwill 130

Post-9/11: Recovery, Remembrance, and Renewal 130

You Make tire Call 131

Leadership Successes and Failures During Terrorism: Lessons of the Role of Leaders in Crisis Situations 131

Summary 133

References 133

Chapter 8 Examples of Success and Failure During Natural Disasters 134

Example 8.1 1997 Red River Valley Floods 135

Predicting Floodwaters in the Red River Valley 135

Communicating to the Public About Crest Levels 136

Understanding the National Weather Service's Response to the Red River Valley Floods 137

You Make the Call 138

Managing Uncertainty in Natural Disasters: Lessons on Uncertainty and Crisis Communication 138

Summary 140

Example 8.2 Rural Renewal After a Tornado in Greensburg, Kansas 140

Initial Framing of the Crisis 141

Consequences of a Bold Environmental Vision Following the Tornado 142

Community Response 143

You Make the Call 143

Communicating Effectively and Ineffectively During Natural Disasters: Lessons on Communicating Effectively in Crisis Situations 144

Summary 145

Example 8.3 Hurricane Katrina 146

You Make the Call 148

Leadership Successes and Failures During Natural Disasters: Lessons on Effective Crisis Leadership 149

Summary 150

References 151

Chapter 9 Examples of Success and Failure During Financial Crises 152

Example 9.1 Enron 153

Leadership Communication 154

Divergent Corporate Values 154

Responsibility to Be Informed 155

Openness to Signs of Problems 155

You Make the Call 156

Managing Uncertainty During Financial Crises: Lessons on Uncertainty and Crisis Communication 157

Summary 158

Example 9.2 Lessons on Effective Crisis Communication: A Costly YouTube Hoax for Domino's Pizza 159

Unusual Challenges for Domino's 159

Domino's Crisis Response 161

You Make the Call 162

Communicating Effectively and Ineffectively During Financial Crises: Lessons on Communicating Effectively in Crisis Situations 163

Summary 164

Example 9.3 Rising From the Wreckage: General Motors and the Crash of 2008-2009 164

General Motors's Initial Response to the Crisis 165

A Second Attempt to Respond to the Crisis 165

Bankruptcy at General Motors and Chrysler 166

Televising and Promoting a New Vision at General Motors 166

You Make the Call 167

Leadership Successes and Failures During Financial Crises: Lessons on Effective Crisis Leadership 167

Summary 168

References 169

Part III The Opportunities 171

Chapter 10 Learning Through Failure 172

Failing to Learn From Failure 173

Learning Through Failure 175

Vicarious Learning 177

Organizational Memory 178

Unlearning 180

Summary 181

References 182

Chapter 11 Risk Communication 183

Distinguishing Between Risk and Crisis 184

Identifying Risk 187

Mindfulness 187

Analyzing Multiple Audiences 189

Convergence Theory and Risk Communication 192

Responsible Risk Communication 194

Summary 197

References 198

Chapter 12 Responding to the Ethical Demands of Crisis 199

Ethics 200

Corporations as Moral Agents 201

Values 202

Values and Crisis 203

Responsibility and Accountability 203

Access to Information 205

Humanism and Care 206

The Role of Values in a Crisis Response 207

Summary 209

References 210

Chapter 13 Crisis as Inspiring Renewal Through Effective Crisis Communication 211

Considering the Opportunities Associated With Crisis 212

Theoretical Components of the Discourse of Renewal 213

Summary of the Discourse of Renewal 220

Understanding Renewal: Consequences of Considering Opportunities During Crisis 221

Understanding the Misconceptions Associated With Crises and Crisis Communication 222

Summary 226

References 227

Index 229

About the Authors 237

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