Bread Revolution: World-Class Baking with Sprouted and Whole Grains, Heirloom Flours, and Fresh Techniques

Overview

Renowned baking author and instructor Peter Reinhart has always been on the forefront of the bread movement—from his seminal work, The Bread Baker’s Apprentice, to today. In Bread Revolution, he explores the cutting-edge developments in bread baking, with fifty recipes and formulas that use sprouted flours, whole and ancient grains, nut and seed flours, alternative flours (such as teff and grape skin), and allergy-friendly and gluten-free approaches.

A new generation of bakers ...

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Bread Revolution: World-Class Baking with Sprouted and Whole Grains, Heirloom Flours, and Fresh Techniques

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Overview

Renowned baking author and instructor Peter Reinhart has always been on the forefront of the bread movement—from his seminal work, The Bread Baker’s Apprentice, to today. In Bread Revolution, he explores the cutting-edge developments in bread baking, with fifty recipes and formulas that use sprouted flours, whole and ancient grains, nut and seed flours, alternative flours (such as teff and grape skin), and allergy-friendly and gluten-free approaches.

A new generation of bakers and millers are developing innovative flours and baking techniques that are designed to extract the grain’s full flavor potential—what Reinhart calls “the baker’s mission.” In this lushly photographed primer, Reinhart draws inspiration from these groundbreaking methods to create master recipes and formulas any home baker can follow, including Sprouted Sandwich Rye Bread, Gluten-Free Many-Seed Toasting Bread, and Sprouted Wheat Croissants.

In many instances, such as with sprouted flours, preferments aren’t necessary because so much of the flavor development occurs during the sprouting phase. For grains that benefit from soakers, bigas, and sourdough starters, Reinhart provides the precise guidance that has made him such a trusted expert in the field.  

Advanced bakers will relish Reinhart’s inventive techniques and exacting scientific explanations, while beginning bakers will rejoice in his demystification of ingredients and methods—and all will come away thrilled by bread’s new frontier.

*Correction to the Sprouted Whole Wheat Bread recipe on page 63: The volume measure of water should be 1 ¾ cups plus 1 tablespoon, not 3 ¼ cups.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“Peter Reinhart writes books that change the way people bake. Bread Revolution is about innovation, possibility, and the future of bread. By exploring new flours and techniques, Peter once again proves that bread is very much alive, versatile, and still evolving. And true to form, he has written a book that will undoubtedly inspire readers to experiment and bake with confidence.”
-Nathan Myhrvold, coauthor of Modernist Cuisine and Modernist Cuisine at Home and author of The Photography of Modernist Cuisine

“There is so much more to baking than buying a bag of white flour and venturing forth. Home bakers and professionals need this book to open their minds to the potential of baking more flavorfully with whole grains and new kinds of flours. With Peter’s terrific book as a guide, you are going to eat better and healthier the sooner you get started.”
-Ken Forkish, author of Flour Water Salt Yeast

“Peter Reinhart’s passion for all things bread and his decades-long role in the American bread revolution make him the perfect teacher. I wholeheartedly embrace his philosophy and greatly admire his ability to not only share the fundamentals of bread, but also to raise awareness about this important bread crossroads, where we can choose to bake with sprouted and artisanal flours of non-commodity grains grown for flavor and nutrition. Imagine that!”
-David Kinch, chef-proprietor of Manresa and author of Manresa

Library Journal
09/15/2014
With the focus on gluten free and low-carb eating, it can seem like no one is eating bread anymore. Not so, claims Reinhart (The Bread Baker's Apprentice). Instead, it's time to experiment. Here the author has compiled a cookbook of recipes using sprouted, nut, alternative, and seed flours, as well as ancient and whole grains. He begins with a tutorial, a sourdough primer, and then lists easy-to-make recipes such as sprouted wheat pancakes and quick breads followed by instructions for pizza doughs, focaccias, bagels, sweet breads, crackers, and more, some of them even gluten free. In the 50 detailed recipes, measurements are given in both ounces and grams, and the step-by-step directions include photos, tips, and suggestions. VERDICT Reinhart's other books are a bit simpler to read and understand but there doesn't seem to be an overlap in recipes which makes this collection a satisfying choice for those with gluten sensitivity or allergies, or for those whose aim is to simply make the best bread possible.—Jane Hebert, Glenside P.L. Dist., Glendale Heights, IL
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781607746515
  • Publisher: Potter/Ten Speed/Harmony
  • Publication date: 10/21/2014
  • Pages: 256
  • Sales rank: 79,173
  • Product dimensions: 8.24 (w) x 10.29 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

PETER REINHART is a baking instructor and faculty member at Johnson and Wales University in Charlotte, North Carolina. He was the cofounder of Brother Juniper’s Bakery in Santa Rosa, California, and is the author of eight books on bread baking, including Crust and Crumb, The Bread Baker’s Apprentice (winner of the 2002 James Beard Cookbook of the Year and IACP Cookbook of the Year), and the 2008 James Beard Award–winning Peter Reinhart’s Whole Grain Breads.

Peter is the founder and host of the popular website PizzaQuest.com, where he continues to chronicle his never-ending search for the perfect pizza through videos, essays, and recipes. He also has created two instructional video courses, on artisan bread and on pizza, for Craftsy.com.

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Read an Excerpt

Introduction
Bread—well, actually wheat—is once again in the crosshairs. And not just wheat, but other grains too, depending on who you believe and what your struggles are. There are a lot of theories about diet, wheat, grains, and carbohydrates floating around and, not surprisingly, they all seem plausible. And like it or not, bread is getting the blame for a lot of ills. I have baker friends who say, “It will pass, just like the last scare.” But I’m not so sure.

Fifteen years ago the Atkins diet was very popular, followed by the South Beach diet and other low-carb plans. Collectively, they took a big bite out of the bread market, and the immediate result was that Wonder Bread lost a lot of sales but somehow recovered—until recently, that is, when the parent company declared bankruptcy. In 2003, when numerous reporters at a bread conference asked me, “Is bread dead?” my reply was, “No. Bread has been with us for six thousand years; I don’t think it’s going away.” But my less public response to my baker friends was, “There’s an opportunity here. It’s time to focus on whole grain breads and make them as good as the artisan loaves. This is the future.” And so they did—not because of anything I said, but because it was the logical, intuitive, necessary thing to do. Yet here we are, ten years later, and thanks to the growing (and important) gluten-free movement and some recent popular books, even whole grain breads have a big bull’s-eye on them. What on earth is going on? Is it possible, after six thousand years, that bread really is dead? I still say no, but once again we bakers are at a crossroads and need to ask, “What is the opportunity within all of this concern?”

I’ve been thrilled and privileged to be in the midst of the American artisan bread revolution that began in the mid-1980s. Actually, its roots go back even further, as I’ve chronicled in earlier books, but it wasn’t until the 1980s that things really took off. I remember the excitement that many of us felt as we metaphorically and literally sat at the feet of our mostly European bread heroes and learned their tricks of pre-ferments and soakers and how the relationship of time and temperature work on ingredients. The excitement of discovery was palpable as bakers and millers took field trips together to meet farmers and learn about the differences among wheat varieties and the influences of terroir.

Soon, schools of thought emerged, with disciples of various bread masters working their way through dogmatic beliefs, arguing about the virtues of poolish versus biga, yeast versus wild yeast, mixing versus folding, and high-protein versus low-protein flours. They faced off at competitions and in the marketplace and railed against the mainstream. Then they softened—integrating, expanding, and sharing their repertoires with each other and creating new schools of thought. American teams excelled at the Coupe du Monde de la Boulangerie (the World Cup of Bread or, as we call it, the Bread Olympics). American bakers, who had been cross-pollinating each other’s approaches with growing stores of knowledge and expertise, became internationally influential. The home baking movement grew exponentially through the advent of baking websites and award-winning bread books, each adding a new technique or breakthrough method and posing questions that were previously taboo, such as, “Do we really need to knead?” and, “Can bread that’s partially baked and frozen and then rebaked be as satisfying as a freshly baked loaf?”

Over the years I’ve become friends with a lot of bakers, millers, and farmers. It’s a wonderful community of earthy, spiritual, generous, and above all hardworking people. It’s also a community of creative, resourceful, and resilient people. Six thousand years is a long lineage; bread and makers of bread are not going away. But I will say this: during bread’s six-thousand-year saga, bread bakers have always been reinventing themselves and their craft.

This brings us to the current moment—the opportunity at hand. If you’ve followed me through my literary journey with bread, you know that I’m fascinated by new frontiers and revolutionary turning points, whether cold fermentation, new ways to make whole grain breads, or even unconventional methods for making gluten-free bread. Early on, I learned that answers come by asking the right questions: what-if questions and questions that others are too timid or narrowly focused to ask. Some people have the tenacity to do one thing over and over again until they do it better than anyone else. They establish benchmarks and signposts for those who follow in their path. Others, more restless in spirit, step onto paths less traveled and forge new frontiers. Sometimes they go too far and disappear for a time—or forever. But sometimes they stumble upon fertile ground and become the pioneers for the next wave.

While I admire beyond words those who can relentlessly drill down deeper and deeper in their Zen-like quest for the perfect loaf, I tend to be even more fascinated by and drawn toward those adventurous souls who yearn for something not yet seen. I’ve lived in each world at different times, and I believe both are essential aspects of the journey. But at this crucial time and crossroads in the history of bread, I especially delight in exploring the as-yet-unknown and in meeting others who, each in his or her own way, expand the boundaries of what is possible. In this book, I’ve applied some of what I’ve learned from them to create new recipes and formulas, and I also share some of their recipes, insights, and stories.

Some of the things these bakers are exploring address current questions related to health and nutrition, some focus on flavor, and some are responses to global, environmental, and holistic concerns. Each is a piece of the puzzle of how bread, glorious in its tradition, symbolism, and significance, is relevant at this time. As you’ll see in the following pages, I think it is. In fact, I think bread is having, as it has so often throughout history, yet another revolutionary moment.

In fall 2009 I got a call from Joe Lindley, the owner of Lindley Mills, located in Graham, North Carolina. I knew of Lindley Mills mainly as an independent, private-label organic mill whose most well-known client was King Arthur Flour. I was already using Lindley Mills flours at a pizza restaurant in Charlotte where I was a partner, and we were very happy with them. Lindley’s multigrain blend was unique in that it was milled into a very fine powder, which gave it the ability to form fairly strong gluten bonds despite containing a number of gluten-free grains. For pizza dough, having a strong gluten network is critical for allowing the dough to stretch without ripping, so this flour was a revelation. However, I did have one concern: it resulted in a crust that was slightly drier, lacking the creamy texture of classic white dough. That said, it was still the best whole grain pizza dough I’d had to that point. 

Toward the end of that restaurant’s time, Joe Lindley called and asked if I’d be willing to try a new flour made with sprouted wheat that he was developing, called Super Sprout. He’d also developed a sprouted gluten-free flour blend that he called Sprouted Ancient Grain, made with sprouted amaranth, quinoa, millet, sorghum, and buckwheat. Like many people, I’m a fan of Ezekiel and Alvarado Street breads, which are both made with sprouted wheat kernels, so I asked Joe if his new flour was like what they used.

He said, “No. At those places they sprout the wheat, then grind the sprouts into a wet pulp and then add other ingredients and mix it into a dough. The grain never actually becomes flour. With mine, I sprout the grain, then stabilize and dry it, and then mill those sprouted kernels into flour that can be bagged, stored, and shipped just like regular flour. It’s a totally different product.”

“But doesn’t sprouting the wheat compromise the gluten and damage the starch?” I asked. After all, millers had often warned me about this kind of starch damage. Although all flour has some starch damage that arises during harvest and storage, and also from the pounding the grain takes during the milling process, it falls within an acceptable range. Sometimes, during overly wet growing seasons or if stored wheat kernels are exposed to too much moisture prior to milling, starch damage can exceed acceptable levels. The resulting flour is either ruined or is considered inadequate for bread, as determined by its falling number (see Glossary, page 14). Using sprouted wheat, or any sprouted grain, to make flour seems to go against the conventional wisdom. In fact, the way Ezekiel and other bakeries that use sprouted wheat pulp get around this is by adding a relatively large amount of pure gluten, called vital wheat gluten, to the dough to provide structure. This allows the dough to bake up into what looks and tastes like bread made from regular flour.

Joe said, “You’d think sprouted wheat flour wouldn’t work for bread, but for some reason it does, and I’m not totally sure why. I need you to try this and tell me if I’m crazy, but the breads I’ve made from it are really good, and I haven’t needed to add any vital wheat gluten to it to make it work.”

A few days later, I received two boxes from Joe: one containing twenty-five pounds of Super Sprout wheat flour, and the other containing the Sprouted Ancient Grain blend. Joe advised me that the Super Sprout flour required greater hydration than regular whole wheat flour. “It really sucks up the water,” he said, then added, “I think the key to what makes it work for bread is that I’m using the best-quality high-protein wheat I can find. And that isn’t always easy, especially in the organic realm.”

As most bakers know, all wheat is not created equal. Plus, during growth and processing it’s subject to a number of factors that can create differences even in the same strain of wheat, such as amount of rainfall or irrigation, temperature, humidity, and soil quality. Hard wheat, aka high-protein wheat, can also vary in performance depending on whether the protein balance in the kernels is tilted more toward gliadin or glutenin, the two proteins that ultimately create gluten.
It was time for me to play with this flour and see for myself what Joe was getting so excited about. I mixed up a small batch of basic dough with about 85% water to Super Sprout flour. The water was quickly absorbed, and within a few minutes the dough seemed fairly firm—a little too firm actually. So I worked in some more water and ended up with a very soft, sticky dough that felt similar to ciabatta dough. When I did the math, I had used 14.6 ounces (416 g) of water, which, by weight, is 91.25% of the 16 ounces (454 g) of flour. That’s a lot! A typical white flour ciabatta has only about 75% to 80% water. Then, at five-minute intervals, I did a version of kneading involving four stretches and folds. Little by little, the dough firmed up into a supple, very tacky, pillow-like beauty. It had what I like to call bounce.

About three hours later—after a ninety-minute first rise, shaping, and a sixty-minute final rise, followed by thirty-five minutes of baking in my home oven on a baking stone, I tasted quite possibly the best 100% whole wheat bread I’d ever had. No sugar or honey, no oil, no pre-ferment, and no long, extended fermentation—just flour, water, salt, and yeast. Suddenly, the artisan playbook no longer applied, and this was just my first attempt. I had been prepared to add oil and honey, and maybe milk, to the second go-round, as I would for a standard 100% whole wheat dough, but even without these the bread was soft, moist, and creamy or, as some bakers say, custard-like. This mouthfeel, which I prize in bread, is usually the result of long fermentation and a very hot oven. It can also be accomplished by including fats, sugar, and eggs in the dough, but the holy grail of artisan baking is to get these qualities without resorting to enrichments, as is sometimes achieved in the best baguettes, levains, and ciabattas. It’s difficult to accomplish, though not impossible, with 100% whole wheat flour, and doing so usually entails using ample pre-ferments.

Later, I made several doughs using a combination of Lindley’s gluten-free Ancient Grain blend and the Super Sprout flour to create a multigrain version, finally settling on 20% Sprouted Ancient Grain to 80% Super Sprout. Eventually, I even came up with ways to use the ancient grain blend without any wheat at all, resulting in 100% gluten-free dough. In all cases, the natural sweetness and tenderness of the sprouted grain obviated the need for sweeteners or oils, though for loaf pan breads, soft dinner rolls, and sweet doughs, I did add some enrichments.

I was having a lot of fun with this flour, and I began to realize that I was standing on the threshold of the next frontier in bread. In the pages that follow, I’ll take you on my journey of discovery into this bread frontier. Along the way, I followed sprouted grain flour as if it were a breadcrumb trail, leading me to pulp made from sprouted grains, to millers and bakers who had controversial perspectives on baking with whole grains and wild yeast, and even back into the gluten-free world, which I explored in The Joy of Gluten-Free, Sugar-Free Baking. Along the way, I visited some arcane corners populated by unusual flours made from grape skins and seeds or from coffee cherries (the fruit that encloses coffee beans). It all adds up to an exciting time for bakers, ushered in by the emergence of sprouted grain flour and proving, once again, that bread is far from dead. Welcome to the new bread revolution!

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Table of Contents

Introduction 1
Chapter 1
Tutorial 7

Chapter 2
A Sourdough Primer 31

Chapter 3
Sprouted Flour Breads 45
Sprouted Wheat Pancakes 52
Sprouted Wheat or Spelt Quick Bread 55
Sprouted Wheat Quick Bread or Muffins 58
Sprouted Whole Wheat Bread 63
Sprouted Pain au Levain 66
Sprouted Rye Bread 70
Sprouted Wheat Pizza Dough 75
Gluten-Free Sprouted Flour Pizza Dough 79
Sprouted Wheat Focaccia 82
Sprouted Wheat Breakfast Focaccia 87
Sprouted Wheat Bagels 89
Sprouted Struan Bread 92
Sprouted Wheat Soft Rolls or Sandwich Bread 96
Sprouted Sandwich Rye Bread 99
Gluten-Free “Do No Harm” Sprouted Grain Bread 102
Sprouted Vollkornbrot 105
Sprouted Wheat Challah 108
Sprouted Multigrain Crackers 111
Gluten-Free Sprouted Grain Crackers 115
Sprouted Corn Bread 117
Gluten-Free Sprouted Corn Bread with Teff 119
Flaky Sprouted Wheat Biscuits 122
Sprouted Wheat Sweet Potato Brioche 124
Sprouted Wheat Cinnamon Buns and Sweet Rolls 128
Sprouted Wheat Croissants 133

Chapter 4
Sprouted Pulp Breads 139
Multigrain Sprouted Wheat Pulp Bread 143
Sprouted Emmer Pulp Power Bread 147
Sprouted Wheat Pulp Bread with Sprouted Multigrain Flour 150
Sprouted Kamut Pulp Bagels 152

Chapter 5
Whole Grains and Whole Milling 157
Whole-Milled Lean Dough French Bread 165
Whole-Milled Whole Wheat Ciabatta 168
Whole Wheat Currant Pretzels 173
Whole Wheat and Raisin English Muffins 178
High-Extraction Pain au Levain 183
Naturally Leavened Carolina Wheat Hearth Bread 186
Gluten-Free Many-Seed Toasting Bread 191
Gluten-Free Holiday Cookies 193
Gluten-Free Holiday Biscotti 196

Chapter 6
The Next New bread Frontier 199
Syrah Grape Skin Flour Olive Bread 206
Grape Skin Flour Rustic Sourdough with Sun-Dried Tomatoes, Roasted Garlic, and Carmody Cheese  209
Gluten-Free Focaccia 213
Grape Skin Flour Crackers 216
Cascara Seca Lean Bread 219
ProBiotein Lean Bread  222

Epilogue
Is the Road Less Traveled the Road Ahead? 225
Fragrant Peach, Apple, and
Pear Bread with “Peach Trap” Starter 228
Seeded Multigrain Hearth Bread with “Parmesan Trap” Starter 233
Mozzarella, Milk, and Pear Bread with “Coffee-Bean Trap” Starter 237

Resources 240
Acknowledgments 243
Index 244

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