A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments

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Overview

A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments prepares the reader to read and write the types of argument-related source-based writing they are most likely to encounter in college.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205568611
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 12/31/2008
  • Series: Pearson English Value Textbook Series Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 352
  • Sales rank: 159,982
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Ch. 1 What Makes an Academic Argument “Academic”?

What “Argument” Means in an Academic Setting

Context Is Everything: Understanding the Rhetorical Situation of Academic Arguments

Elements of the Rhetorical Situation

How the Elements of the Rhetorical Situation Are Interconnected

Reading: “Generation Q,” by Thomas L. Friedman

Qualities of Effective Academic Arguments

Effective Academic Arguments Are Clear and Precise

Effective Academic Arguments Are Well Supported

Effective Academic Arguments Are Properly Qualified

Effective Academic Arguments Are Placed in Context

Effective Academic Arguments Employ an Appropriate Voice and Tone

Effective Academic Arguments Follow Established Conventions

Effective Academic Arguments Are Sensitive to Audience Needs

Ch. 2 The Elements of Persuasive Academic Arguments

What Makes Academic Arguments Persuasive?

Logos: The Role of Logic and Reason in Academic Arguments

Claims

Grounds

Explanations

Qualifications

Rebuttals

Logos in Action: A Sample Argument

Sample Reading: Letter to the Editor

Common Logos-related Fallacies

Pathos: The Role of Emotion in Academic Arguments

Pathos in Action: A Sample Essay

Reading: “Perils and Promise: Destroy an Embryo, Waste a Life,” by Christopher H. Smith

How Pathos Can Help You Develop Content and Choose Language

How Pathos Can Help You Create a Bond with Your Audience

How Pathos Can Help You Communicate Your Own Emotional Investment in Your Argument

Common Pathos-related Fallacies

Ethos: The Role of the Writer’s Authority and Credibility in Academic Arguments

Establishing Ethos through Your Knowledge of the Topic

Establishing Ethos through Accurate Writing

Establishing Ethos by Being Open Minded, Honest, and Fair

Establishing Ethos by Following Conventions

Ethos in Action: A Sample Reading

Reading: “Embryo Ethics: The Moral Logic of Stem-cell Research,” by Michael J. Sandel

Common Ethos-related Fallacies

The Interrelatedness of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos

Ch. 3 Reading Academic Arguments Critically

A Process Approach to Critical Reading

Pre-reading Strategies

Reading: “Rank Colleges, but Rank Them Right,” by David Leonhardt

Comprehending Arguments

Sample Annotated Text

Analyzing Arguments

Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Author

Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Topic

Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Audience

Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Purpose

Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Occasion

Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Claims

Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Structure

Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Language

Evaluating Arguments

Evaluating the Quality of an Argument’s Claims

Evaluating the Quality of an Argument’s Grounds

Evaluating the Quality of an Argument’s Explanations

Evaluating the Quality of an Argument’s Rebuttals

Ch. 4 The Role of Claims in Academic Arguments

What Claims Are and What They Aren’t

Claims Are Debatable

Claims Are Substantive

Claims Are Sincere

Stating Claims Effectively

Effective Claims Are Precise

Effective Claims Are Clear

Effective Claims Are Properly Qualified

Effective Claims Are Affirmative

The Structure of Claims in Academic Arguments

The Process of Crafting Claims

Ch. 5 Supporting Claims

The Role of Reasons in Supporting Arguments

The Relationship between Claims and Reasons

Choosing Which Reasons to Include in an Argument

Choosing How Many Reasons to Include in an Argument

Organizing Reasons in Support of a Thesis

Note: Using First-person Point of View When Stating Reasons

The Role of Evidence in Supporting Arguments

Types of Evidence Commonly Employed in Academic Writing

What Makes Evidence Persuasive

The Role of Beliefs and Values in Supporting Arguments

Stating Beliefs and Values in Support of an Argument

Leaving Beliefs and Values Unstated in an Argument

Ch. 6 Explaining Your Argument

Connecting Claims, Reasons, and Evidence

Case in Point: The TV Courtroom Drama

Explaining Your Argument: An Exercise

What to Explain and How to Explain It

What Typically Needs Explanation

Explaining Arguments: An Example

Reading: “Student Cheating,” by Bill Puka

Ch. 7 Qualifying Claims and Rebutting Opposition in Academic Arguments

Why You Need to Qualify Your Claims in Academic Arguments

Qualified Claims Tend to Be More Honest Than Unqualified Claims

Qualified Claims Are Easier to Support Than Are Unqualified Claims

Qualified Claims Are More Difficult to Refute Than Are Unqualified Claims

Qualified Claims Conform to the Conventions of Academic Writing

Language Commonly Used to Qualify Claims

Addressing Opposition in Academic Arguments

Why It Is Important to Research and Address Opposing Views in Academic Arguments

Anticipating Opposition

Rebutting Opposition

Ch. 8 Working with Sources in Academic Arguments

Roles Sources Commonly Play in Academic Arguments

Provide Background Information

Support Claims

Present Opposing Views

Improve Ethos

Techniques Commonly Used to Integrate Source Material into Academic Arguments

Reading: “Regular Exercise and Weight Management: Myths and Reality,” Steven Jonas

Summarizing Material

Qualities of a Good Summary

Writing a Summary

Paraphrasing Material

When and Why to Paraphrase Material

Qualities of a Good Paraphrase

How to Paraphrase Material

Quoting Material

When and Why to Quote Material

How to Quote Material

Avoiding Plagiarism

Common Forms of Plagiarism in Academic Writing

Avoiding Problems with Plagiarism

Ch. 9 Working with the Visual Elements of Academic Arguments

Why It’s Important to Understand the Visual Elements of Arguments

How Visuals Function in Academic Arguments

Using Visuals to Make an Argument

Using Visuals to Support an Argument

Using Visuals to Make an Argument Easier to Understand

Reading Visual Texts Critically

Reading Pictures and Drawings

Reading Diagrams, Tables, and Graphs

Working with Pictures, Drawings, and Diagrams

Qualities of Effective Pictures, Drawings, and Diagrams

Working with Tables

Qualities of Effective Tables

Working with Graphs

Common Types of Graphs

Qualities of Effective Graphs

Working with Typographical Features of a Text

Effective Use of Typographical Features

Ch. 10 Writing Arguments: An Overview

Understanding the Rhetorical Situation of an Assignment

Working with Assigned Topics

Working with Open Topics

Choosing a Topic for an Argumentative Essay: A General Heuristic

Choosing a Topic for an Argumentative Essay: A Stasis-based Heuristic

Narrowing and Focusing a Topic

Investigating the Topic

Investigating a Topic through Reflection

Investigating a Topic through Research

Understanding the Role of Thesis Statements in Academic Writing

Choosing Among Possible Positions

Common Types of Thesis Statements in Academic Writing

Crafting a Thesis Statement: A Process Approach

Thesis Placement

Organizing an Argument

Opening and Closing Sections in Academic Arguments

Organizing the Body of Academic Arguments

Organizing Academic Arguments around Thesis Statements and Topic Sentences

Drafting an Argument

Composing Strategies: Three Common Models

BOX: Writing Habit Inventory

Overcoming Problems that Commonly Arise When Drafting Academic Arguments

Revising an Argument

Revising Content

Revising Structure

Revising Mechanics and Style

Revising Quoted and Paraphrased Material

Revising Documentation

Ch. 11 Writing Definition Arguments

What Are Definition Arguments?

Types of Definition Arguments

Stipulative Definitions

Categorical Definitions

Writing a Stipulative Definition Argument

A Model Process for Writing Stipulative Definition Arguments

Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Stipulative Definition Argument

Sample Student Essay: Stipulative Definition Argument

“What Is Global Warming,” by Cassandra Leigh Stemsky

Writing a Categorical Definition Argument

A Model Process for Writing Categorical Definition Arguments

Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Categorical Definition Argument

Sample Student Essay: Categorical Definition Argument

“Is Cheerleading a Sport? It Depends,” by Mike Allen

Additional Readings

“What Is Spirituality?” by Bruce W. Speck

“Why Spirituality Deserves a Central Place in Liberal Education,” by Alexander W. Astin

Ch. 12 Writing Causal Arguments

What Are Causal Arguments?

Forms of Arguments Focusing on Causes

Forms of Arguments Focusing on Effects

Types of Causes

Immediate and Remote Causes

Necessary and Sufficient Causes

Writing a Causal Argument

Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Causal Argument

Sample Student Essay: Causal Argument

“What Killed Off the Dinosaurs?” by Carlos Mendez

Chapter Summary

Additional Readings

“The Causes and Nature of Bullying and Social Exclusion in Schools,” by Maria el Mar Badia Martín

“Sugar and Spice and Puppy Dogs’ Tails: The Psychodynamics of Bullying,” by Ann Ruth Turkel

Ch. 13 Writing Proposal Arguments

What Are Proposal Arguments?

Key Elements of a Proposal Argument

Establishing the Problem

Identifying Possible Solutions

Evaluating Solutions

Establishing the Best Solution

Writing a Proposal Argument

A Model Process for Writing Proposal Arguments

Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Proposal Argument

Sample Student Essay: Proposal Argument

“Improving Student Retention at Mountain University,” by Janelle Jackson

Additional Readings

“How Should We Talk about Student Drinking—and What Should We Do about It?” by Alan David Berkowitz

“Alcohol Prohibition versus Moderation,” by Franklin B. Drohn and Brandon M. Pyc

Ch. 14 Writing Evaluation Arguments

What Are Evaluation Arguments?

Types of Evaluation Arguments

Aesthetic Evaluations

Functional Evaluations

Moral Evaluations

Mixed Evaluations

Elements of an Evaluation Argument

Topic or Subject

Criteria

Standards

Consistent Use of Criteria and Standards

Writing an Evaluation Argument

A Model Process for Writing Evaluation Arguments

Common Errors to Avoid When Writing an Evaluation Argument

Sample Student Essay: Evaluation Argument

“Keys to an Effective Shoe Ad,” by Lilly Boone

Additional Readings

“The Price of Free Speech: Campus Hate Speech Codes,” by Gerald Uelmen

“Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems,” by Cass R. Sunstein

Appendix 1: Revision Checklists

Stipulative Definition Argument

Categorical Definition Argument

Causal Argument

Proposal Argument

Evaluation Argument

Appendix 2: Annotated Bibliographies

Annotated Bibliographies

Definition and Purpose

Qualities of a Good Annotated Bibliography

Writing an Annotated Bibliography

Sample Annotated Bibliography

Index.

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