Bridging the Gap / Edition 11

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Overview

Brenda Smith’s Bridging the Gap was the first college reading text to focus on reading for college, and through its eleven editions has been the most popular textbook choice of developmental reading educators.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205852062
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 1/24/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 11
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 180,936
  • Product dimensions: 7.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

LeeAnn Morris Bio

Dr. LeeAnn Morris has over 20 years of community college teaching experience and is committed to helping students achieve their college and career goals. She takes great satisfaction in continuing Brenda Smith’s legacy of excellence by shepherding Breaking Through: College Reading through its 9th and 10th editions and Bridging the Gap: College Reading through its 10th and soon to be published 11th editions.

LeeAnn is a Distinguished Faculty professor at San Jacinto College near Houston and has been honored there with the Outstanding Faculty Award. She served as chair of the College Preparatory Department and is delighted to return to the classroom fulltime this fall to teach two levels of integrated reading and writing courses.

LeeAnn is an avid reader and believer in the power and pleasure of lifelong reading. She has done extensive research on reading workshop approaches for college developmental reading students. She has witnessed the satisfaction and growth that come from reading often and widely and has incorporated the reading workshop concept into her teaching and into Breaking Through and Bridging the Gap.

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Table of Contents

Preface

An Overview of Bridging the Gap

Chapter 1: Active Learning

What is Active Learning?

What Are Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience?

How Does the Brain Screen Messages?

Brain Boosters

Brain Boosters: Are You Paying Attention?

Cognitive Styles

Cognitive Style Preferences

Global Versus Analytical

Sensory Learning Styles

Multiple Intelligences: There Is More Than One Way to Be Smart

What If I’m Not a Verbal or Logical Learner?

What is Concentration?

Poor Concentration: Cause and Cures

External Distractions

Internal Distractions

Brain Booster: Are You Curious?

Reader’s Tip: Improving Concentration

Successful Academic Behaviors

Reader’s Tip: Managing School and Work E-Mail

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SECTION 1: PSYCHOLOGY

Video: “Creativity”

“Becoming More Creative” By Carol Wade and Carol Tavris

Concept Prep for Psychology

SECTION 2: HISTORY

“Home Front Workers, Rosie the Riveter, and Victory Girls” by Jacqueline Jones, et al

Concept Prep for History

SECTION 3: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

“Volunteers Help protect the Environment” from www.peacecorps.gov

Chapter 2: Vocabulary

Remembering New Words

Brain Booster: Use Your Senses to Make More Sense!

Associate Words in Phrases

Associate Words with Rhymes or Sounds

Associate Words with Images

Associate Words in Families

Seek Reinforcement

Create Concept Cards

Using Context Clues

Definition or Synonym

Elaborating Details

Examples

Comparison

Contrast

Antonyms

Limitations of Context Clues

Multiple Meanings of a Word

Understanding the Structure of Words

Using a Dictionary

Using a Glossary

Using a Thesaurus

Brain Booster: Meaning Matters!

Word Origins

Using Analogies

Reader’s Tip: Categories of Analogy Relationships

Easily Confused Words

Recognizing Acronyms

Recognizing Transitional Words

Reader’s Tip: Types of Transitional Words

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

Vocabulary Booster: Over, Under, Around, and Through

Chapter 3: Strategic Reading and Study

What is Strategic Reading?

Four Types of Readers

The Stages of Reading

Stage 1: Strategies for Previewing

Signposts for Previewing

Reader’s Tip: Asking Questions Before Reading

Preview to Activate Schemata

Brain Booster: Schemata and Your Brain

Stage 2: Strategies for Integrating Knowledge with Reading

Integrating Ideas: How Do Good Readers Think?

Reader’s Tip: Using Thinking Strategies While Reading

Metacognition

Reader’s Tip: Developing Metacognition for Reading

Stage 3: Strategies for Recalling

Recalling Through Writing

The Three Steps of Recalling

Reader’s Tip: Recalling After Reading

Brain Booster: Use It To Remember It!

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SECTION 1: HISTORY

“Madam C.J. Walker: Business Savvy To Generous Philanthropy” from America.gov Archive

SECTION 2: HEALTH

“High-Risk Drinking and College Students” by Rebecca Donatelle

SECTION 3: BUSINESS

Video: TOMS Shoes: Changing the World

“TOMS Shoes” Be The Change You Want to See In the World” by Gary Armstrong and Philip Kotler

Concept Prep For Business

Vocabulary Booster: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Chapter 4: Main Idea

What is a Topic?

What is a Main Idea?

What are Supporting Details?

Distinguishing Topics, Main Ideas, and Details: A Closer Look

Strategies for Finding Main Idea

Prior Knowledge and Constructing the Main Idea

“Informed” Expert Readers

“Uninformed” Expert Readers

Identifying Main Ideas Among Sentences

Questioning for the Main Idea

Reader’s Tip: Using Questions for Find the Main Idea

Stated Main Ideas

The Topic Sentence

How Common Are Stated Main Ideas?

Where Are Stated Main Ideas Located?

What Are Major and Minor Details?

Reader’s Tip: Signals for Significance

Unstated Main Ideas

Unstated Main Ideas in Sentences

Unstated Main Ideas in Paragraphs

Interpreting the Main Idea of Longer Selections

Reader’s Tip: Getting the Main Idea of Longer Selections

Brain Booster: Brains Need the Right Amount Of Sleep

Summary Writing: A Main Idea Skill

Why Summarize?

Reader’s Tip: How to Summarize

Brain Booster: Chronic Stress and the Brain

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: PHYSCHOLOGY

Video: The Effects of Stress

“Coping With Stress” by Carol Wade and Carol Tavris

Concept Prep for Psychology

SELECTION 2: SHORT STORY

“On the Sidewalk Bleeding” by Evan Hunter

Concept Prep for Literature

SELECTION 3: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

“Fighting Violent Gang Crime with Math” by Stuart Wolpert

Vocabulary Booster: Who’s Who in Medicine?

Chapter 5: Patterns of Organization

Textbook Organization: The Big Picture

What do Transitional Words Do?

Words That Signal Addition

Words That Signal Examples or Illustrations

Words That Signal Time or Sequence

Words That Signal Comparison

Words That Signal Contrast

Words That Signal Cause and Effect

Reader’s Tip: Signal Words for Transition

Patterns of Organization in Textbooks

Simple Listing

Definition

Brain Booster: Brains Like Patterns

Description

Time Order, Sequence, or Narration

Comparison

Contrast

Comparison and Contrast

Cause and Effect

Classification

Addition

Summary

Location or Spatial Order

Generalization and Examples

Reader’s Tip: Patterns of Organization and Signal Words

Clues to the Organizational Pattern

Brain Booster: Watering the Brain

Mixed Organizational Patterns

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: NARRATIVE

“Instant Message, Instant Girlfriend” by Roger Hobs

SELECTION 2: HISTORY

“Women In History” by Leonard Pitt

Chapter 6: Organizing Textbook Information

The Demands of College Study

Building Knowledge Networks

The Study Process

Organizing Textbook Information

Brain Booster: Exercise to Boost Brain Power

Annotating

Why Annotate?

Reader’s Tip: How to Annotate

When to Annotate

Note Taking

The Cornell Method

Reader’s Tip: How to Take Notes: The Cornell Method

Outlining

Reader’s Tip: Guidelines for Successful Outlining

Brain Booster: Sleep and Problem Solving

Mapping

Reader’s Tip: How to Map

Summary Points

MyReaingLab

The Reading Workshop

SECTION 1: BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS

“Watch Your Language” by Gary Armstrong and Philip Kotler

Concept Prep for Communications and Language

SECTION 2: HEALTH

“Nutrition, Health, and Stress” by Barbara Brehm

Concept Prep for Health

SECTION 3: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Video: DNA and the Criminal Justice System

“Police DNA Collection Sparks Questions” by Carolyn Thompson

Vocabulary Booster: The Sun, The Moon, and The Stars

Chapter 7: Inference

What is an Inference?

What is Required to Make a Reasonable Inference?

Implied Meaning in Humor

Brain Booster: The Brain’s Pleasure Center and Learning

Connotative Language

Euphemisms and Politically Correct language

Figurative Language

Idioms

Similes

Metaphors

Literary Analogies

Hyperbole

Personification

Verbal Irony

Figurative Language in Poetry

More Types of Inferences

Inferences from Facts

Inferences About a Speaker or Narrator

Inferences Based on Action and Description

Using Prior Knowledge to Make Inferences

Brain Booster: Boost Brain Power Through Collaboration

Expanding Prior Knowledge

Drawing Conclusions

Reader’s Tip: Making Inferences

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: SHORT STORY

“A Dip in the Poole” by Bill Pronzini

Concept Prep for Philosophy and Literature

SELECTION 2: SHORT STORY

“The Mountain Man” by Thaddeus Rutowski

SELECTION 3: PERSONAL NARRATIVE

Video: Illiteracy in the United States

“Fear the College Years” from The Teacher Who Couldn’t Read: A Memoir by John Corcoran

Concept Prep for Political Science

Vocabulary Booster: Can I Get That In Writing?

Chapter 8: Point of View

Textbooks and Author’s Point of View

What is the Author’s Point of View?

What is Bias?

What is the Reader’s Point of View?

Brain Booster: Male and Female Brains and Their Points of View

What Are Fact and Opinion?

Reader’s Tip: Questions to Uncover Bias

What is the Author’s Purpose?

What is the Author’s Tone?

Reader’s Tip: Recognizing an Author’s Tone

Point of View in Editorial Cartoons

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: PHILOSOPHY

“Decision” by Gary Kirby and Jeffrey Goodpaster

SELECTION 2: SCIENCE

Video: Global Warming

“The Role of Humansin Global Warming” by Teresa Audesirk

SELECTION 3: HEALTH

“Steroids” by Rebecca J. Donatelle

Vocabulary Booster

Chapter 9: Critical Thinking

What is Thinking?

What is Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking Skills and College Goals

Reader’s Tip: Four Habits of Effective Critical Thinkers

Barriers to Critical Thinking

Recognizing an Argument

Steps in Analyzing and Evaluating and Argument

Step 1: Identify the Position on the Issue

Step 2: Identify the Support in the Argument

Step 3: Evaluate the Support

Reader’s Tip: Types of Support for Arguments

Step 4: Evaluate the Argument

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Applying the Four Steps of Critical Thinking

Explanation of the Four Steps

Creative and Critical Thinking

Brain Booster: The Creative Plan

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: ESSAY

Video: The Magic Number of Beauty

“The Importance of being Beautiful” by Sidney Katz

SELECTION 2: ESSAY

“Give the Ref a Gavel” by Eldon L. Ham

SELECTION 3: ESSAY

“How Boys Become Men” by John Katz

Vocabulary Booster: Lights, Camera, Action!

Chapter 10: Graphic Illustrations

What Graphics Do

Reader’s Tip: How to Read Graphic Material

Diagrams

Tables

Maps

Pie Graphs

Bar Graphs

Line Graphs

Flowcharts

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

SELECTION 1: PERSONAL NARRATIVE

“Little Income, Big Debt: Managing Money in College” by Trent Hamm

SELECTION 2: SCIENCE

Video: The American Diet

“The Risks and Benefits of Weight Loss Plans” by Campbell, et al.

SELECTION 3: SOCIOLOGY

“Technology and the Environment” by John J. Macionis

Vocabulary Booster: Play It Again, Sam

Chapter 11: Rate Flexibility

Why is Reading Rate Important?

What is Your Baseline Reading Rate?

Factors Affecting Reading Rate and Technique

Varying rate and technique to Fit Purpose

Rate Variations and Prior Knowledge

Brain Booster: Music to Our Ears and to Our Brains

Habits for Faster Reading

Concentrate

Stop Regressing

Expand Fixations

Stop Vocalizing

Preview

Use Your Pen as a Pacer

Push and Pace: Set a Time Goal

Skimming

Reader’s Tip: Techniques for Skimming

Scanning

Reader’s Tip: Techniques for Scanning

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

Vocabulary Booster: Foreign Terms

Chapter 12: Test Taking

Can Being Test Wise Improve Your Score?

Brain Booster: Balance Memorization and Application in Test Preparation

General Strategies for Mental and Physical Preparation

Before Taking a Test

Reader’s Tip: Preparing For a Test

During the Test

After the Test

Brain Booster: Turn Mistakes into Success

Strategies for Standardized Reading Tests

Anticipate What is Coming Next

Read Rapidly, but Don’t Allow Yourself to Feel Rushed

Read to Learn and Enjoy

Self-Test for the Main Idea

Consider All Alternatives Before Choosing an Answer

Recognizing the Major Question Types on Reading Comprehension Tests

Main Idea Questions

Detail Questions

Inference Questions

Author’s Purpose Questions

Vocabulary Questions

Strategies for Content Exams

Multiple-Choice, True-False, and Matching Items

Short-Answer Items

Essay Questions

Reader’s Tip: Key Words in Essay Questions

Locus of Control

Summary Points

MyReadingLab

The Reading Workshop

Appendix 1: ESL: Making Sense of Figurative Language and Idions

Reader’s Tip: Categorizing Idioms

Appendix 2: The Reading Workshop: Topics and formats for Book Discussion

Glossary

Index

Photo Credits

Text Credits

An Overview of Concept Preps (Inside Front Cover)

Progress Chart for Reading Selections (Inside Rear Cover)

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