Broadband Circuits for Optical Fiber Communication / Edition 1

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This exciting publication makes it easy for readers to enter into and deepen their knowledge of the new and emerging field of broadband circuits for optical fiber communication. The author's selection and organization of material have been developed, tested, and refined from his many industry courses and seminars. Five types of broadband circuits are discussed in detail:

Transimpedance amplifiers

Limiting amplifiers

Automatic gain control (AGC) amplifiers

Lasers drivers

Modulator drivers

Essential background on optical fiber, photodetectors, lasers, modulators, and receiver theory is presented to help readers understand the system environment in which these broadband circuits operate. For each circuit type, the main specifications and their impact on system performance are explained and illustrated with numerical values. Next, the circuit concepts are discussed and illustrated with practical implementations. A broad range of circuits in MESFET, HFET, BJT, HBT, BiCMOS, and CMOS technologies is covered. Emphasis is on circuits for digital, continuous-mode transmission in the 2.5 to 40 Gb/s range, typically used in SONET, SDH, and Gigabit Ethernet applications. Burst-mode circuits for passive optical networks (PON) and analog circuits for hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) cable TV applications also are discussed.

Learning aids are provided throughout the text to help readers grasp and apply difficult concepts and techniques, including:

Chapter summaries that highlight the key points

Problem-and-answer sections to help readers apply their new knowledge

Research directions that point to exciting new technological breakthroughs on the horizon

Product examples that show the performance of actual broadband circuits

Appendices that cover eye diagrams, differential circuits, S parameters, transistors, and technologies

A bibliography that leads readers to more complete and in-depth treatment of specialized topics

This is a superior learning tool for upper-level undergraduates and graduate-level students in circuit design and optical fiber communication. Unlike other texts that concentrate on analog circuits in general or mostly on optics, this text provides balanced coverage of electronic, optic, and system issues. Professionals in the fiber optic industry will find it an excellent reference, incorporating the latest technology and discoveries in the industry.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The book, with its details and practical information, will certainly help advance optical fiber communication…a welcome reference book…" (IEEE Circuits & Devices, May/June 2006)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471712336
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/11/2005
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 456
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

EDUARD SÄCKINGER, PhD, is Principal Engineer for Mixed Signal Designs at Conexant Systems. For more than ten years, Dr. Säckinger worked at Bell Laboratories (AT&T and Lucent Technologies) in Holmdel, New Jersey, on integrated circuit research. He then joined Agere Systems where he was a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff developing broadband circuits for optical fiber communication. He has conducted seminars on broadband circuits for optical fiber communication at Agere Systems, Lucent Technologies, MEAD Microelectronics, and the VLSI Symposium. He also serves as an Associate Editor for the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits.

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Table of Contents

Preface vii

1 Introduction 1

2 Optical Fiber 11

2.1 Loss and Bandwidth 11

2.2 Dispersion 14

2.3 Nonlinearities 18

2.4 Pulse Spreading due to Chromatic Dispersion 19

2.5 Summary 22

2.6 Problems 23

3 Photodetectors 25

3.1 p-i-n Photodetector 25

3.2 Avalanche Photodetector 31

3.3 p-i-n Detector with Optical Preamplifier 34

3.4 Summary 40

3.5 Problems 42

4 Receiver Fundamentals 45

4.1 Receiver Model 45

4.2 Bit-Error Rate 47

4.3 Sensitivity 54

4.4 Personick Integrals 66

4.5 Power Penalty 70

4.6 Bandwidth 73

4.7 Adaptive Equalizer 82

4.8 Nonlinearity 86

4.9 Jitter 90

4.10 Decision Threshold Control 95

4.11 Forward Error Correction 96

4.12 Summary 100

4.13 Problems 101

5 Transimpedance Amplifiers 105

5.1 TIA Specifications 105

5.1.1 Transimpedance 105

5.1.2 Input Overload Current 107

5.1.3 Maximum Input Current for Linear Operation 108

5.1.4 Input-Referred Noise Current 108

5.1.5 Bandwidth and Group-Delay Variation 111

5.2 TIA Circuit Concepts 112

5.2.1 Low- and High-Impedance Front-Ends 112

5.2.2 Shunt Feedback TIA 113

5.2.3 Noise Optimization 121

5.2.4 Adaptive Transimpedance 130

5.2.5 Post Amplifier 132

5.2.6 Common-Base/Gate Input Stage 133

5.2.7 Current-Mode TIA 134

5.2.8 Active-Feedback TIA 135

5.2.9 Inductive Input Coupling 136

5.2.10 Differential TIA and Offset Control 137

5.2.11 Burst-Mode TIA 141

5.2.12 Analog Receiver 143

5.3 TIA Circuit Implementations 145

5.3.1 MESFET and HFET Technology 145

5.3.2 BJT, BiCMOS, and HBT Technology 147

5.3.3 CMOS Technology 149

5.4 Product Examples 151

5.5 Research Directions 151

5.6 Summary 154

5.7 Problems 156

6 Main Amplifiers 159

6.1 Limiting vs. Automatic Gain Control (AGC) 159

6.2 MA Specifications 161

6.2.1 Gain 161

6.2.2 Bandwidth and Group-Delay Variation 164

6.2.3 Noise Figure 165

6.2.4 Input Dynamic Range 169

6.2.5 Input Offset Voltage 171

6.2.6 Low-Frequency Cutoff 173

6.2.7 AM-to-PM Conversion 175

6.3 MA Circuit Concepts 176

6.3.1 Multistage Amplifier 176

6.3.2 Techniques for Broadband Stages 179

6.3.3 Offset Compensation 203

6.3.4 Automatic Gain Control 207

6.3.5 Loss of Signal Detection 211

6.3.6 Burst-Mode Amplifier 212

6.4 MA Circuit Implementations 213

6.4.1 MESFET and HFET Technology 213

6.4.2 BJT and HBT Technology 215

6.4.3 CMOS Technology 221

6.5 Product Examples 224

6.6 Research Directions 226

6.7 Summary 227

6.8 Problems 228

7 Optical Transmitters 233

7.1 Transmitter Specifications 234

7.2 Lasers 237

7.3 Modulators 247

7.4 Limits in Optical Communication Systems 253

7.5 Summary 256

7.6 Problems 257

8 Laser and Modulator Drivers 259

8.1 Driver Specifications 259

8.1.1 Modulation and Bias Current Range (Laser Drivers) 259

8.1.2 Output Voltage Range (Laser Drivers) 261

8.1.3 Modulation and Bias Voltage Range (Modulator Drivers) 261

8.1.4 Power Dissipation 263

8.1.5 Rise and Fall Times 264

8.1.6 Pulse-Width Distortion 265

8.1.7 Jitter Generation 265

8.1.8 Eye-Diagram Mask Test 267

8.2 Driver Circuit Concepts 268

8.2.1 Current-Steering Output Stage 268

8.2.2 Back Termination 273

8.2.3 Predriver 276

8.2.4 Pulse-Width Control 279

8.2.5 Data Retiming 280

8.2.6 Automatic Power Control (Lasers) 282

8.2.7 End-of-Life Detection (Lasers) 285

8.2.8 Automatic Bias Control (MZ Modulators) 286

8.2.9 Burst-Mode Laser Driver 287

8.2.10 Analog Laser/Modulator Driver 290

8.3 Driver Circuit Implementations 294

8.3.1 MESFET and HFET Technology 294

8.3.2 BJT and HBT Technology 297

8.3.3 CMOS Technology 302

8.4 Product Examples 305

8.5 Research Directions 305

8.6 Summary 308

8.7 Problems 309

Appendix A Eye Diagrams 313

Appendix B Differential Circuits 321

B.1 Differential Mode and Common Mode 322

B.2 The Modes of Currents and Impedances 324

B.3 Common-Mode and Power-Supply Rejection 325

Appendix C S Parameters 329

C.1 Definition and Simulation 329

C.2 Matching Considerations 333

C.3 Differential S Parameters 339

Appendix D Transistors and Technologies 343


D.2 Heterostructure FET (HFET) 348

D.3 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) 351

D.4 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) 355

Appendix E Answers to the Problems 359

Appendix F Notation 385

Appendix G Symbols 387

Appendix H Acronyms 399

References 407

Index 425

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