Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community

Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community

3.4 19
by Robert D. Putnam

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ISBN-10: 0684832836

ISBN-13: 9780684832838

Pub. Date: 05/02/2000

Publisher: Simon & Schuster

Once we bowled in leagues, usually after work; but no longer. This seemingly small phenomenon symbolizes a significant social change that Robert Putnam has identified and describes in this brilliant volume, Bowling Alone.

Drawing on vast new data from the Roper Social and Political Trends and the DDB Needham Life Style -- surveys that report in detail


Once we bowled in leagues, usually after work; but no longer. This seemingly small phenomenon symbolizes a significant social change that Robert Putnam has identified and describes in this brilliant volume, Bowling Alone.

Drawing on vast new data from the Roper Social and Political Trends and the DDB Needham Life Style -- surveys that report in detail on Americans' changing behavior over the past twenty-five years -- Putnam shows how we have become increasingly disconnected from family, friends, neighbors, and social structures, whether the PTA, church, recreation clubs, political parties, or bowling leagues. Our shrinking access to the "social capital" that is the reward of communal activity and community sharing is a serious threat to our civic and personal health.

Putnam's groundbreaking work shows how social bonds are the most powerful predictor of life satisfaction. For example, he reports that getting married is the equivalent of quadrupling your income and attending a club meeting regularly is the equivalent of doubling your income. The loss of social capital is felt in critical ways: Communities with less social capital have lower educational performance and more teen pregnancy, child suicide, low birth weight, and prenatal mortality. Social capital is also a strong predictor of crime rates and other measures of neighborhood quality of life, as it is of our health: In quantitative terms, if you both smoke and belong to no groups, it's a close call as to which is the riskier behavior.

A hundred years ago, at the turn of the last century, America's stock of social capital was at an ebb, reduced by urbanization, industrialization, and vast immigration that uprooted Americans from their friends, social institutions, and families, a situation similar to today's. Faced with this challenge, the country righted itself. Within a few decades, a range of organizations was created, from the Red Cross, Boy Scouts, and YWCA to Hadassah and the Knights of Columbus and the Urban League. With these and many more cooperative societies we rebuilt our social capital.

We can learn from the experience of those decades, Putnam writes, as we work to rebuild our eroded social capital. It won't happen without the concerted creativity and energy of Americans nationwide.

Like defining works from the past that have endured -- such as The Lonely Crowd and The Affluent Society -- and like C. Wright Mills, Richard Hofstadter, Betty Friedan, David Riesman, Jane Jacobs, Rachel Carson, and Theodore Roszak, Putnam has identified a central crisis at the heart of our society and suggests what we can do.

Product Details

Simon & Schuster
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Thinking about Social Change in America
Chapter 2: Political Participation
Chapter 3: Civic Participation
Chapter 4: Religious Participation
Chapter 5: Connections in the Workplace
Chapter 6: Informal Social Connections
Chapter 7: Altruism, Volunteering, and Philanthropy
Chapter 8: Reciprocity, Honesty, and Trust
Chapter 9: Against the Tide? Small Groups, Social Movements, and the Net
Chapter 10: Introduction
Chapter 11: Pressures of Time and Money
Chapter 12: Mobility and Sprawl
Chapter 13: Technology and Mass Media
Chapter 14: From Generation to Generation
Chapter 15: What Killed Civic Engagement? Summing Up
Chapter 16: Introduction
Chapter 17: Education and Children's Welfare
Chapter 18: Safe and Productive Neighborhoods
Chapter 19: Economic Prosperity
Chapter 20: Health and Happiness
Chapter 21: Democracy
Chapter 22: The Dark Side of Social Capital
Chapter 23: Lessons of History: The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era
Chapter 24: Toward an Agenda for Social Capitalists
Appendix I: Measuring Social Change
Appendix II: Sources for Figures and Tables
Appendix III: The Rise and Fall of Civic and Professional Associations

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Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community 3.4 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 19 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
It takes until the last (24th) chapter to learn about it, but there exists a group of thirty-three 'accomplished thinkers' organized by Harvard's Kennedy School of Government to think about how to put American society back together again. I became an apartment-dweller, a transient, in 1975 while I was in college and remained one until I bought my first house in 1997. Since then, I have been surprised to find how disengaged I am from my neighbors and how difficult it is to form the types of neighborhood relationships that sustained me and enhanced my family when I was a kid. During my college and grad school days, even as a transient, I thought I was witnessing a withdrawal by my fellow Americans from the ordinary behaviors of good citizenship and mutual respect. I have been especially aware, for instance, that shoppers will now go not even five feet to place a shopping cart in a parking lot rack. They leave them instead to occupy parking spaces and be windblown to dent other people's cars. In Robert Putnam's June 2000 book, Bowling Alone - The Collapse and Revival of American Community, the author presents an exhaustive study of Americans' withdrawal from community and civic life since the mid-20th century. It is certainly a book for social scientists, with over a thousand references (I couldn't count them), but I am not a social scientist and the book fully engaged me, too. Bowling Alone (the title comes from the fact that bowling is at an all-time high while league bowling is declining) is presented in four parts - and I paraphrase - what is happening?, why is it happening?, what does it matter?, and what do we do about it? The first, 'Trends in Civic Engagement and Social Capital,' sounds bookish but contains alarming revelations about just how superficial we are in our public participation. For instance, we belong to do-gooder organizations, but we do not meet with our fellow do-gooders in local groups. Instead, we put a check in the mail - usually to whichever organization has maintained the steadiest bombardment of junk mail solicitations. As Putnam says in these chapters, 'Citizenship by proxy is an oxymoron.' Trends in religious participation are also interesting: attendance at 'mainstream' churches is down while churches at the ends of the spectrum have experienced gains - and a primary characteristic of the fringe churches is a disengagement from society rather than becoming a part of the community fabric for civic improvement. The 'why' section of the book comprises good, solid, well-referenced research. I have written in the op-ed section of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Dec 1999) that I suspected anonymity (I blamed air-conditioning) and the geographic mobility requirements of modern work. Putnam says I am right about anonymity (but that it is television, not air-conditioning that is responsible) and wrong about mobility (it would seem to make sense, but our troubles started long after we became as mobile as we are today). What does it matter? Our diminished sense of community degrades education, safe neighborhoods, economic prosperity, personal health and happiness, and the health of our democracy. For instance, would you guess that joining a club statistically will improve your health as much as quitting smoking? Finally, what are we to do? In these final two chapters, I learned some American history about the Gilded Age (leading up to 1900) and the Progressive Era (1900-1930's) and found that the same concerns about societal declines arose and society eventually found answers (although, it seems that it took the unifying influences of world wars to knit us together to work for the common good.) Dr. Putnam, a Professor of Public Policy at Harvard University, shares with us some of the suggestions of the Saguaro Seminar thinkers mentioned at the top of this review. I predict that one hundred years hence, social analysts will be trying to figure out what went wrong in America in the 21st
Guest More than 1 year ago
I'm writing this review for nonprofessionals like me. 'Bowling Alone' is an important work because it highlights some very disturbing trends at work in America and suggests some solutions. Author Robert Putnam measures 'social capital,' which is simply the value of people dealing with people--organization and communication, whether it's formal (church council, the PTA), or informal (the neighborhood tavern, the weekly card game). We have suffered a huge drop in such 'social capital' over the past 30-35 years; club attendance has fallen by more than half, church attendance is off, home entertaining is off, even card games are off by half. Why is this important? Because a society that is rich in social capital is healthier, both for the group and for the individual. The states that have the highest club membership and voter turnouts also have the most income equality and the best schools (and those that have the lowest, have the worst). And according to Putnam, 'if you decide to join [a group], you can cut your risk of dying over the next year in half.' Younger people are demonstrably less social than their grandparents in the World War II generation. They also feel more malaise. Lack of sociability makes people feel worse. While 'Bowling Alone' is a work of academic sociology, with charts and graphs, Putnam makes it as reader-friendly as possible with a good honest prose style and a straightforward presentation. His message deserves to be heard. He also suggests some ways for us to get out of our current blight of social disconnectedness, including a call for the USA to re-live the organizational renaissance we once experienced at the turn of the last century, the Progressive Era, which spawned so many organizations like the Sierra Club, PTA and Girl Scouts that are still with us and going strong.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is vastly overrated. It purportedly is concerned with the decline of civic involvement, yet it devotes virtually no space (to the existence of, never mind the impact of ) such crucial political changes as the shift in political parties from organizations to mobilize the public to campaign and finance oriented machines; the nation's development as an international hegemonic power; globalization; policies which led to suburbanization and the abandonment of cities and manufacturing as a key economic sector; the growth of class differences within the countries; the defunding of public institutions, including education; and the rise of an entertainment-oriented news media. It has become so beloved by so many -- from the right and the left -- that it's easy to overlook that this is because its extensive data blinds readers to the major absences in its analysis and because it offers solutions calculated to offend no one.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Well into the book [page 251] the author writes, '...question is not how old are people now, but when were they young...' This line helped me a lot in explaining 'Generational Smash-ups: Creating Your Strategy to prevent generational collisions' along with hundreds of other pages. There is almost too much stuff, but the author sorts it out well enough.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Having seen Robert Putnam on TODAY and other TV shows at the time this book came out, I purchased it, and found it to be a fascinating, and surprisingly readable book. The book is exhaustively well-researched, and interesting, but when Putnam finally arrives at Chapter 24, where he supposedly presents an ' Agenda ' for changing American society, his delivery is weak. Instead of providing concrete, hands-on suggestions for change, he makes broad-brush recommendations, followed by VERY modest support for his views. Example: ' Let us act to ensure that by 2010 Americans will spend less time traveling and more time connecting with our neighbors than we do today'....This proclamation is followed by only TWO paragraphs of commentary, very little of which engages the reader in a 'here's what you can do to help!' approach. Hey, Bob, I read 23 chapters of your book to get to this, and you give me proclamations? Give me the address and contact person of an organization needing help in New Jersey!! The book is fascinating, and accurate, but throws a 7-10 split in the 10th frame!
Guest More than 1 year ago
This is a must-read. Not only is Putnam's book insightful, it is groundbreaking in the scope of analysis. Everyone interested in learning how to improve their lives should read this book!
Guest More than 1 year ago
I'd say it's no blockbuster, but certainly not bad. I enjoyed it for it's style,(personable in plain english), the nostalgic culture, and somewhat for the enlightening content. It seems to be an unbiased presentation, and I've seen the author quoted by oppossing schools of thought, indicating perhaps, 'no axe-grinder'.
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BitterCynic More than 1 year ago
This is an example of why buying online carries a risk. The subject is fascinating and timely, but when I began reading, the copious statistics, charts and graphs overwhelmed the personal histories, making it more of a dry read than I was willing to take on.
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Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is nothing but useless statistics. The author contradicts himself every other page and offers no real solutions. He explains how America got where it is today, yet, he shows no way to improve. Hmm, perhaps if he spent less time pointing his finger and more time actually offering solutions this book would be mildly entertaining. Very dry, informative, textbook like feel.