Broadband Video Networking

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Overview

Recent years have seen an exponential increase in video and multimedia traffic transported over the Internet and broadband access networks. This timely resource addresses the key challenge facing many service providers today: effective bandwidth management for supporting high-quality video delivery. Written by a recognized expert in the field, this practical book describes ways to optimize video transmission over emerging broadband networks. Moreover, the book explores new wireless access networks that can enable...

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3D and HD Broadband Video Networking

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Overview

Recent years have seen an exponential increase in video and multimedia traffic transported over the Internet and broadband access networks. This timely resource addresses the key challenge facing many service providers today: effective bandwidth management for supporting high-quality video delivery. Written by a recognized expert in the field, this practical book describes ways to optimize video transmission over emerging broadband networks. Moreover, the book explores new wireless access networks that can enable video connectivity both inside and outside the residential premise. This unique reference covers a wide range of critical topics, from the H.264 standard, error concealment methods for improving video quality, and video traffic smoothing and multiplexing, to supporting compressed video applications over DOCSIS cable networks, intelligent activity detection techniques for advanced video surveillance systems, and hand gesture control for broadband-enabled HDTVs and multimedia PCs.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781608070510
  • Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 8/28/2010
  • Pages: 400
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Benny Bing is a research faculty member in the School of ECE at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He has published over 70 technical papers and 10 books. He is also an editor for the IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE and an IEEE Communications Society Distinguished Lecturer. He is the author of High-Speed Wireless ATM and LANs (Artech House, 2000).

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Empowering High-Quality Digital Video Delivery 1

1.1 Wither the Set-Top Box and Digital Video Recorder? 1

1.2 The Rise of HD and 3D Video 2

1.3 Video Content Distribution 3

1.4 Content Quality versus Video Quality 7

1.5 Multiscreen Video 9

1.6 Mobile Video 11

1.7 Streaming Protocols 13

1.8 The User-TV Interface 14

1.9 Conclusions 14

References 15

Exercises 15

2 The Access and Home Networks 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 IPTV over DSL 22

2.3 Broadband Cable Networks 22

2.3.1 DOCSIS Standard 23

2.3.2 Switched Cable Services 25

2.4 Transport and Streaming Protocols 29

2.4.1 Real-Time Transport Protocol 29

2.4.2 Real-Time Transport Control Protocol 29

2.4.3 Real-Time Transport Streaming Protocol 29

2.4.4 Real-Time Messaging Protocol 30

2.4.5 TCP and HTTP 31

2.4.6 TCP Operation in an Access Network 32

2.4.7 UDP Operation in an Access Network 33

2.4.8 Optimizing TCP Operation on the Internet 33

2.4.9 Optimizing Transport Protocols for Video Streaming 34

2.5 Link Quality Measurement 34

2.6 MPEG Video Encapsulation 37

2.7 IP Multicast 39

2.7.1 Mechanisms 40

2.7.2 Internet Group Management Protocol 41

2.7.3 Multicast Routing Protocols 41

2.7.4 Challenges for Multicast Access Networks 42

2.7.5 Peer-to-Peer Multicast 43

2.7.6 Robust Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming 45

2.8 Quality of Experience versus Quality of Service 46

2.8.1 Packet Losses versus Packet Errors 46

2.8.2 Codec Losses 46

2.8.3 Network Coding and Fountain Codes 47

2.8.4 Free Video Previews and Video Pausing 47

2.9 Home Entertainment Networks 48

2.9.1 Display Technologies 48

2.9.2 High-Speed Digital Interfaces 49

2.9.3 Emerging Wireless Home Network Standards 49

2.10 The Metro Network and Broadband Convergence 50

2.10.1 Provider Backbone Bridges 51

2.10.2 Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering 51

2.10.3 Carrier-Class Ethernet OAM Tools 51

2.10.4 Next-Generation Network Migration 52

2.11 Conclusions 53

References 54

Selected Bibliography 54

Exercises 55

3 Video Fundamentals 57

3.1 Display Resolution and Visual Quality 57

3.1.1 Serial Digital Interface 58

3.2 Video Compression 58

3.3 Video Containers 60

3.3.1 Advanced Audio Coding 61

3.4 H.264 and VC-1 Standards 62

3.5 H.264 Architecture 63

3.5.1 Video Coding and Network Abstraction Layers 65

3.5.2 VCL and NAL Packetization 66

3.5.3 An RFC 3984 H.264 Transport Framework 67

3.6 Fundamental H.264 and VC-1 Benefits 69

3.6.1 Spatial, Temporal, and Bit Rate Scalability 69

3.6.2 Error Resilience 70

3.6.3 Error Concealment 72

3.7 H.264 versus MPEG-2, VC-1, and VP8 74

3.7.1 Entropy Coding 74

3.7.2 Block Size 75

3.7.3 In-Loop Deblocking 75

3 7 4 Motion Compensation, Estimation, and Prediction 76

3.7.5 Multiple Reference Frames 78

3.7.6 Multiview Coding 79

3.8 Efficient Video Network Transport 79

3.8.1 Dealing with Packet Corruption 80

3 8.2 Selective Information Dropping 80

3.8.3 Impact on Perceived Video Quality 82

3.9 H.264 Encoding Parameters 83

3.10 Quantization 84

3.11 Video Delivery Platforms 86

3.12 Online versus PayTV Viewing 87

3.13 Video Quality Assessment 87

3 13.1 Subjective versus Objective Metrics 88

3.13.2 Peak Signal to Noise Ratio 89

3.13.3 Structural Similarity Index 91

3.13.4 Czenakowski Distance (CZD) 91

3.13.5 Observable versus Perceptual Visual Artifacts 92

3.14 CBR versus VBR Encoding 93

3.15 Scalable Video Coding 97

3.16 Conclusions 98

References 98

Exercises 99

4 The H.264 Standard 105

4.1 Profiles and Levels 105

4.2 CABAC versus CAVLC 109

4.2.1 CABAC and CAVLC under VBR Mode 110

4.2.2 CABAC and CAVLC under CBR Mode 111

4.3 Rate Distortion Optimization 112

4.3.1 RDO under VBR 113

4.3.2 RDO under CBR 113

4.4 Flexible Macroblock Ordering 115

4.4.1 Overheads 116

4.4.2 FMO Operating under CBR 119

4.5 Conclusions 119

References 120

Exercises 121

5 Short-Term H.264 Bandwidth Prediction 123

5.1 Introduction 123

5.2 Statistical Characteristics of H.264 Coded Videos 125

5.3 Problem Formulation 127

5.4 Traffic Model for B Frame Size Prediction 130

5.5 Results and Discussion 132

5.6 Model Enhancements 134

5.7 Results and Discussion 136

5.8 Traffic Model for GOP Size Prediction 137

5.9 Model Enhancement with Predicted Scene Change Defector 139

5.10 SAD Method for Scene Change Detection and Adaptation 141

5.11 Conclusions 143

References 143

Exercises 144

6 Long-Term H.264 Bandwidth Prediction 145

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Long-Range Dependency and Hurst Parameter 146

6.3 Model Formulation 150

6.4 Impact of Video Quality and Video Coding Standard 153

6.4.1 Impact of Different QP Values 153

6.4.2 Impact of Using the Same QP Value 155

6.4.3 Global Comparison of MPEG-2 and H.264 156

6.4.4 Impact of Multiplexing H.264 Videos 156

6.5 Conclusions 157

References 158

Appendix: Traffic Modeling 158

Exercises 160

7 Lossless FMO Removal for H.264 Videos 163

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 FMO Removal 164

7.3 Visual Quality Performance Evaluation 168

7.4 Using Multiple Slices 169

7.5 Overheads 170

7.6 Conclusions 174

References 175

8 Error Concealment Methods for Improving Video Quality 177

8.1 Introduction 177

8.2 Error Concealment for HD Videos 178

8.2.1 Results 180

8.2.2 FMO Overheads 183

8.3 Error Concealment for SD Videos 183

8.4 Temporal Error Concealment 183

8.4.1 Algorithm 184

8.4.2 Performance Evaluation 185

8.5 Conclusions 186

Exercises 187

9 Video Traffic Smoothing and Multiplexing 189

9.1 Introduction 189

9.2 Basics of Video Smoothing 190

9.3 A Video Smoothing Algorithm 193

9.4 Live HD Video Streaming 195

9.4.1 Raw Streaming 197

9.4.2 Progressive Streaming 198

9.4.3 Frame Smoothed Streaming 198

9.5 Impact of Player's Buffer Size 199

9.6 Impact of Transport Protocols 200

9.7 Peak to Average Rate 204

9.8 Multiplexing of Composite VBR Videos 208

9.9 Conclusions 214

References 215

Exercises 215

10 Intelligent Policy Resource Management 219

10.1 Introduction 219

10.2 Policy-Based Approach to Bandwidth Management 220

10.2.1 Scheduling Methods 221

10.2.2 Surplus Bandwidth 221

10.3 Intelligent Resource Management (IRM) 222

10.4 Performance Analysis 224

10.4.1 OPNET Simulation Setup for a Cable Network 224

10.4.2 Dynamic Bandwidth Limitation 224

10.4.3 Implementation and Measured Results 226

10.5 Conclusions 229

References 229

Appendix: Optimized MAP Throughput 230

Exercises 232

11 Supporting Compressed Video Applications over DOCSIS Cable Networks 233

11.1 Introduction 233

11.2 Measured Performance of a DOCSIS Cable Network 234

11.2.1 Experimental Setup 235

11.2.2 Measured Results 235

11.3 A QoS Model for the CMTS Scheduler 238

11.4 Peer-to-Peer File Sharing 239

11.5 Real-Time Peer-to-Peer Streaming 240

11.6 Video-Aware DOCSIS 3.0 Architecture 244

11.7 Program Scheduling Challenges 244

11.8 Simulation Model and Results 246

11.9 Conclusions 249

References 249

Exercises 250

12 Intelligent Activity Detection Techniques for Advanced Video Surveillance Systems 251

12.1 Introduction 251

12.2 System Overview 252

12.2.1 Suspicious Activity Detection 252

12.2.2 Human Fall Detection 254

12.3 Experimental Results 256

12.3.1 Suspicious Activity Detection 256

12.3.2 Human Fall Detection 258

12.3.3 Shadow Removal Enhancement 259

12.4 Conclusions 261

References 261

13 Hand Gesture Control for Broadband-Enabled HDTVs and Multimedia PCs 263

13.1 Introduction 263

13.1.1 Related Work 264

13.2 Gesture Matching Methods 266

13.2.1 Motion Pattern Matching 266

13.2.2 Skin Color Matching and Fourier's Descriptors 268

13.3 Using H.264 Motion Vectors for Motion Tracking 270

13.3.1 Histogram Matching for Trajectory Recognition 272

13.4 Hand Tracking for Mouse Cursor Control 274

13.4.1 Trajectory Formation Using Motion History 277

13.4.2 Using the Global Motion Vector to Track Trajectory 277

13.4.3 Scrolling When User is Located at Varying Distances 278

13.4.4 Experimental Setup 280

13.4.5 Comparison of Trajectory Tracking Methods 280

13.5 Hand Reference Extraction Using a Stereo 3D Webcam 281

13.6 Conclusions 282

References 283

Glossary 285

About the Author 291

Index 293

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  • Posted January 2, 2012

    EXCELLENT BROADBAND VIDEO BOOK!!

    Are you a cable, DSL and wireless provider? If you are, then this book is for you. Author Benny Bing, has done an outstanding job of writing a book that addresses the key challenges facing cable, DSL and wireless providers, in delivering high quality next-generation video. Bing, begins this book by evaluating some game-changing trends in broadband TV. Next, the author focuses on cable access networks and their evolution to a switched digital video architecture to support high-speed information and entertainment delivery. Then, he discusses how the physical layer performs a number of processes. In addition, the author covers several important aspects of video compression, network transport, error resilience, video quality assessment, and an overview of emerging standards such as H.264, VC-1, and VP8. He also provides experimental insights into the key features of the H.264 standard and illustrates how the strengths of different capabilities can be harnessed in a complementary fashion. Then, he analyzes the bandwidth requirements of H.264 video traffic by analyzing the traffic pattern of the group of pictures of the video, the autocorrelation of the trace of B frames, and the cross-correlation between the trace of B frames and the trace of I and P frames. The author then analyzes the long-range dependency or self-similarity of MPEG video traffic and evaluates the accuracy of a new long-term traffic prediction model. Next, he presents a new lossless scheme to remove the FMO structure from H.264-encoded videos to allow playback on any H.264 decoder/player. The author then continues by presenting some error concealment schemes for videos encoded using the H.264 and VC-1 codecs. Also, the author presents methods to improve the efficiency and performance of 2D and #D HD video streaming over the Internet. Next, he describes the use of resource allocation and bandwidth management techniques when applied to broadband access networks, focusing on how bandwidth resources can be intelligently scheduled and managed for different traffic types. Then, the author presents the key issues and challenges associated with the optimization of switched digital video and video-on-demand services for DOCSIS 3.0 Hybrid-Fiber Coax cable access network. In addition, he presents two applications of an advanced surveillance system, specifically in suspicious activity detection and human fall detection, for both indoor and outdoor environments. Finally, the author presents the development of a gesture-based user interface that gives the consumer unrivaled living-room experience while enjoying premium-quality videos. This most excellent book delivers high quality next-generation video and discusses solutions to enhance customer satisfaction via improved quality of experience and service. More importantly, this book describes techniques that can be exploited to enhance video transmission over a broad range of networks.

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