Gordon Adams is a Professor of the Practice of International Affairs and Director of Security Policy Studies at the Elliott School of International Affairs, The George Washington University. He was Deputy Director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and Associate Director for National Security and International Affairs at the White House Office of Management Budget. He has written extensively on U.S. and European defense budgeting and planning and on transatlantic defense policy. Guy Ben-Ari is a consultant with the Defense Industrial Initiatives Group at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, where he specializes in U.S. and European defense technology policies. Prior to joining CSIS he was a research associate at the George Washington University's Center for International Science and Technology Policy and a consultant for the European Commission and the World Bank focusing on innovation policy and evaluation. John M. Logsdon is Director of the Space Policy Institute of The George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs, where he is a Professor of Political Science and International Affairs. He has written and published widely on US and international space policy and history. Ray A. Williamson is Research Professor of Space Policy and International Affairs at the Space Policy Institute of The George Washington University. He has published widely on space and satellite programs and edited Dual-Purpose Space Technologies: Opportunities and Challenges for U.S. Policymaking (Space Policy Institute). Previously, he was Senior Associate in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment.
Bridging the Gap: European C4ISR Capabilities and Transatlantic Interoperabilityby Gordon Adams, Guy Ben-Ari, John Logsdon, Ray Williamson
This study is the result of a two-year examination of the presumed defense technology gap between the United States and Europe that focused on information and communications technologies and their integration into military systems, which allow military forces to be networked from sensor to shooter and back in what has come to be called network centric warfare. These command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) technologies are at the heart of modern warfighting. They act not only as force multipliers for the military platforms into which they are integrated, but also as the means to better link different types of forces (air, sea, land). Moreover, they can connect forces of different nationalities, enabling interoperability and the efficient use of military resources. The study analyzes the deployed and planned C4ISR capabilities of seven European countries: France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden. Capabilities discussions are divided into command and control (C2), communications and computers, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). We examine the extent to which advanced C4ISR and network doctrines figure in the defense planning of these nations and explore the extent of interoperability within and between these national forces and between these forces and those of the United States. The study also examines the C4ISR doctrines and capabilities of the NATO alliance and C4ISR-related work being done under the aegis of the European Union (EU). European security space capabilities are discussed both within country chapters and in a separate chapter, because an increasing number of space programs is being undertaken at the multinational level. Furthermore, European space capabilities are significantly dual-use in nature, being developed and sponsored, in most cases, by non-defense ministries and multilateral institutions, but with important emerging defense applications.
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