Brock Biology of Microorganisms / Edition 13

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Overview

The authoritative #1 textbook for introductory majors microbiology, Brock Biology of Microorganisms continues to set the standard for impeccable scholarship, accuracy, and outstanding illustrations and photos. This book for biology, microbiology, and other science majors balances cutting edge research with the concepts essential for understanding the field of microbiology.

In addition to a new co-author, David Stahl, who brings coverage of cutting edge microbial ecology research and symbiosis to a brand new chapter (Chapter 25), a completely revised overview chapter on Immunology (Chapter 28), a new "Big Ideas" section at the end of each chapter, and a wealth of new photos and art make the Thirteenth Edition better than ever. Brock Biology of Microorganisms speaks to today’s students while maintaining the depth and precision science majors need.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
**** New edition of a time-tested text, cited in BCL3, and previously carrying the title Biology of Microorganisms. Thomas D. Brock, the architect of the first seven editions, has passed the torch to three co-authors. Intended as an introductory text, providing well-organized, in-depth information in a nicely designed and illustrated format. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From The Critics
The tenth edition of this text is reorganized into six units on principles of microbiology, evolutionary microbiology and microbial diversity, immunology and pathogenicity, microbial diseases, and microorganisms as tools for industry and research. There are seven new chapters on topics including microbial genomics, viruses, methods in microbial ecology, immunology, and microbial disease. The revised art program features many color micrographs, and links for Web site tutorials are given at specific points in chapters. Other learning features include glossary terms, concept checks, and boxes on applications and historical perspectives. Madigan teaches microbiology at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321649638
  • Publisher: Benjamin Cummings
  • Publication date: 12/31/2010
  • Edition number: 13
  • Pages: 1152
  • Sales rank: 345,154
  • Product dimensions: 9.80 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Michael T. Madigan received his B.S. in Biology and Education from Wisconsin State University Stevens Point (1971) and his M.S. (1974) and Ph.D. (1976) in Bacteriology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. His graduate research was on the hot spring bacterium Chloroflexus in the laboratory of Thomas Brock. Following a three-year postdoctoral in the Department of Microbiology, Indiana University, Mike moved to Southern Illinois University Carbondale, where he has been a professor of microbiology for 32 years. He has coauthored Biology of Microorganisms since the fourth edition (1984) and teaches courses in introductory microbiology, bacterial diversity, and diagnostic and applied microbiology. In 1988 Mike was selected as the Outstanding Teacher in the College of Science and in 1993, the Outstanding Researcher. In 2001 he received the SIUC Outstanding Scholar Award. In 2003 he received the Carski Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching from the American Society for Microbiology. Mike’s research is focused on bacteria that inhabit extreme environments, and for the past 12 years he has studied the microbiology of permanently ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In addition to his research papers, he has edited a major treatise on phototrophic bacteria and served for over a decade as chief editor of the journal Archives of Microbiology. He currently serves on the editorial board of Environmental Microbiology. Mike’s nonscientific interests include forestry, reading, and caring for his dogs and horses. He lives beside a peaceful and quiet lake with his wife, Nancy, five shelter dogs (Gaino, Snuffy, Pepto, Peanut, and Merry), and four horses (Springer, Feivel, Gwen, and Festus).

John M. Martinko received his B.S. in Biology from Cleveland State University. He then worked at Case Western Reserve University, conducting research on the serology and epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes. His doctoral work at the State University of New York at Buffalo investigated antibody specificity and antibody idiotypes. As a postdoctoral fellow, he worked at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York on the structure of major histocompatibility complex proteins. Since 1981, he has been in the Department of Microbiology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale where he was Associate Professor and Chair, and Director of the Molecular Biology, Microbiology, and Biochemistry Graduate Program. He retired in 2009, but remains active in the department as a researcher and teacher. His research investigates structural changes in major histocompatibility proteins. He teaches an advanced course in immunology and presents immunology and host defense lectures to medical students. He also chairs the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at SIUC. He has been active in educational outreach programs for pre-university students and teachers. For his educational efforts, he won the 2007 SIUC Outstanding Teaching Award. He is also an avid golfer and cyclist. John lives in Carbondale with his wife Judy, a high school science teacher.

David A. Stahl received his B.S. degree in Microbiology from the University of Washington, Seattle, later completing graduate studies in microbial phylogeny and evolution with Carl Woese in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Subsequent work as a postdoctoral fellow with Norman Pace, then at the National Jewish Hospital in Colorado, focused on early applications of 16S rRNA-based sequence analysis to the study of natural microbial communities. In 1984 Dave joined the faculty at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, holding appointments in Veterinary Medicine, Microbiology, and Civil Engineering. In 1994 he moved to the Department of Civil Engineering at Northwestern University, and in 2000 returned to his alma mater, the University of Washington, Seattle, as a professor in the Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Microbiology. Dave is known for his work in microbial evolution, ecology, and systematics–receiving the 1999 Bergey Award and the 2006 Procter & Gamble Award in Applied and Environmental Microbiology from the ASM. His main research interests are the biogeochemistry of nitrogen and sulfur compounds and the microbial communities that sustain these nutrient cycles. His laboratory was first to culture ammonia-oxidizing Archaea, a group now believed to be the main mediators of this key process in the nitrogen cycle. He has taught several courses in environmental microbiology, is one of the co-founding editors of the journal Environmental Microbiology, and has served on many advisory committees. Outside teaching and the lab, Dave enjoys hiking, bicycling, spending time with family, reading a good science fiction book, and, with his wife Lin, renovating an old farmhouse on Bainbridge Island, Washington.

David P. Clark grew up in Croydon, a London suburb. He won a scholarship to Christ’s College, Cambridge, where he received his B.A. degree in Natural Sciences in 1973. In 1977 he received his Ph.D. from Bristol University, Department of Bacteriology, for work on the effect of cell envelope composition on the entry of antibiotics into Escherichia coli. He then left England on a postdoctoral studying the genetics of lipid metabolism in the laboratory of John Cronan at Yale University. A year later he moved with the same laboratory to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. David joined the Department of Microbiology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale in 1981. His research has focused on the growth of bacteria by fermentation under anaerobic conditions. He has published numerous research papers and graduated over 20 Masters and Doctoral students. In 1989 he won the SIUC College of Science Outstanding Researcher Award. In 1991 he was the Royal Society Guest Research Fellow at the Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Sheffield University, England. In addition to Brock Biology of Microorganisms, David is the author of four other science books: Molecular Biology Made Simple and Fun, now in its fourth edition; Molecular Biology: Understanding the Genetic Revolution; Biotechnology: Applying the Genetic Revolution; and Germs, Genes, & Civilization: How Epidemics Shaped Who We Are Today. David is unmarried and lives with two cats, Little George, who is orange and very nosey, and Mr. Ralph, who is mostly black and eats cardboard.

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Table of Contents

I. PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGY

1. Microorganisms and Microbiology

2. A Brief Journey to the Microbial World

3. Cell Structure and Function in Bacteria and Archaea

II. METABOLISM AND GROWTH

4. Nutrition, Culture, and Metabolism of Microorganisms

5. Microbial Growth

III. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENE EXPRESSION

6. Molecular Biology of Bacteria

7. Archael and Eukaryotic Molecular Biology

8. Regulation of Gene Expression

IV. VIROLOGY, GENETICS, AND GENOMICS

9. Viruses and Virology

10. Genetics of Bacteria and Arachaea

11. Genetic Engineering

12. Microbial Genomics

V. METABOLIC DIVERSITY AND COMMERICAL BIOCATALYSES

13. Phototrophy, Chemolithotrophy, and Major Biosyntheses

14. Catabolism of Organic Compounds

15. Commercial Products and Biotechnology

VI. MICROBIAL EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY

16. Microbial Evolution and Systematics

17. Bacteria: The Proteobacteria

18. Other Bacteria

19. Archaea

20. Eukaryotic Cell Biology and Eukaryotic Microorganisms

21. Viral Diversity

VII. Microbial Ecology

22. Methods in Microbial Ecology

23. Major Microbial Habitats and Diversity

24. Nutrient Cycles, Biodegradation, and Bioremediation

25. Microbial Symbioses

VIII. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND PATHOGENICITY

26. Microbial Growth Control

27. Microbial Interactions with Humans

IX. IMMUNOLOGY

28. Immunity and Host Defense

29. Immune Mechanisms

30. Molecular Immunology

X. DIAGNOSING AND TRACKING MICROBIAL DISEASES

31. Diagnostic Microbiology and Immunology

32. Epidemiology

XI. HUMAN- AND ANIMAL-TRANSMITTED INFECTIOUS DISEASES

33. Person-to-Person Microbial Diseases

34. Vectorborne and Soilborne Microbial Pathogens

XII. COMMON SOURCE INFECTIOUS DISEASE

35. Wastewater Treatment, Water Purification, and Waterborne Microbial Diseases

36. Food Preservation and Foodborne Microbial Diseases

Appendices 1 and 2

Glossary

Index

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Introduction

Microbiology is a biological science that has effectively wedded the old and the new. Some of the basic techniques of microbiology discovered over 100 years ago—the isolation of pure cultures, for example—are still practiced with regularity in the laboratory today. But today's microbiologists are also armed with sophisticated tools that facilitate detailed molecular analyses of microbial cells. These tools have fueled new ,discoveries that are thrusting microbiology into the limelight of disciplines as diverse as medicine, agriculture, and ecology. It is within this exciting period in microbiology that we present the tenth edition of Brock Biology of Microorganisms (BBOM), a textbook of microbiology that blends fundamental principles (the old) with state-of-the-art science (the new) in a format that will appeal to both students and instructors.

What's New? Organization

This edition of BBOM contains many new organizational features that will help students better master the material and help instructors prepare stimulating presentations for the classroom. First, the book has been extensively reorganized into six major units: (1) Principles of Microbiology; (2) Evolutionary Microbiology and Microbial Diversity; (3) Metabolic Diversity and Microbial Ecology; (4) Immunology, Pathogenicity, and Host Responses; (5) Microbial Diseases; and (6) Microorganisms as Tools for Industry and Research. Each unit consists of several chapters whose content define the themes. Unit 1, The Principles, forms the heart of the general microbiology course as currently envisioned by the Education Division of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM); in otherwords, Unit 1 is the "core" material that every student should know. Included for the first time in this unit is an overview chapter (Chapter 2) on microbial diversity that introduces the major groups of microorganisms and their evolutionary relationships. This chapter will allow instructors who emphasize the medical or molecular aspects of microbiology the opportunity to give their students a taste of microbial diversity without the details. This chapter also covers some of the basic aspects of cell structure /function and is written in such a way that only a minimal background in chemistry and biology is necessary to follow the story.

Other chapters that have been revamped in Unit 1 include Chapters 9 and 10. Compared with previous editions of BBOM, Chapter 9 (Essentials of Virology) has been restructured and downsized to place emphasis on the essential concepts of virology, instead of viral diversity. The latter material still exists, however, in the new Chapter 16 (Bacterial, Plant and Animal Viruses), for those instructors who wish to explore viral diversity in more detail. Another substantially reorganized chapter is Chapter 10, Bacterial Genetics. This chapter has been rewritten from two major standpoints, microbial genetics as it occurs in the intact organism (in vivo) and microbial genetics as it is practiced in vitro. To accomplish the latter, some material from the biotechnology chapter has been reworked and moved to this new chapter on genetics. Thus, Chapter 10 better reflects bacterial genetics as it is actually practiced today—a blend of in vivo and in vitro science.

As has been a tradition with BBOM, the material in each chapter is broken into several numbered heads to assist instructors in assigning reading material. But in addition, in parallel to the unit concept that pervades organization at the level of the entire book, the numbered heads within a chapter are themselves grouped into major themes. The latter are signaled by red headings set in all caps, and were introduced in this edition to better group related material within a chapter into logical pieces.

In summary then, the tenth edition of BBOM is organized to capture and distill the basics while deploying the full story of the science at those points where it will have maximum impact. The authors and publishers are confident that this new format will make BBOM 10/e an even stronger resource for students and instructors alike.

Content

Every three years the authors of this book face one major question: how do we add new material and still keep the book within bounds? Longtime users of BBOM will immediately recognize that the tenth edition is essentially no longer than the ninth. This feat was accomplished by balancing the needs of the new material with a careful reevaluation of the old. Nothing essential to a fundamental understanding of microbiology-has been deleted from BBOM; the tenth edition is still a book built on basic principles and strong science. But streamlining of some chapters along with a first-class art program has given the authors the space necessary to paint an up-to-the-minute picture of the science of microbiology in a volume that does not require weight training to lift off the table.

Several totally new chapters will be found in BBOM 1%. The new overview of microbial diversity chapter (Chapter 2) and the viral diversity chapter (Chapter 16) have already been mentioned in this regard. Also new to this edition are Chapter 15 (Microbial Genomics);Chapter 18 (Methods in Microbial Ecology); Chapter 22 (Essentials of Immunology); Chapter 23 (Molecular Immunology); Chapter 27 (Animal-Transmitted, Arthropod-Transmitted, and Soilborne Microbial Diseases); Chapter 28 (Wastewater Treatment, Water Purification, and Waterborne Microbial Diseases); and Chapter 29 (Food Preservation and Foodborne Microbial Diseases). All of these areas are "hot topics" in microbiology today and needed increased visibility and expanded coverage. These new chapters should accomplish just that.

The genomic revolution has transformed microbiology into anew science almost overnight. For the first time, scientists can inspect, almost in a routine fashion now, the entire genetic blueprint of a microorganism, and then compare the blueprint with those of other organisms, from viruses to humans. Genomics has revealed the great genetic unity and diversity of living organisms and has opened the door to new advancements in every discipline of biology. And combined with proteomic analyses, scientists can now ask sophisticated questions about gene expression in ways never before possible. Chapter 15 in BBOM 10/e tells the genomic story, but goes well beyond just listing organisms whose genomes have been sequenced. The chapter explains what genomics is, how the reams of DNA sequence data that are being generated can be used, and what the genomic revolution has revealed thus far in terms of both the genomic and proteomic capacities of key microorganisms.

The new chapters in immunology were written to provide both the basics and the details of this important science. Chapter 22 (Essentials of Immunology) presents the basic principles of immunology without delving into too much detail. This chapter should therefore be a very student-friendly and readily teachable overview of immunology. We reserve the molecular details of immunology for the rather short Chapter 23. This chapter places the essentials material (Chapter 22) within a molecular context for those students and instructors whose background and interests support the study of immunology at this level. In Chapter 24 (Clinical Microbiology and Immunology) we have expanded our coverage of immunoassays to include more information about the basic mechanisms behind precipitation, agglutination, and antibody production. For those instructors who teach immunology only as a diagnostic or investigative tool, we have also included a very short summary of immune principles here. Thus, with the material on immunology organized as it is, the science of immunology can be integrated into introductory microbiology classes at all levels.

The new chapters in medical microbiology are expansions of this material originally covered in only two chapters in previous editions. This has given the authors the opportunity to develop this important material in a more thorough way. And in this day and age where foodborne and waterborne illnesses are major public health problems (even in developed countries), and new threats to health and security, such as bioterroism, are a fact of life, the unit on medical microbiology and immunology will be both a source of basic principles and a reference for keeping up with events in the news.

In summary, long-time users of BBOM will find the tenth edition to be the reliable friend they've always known. New users will find it to be the most current, accurate, and complete coverage of microbiology available in a textbook today. Coupled with an excellent set of teaching aids (see below) BBOM 10/e should set the standard in the field for years to come.

Pedagogical Aids

Art and photos are the mainstay of any textbook in the biological sciences. And frankly speaking, we think BBOM 10/e has the best in the business in both regards. The art program has once again been delivered by Imagineering of Toronto, Canada. Virtually every piece of art has seen some modification in order to maximize its impact and clarity. Some stylistic improvements have also been introduced into the art program, including a beautiful new rendering of all graphs in the book. High quality photos and photomicrographs have been a mainstay in Biology of Microorganisms since the first edition appeared in 1970, and BBOM 10/e proudly carries on this tradition with the inclusion of nearly 50 new B&W and color photos. And, as usual, these photos have been supplied by top researchers in the field.

BBOM 10/e once again employs a variety of student study aids to weave together the concepts and strengthen the learning experience. Instead of placing summary and quiz material only at the end of a chapter (as many textbooks like to do), BBOM 10/e contains two review tools—concept checks and concept links—built right into each chapter. Each Concept Check consists of a short summary of the material in the previous numbered head along with a short series of questions that together, reviews the major points in that section. Concept Links (signaled by the blue link icon) are the ties between the current text and related material found elsewhere in the book. In addition, readers will find the popular Working Glossary—a dictionary of essential terms—at the opening of each chapter. The Working Glossary is the student's lifeline to the language of microbiology, an understanding of which is a key to mastering the concepts. Finally, and as in previous editions, the end of each chapter contains a number of review and application questions, many new to this edition; the questions are designed to probe a student's retention of important concepts and ability to solve problems.

Supplements

A number of supplements accompany this book. Totally new to the tenth edition of BBOM are a series of online media tutorials that are found in the Companion Website. These cover a number of conceptually challenging topics in microbiology, including basic processes in molecular biology, genetics, medical microbiology and immunology, and microbial metabolism. These unique instructional resources include animations, interactive exercises, and self-quizzes, and will be a major supporting feature for the material in Unit I of BBOM 10/e, the heart of the introductory course in microbiology.

These tutorials are designed to guide students' understanding of various fundamental concepts through animations, interactive exercises, and self-assessment. Each concept that is the subject of an Online Media Tutorial is identified by an icon similar to the one in the margin next to this paragraph, placed alongside the relevant figure in the text. Also on the website are additional materials for each chapter along with the popular Virtual Exam, first introduced with BBOM 9/e. The Virtual Exam is a large pool of questions (written in an objective format, multiple choice, true-false, matching, and the like) keyed to individual chapters that students can use as a resource to help prepare for their real exams in the classroom. Virtual Exam questions have been assembled from actual examinations given in introductory microbiology courses in the United States that assign BBOM as a textbook. With the Virtual Exam, students can take an exam online and receive instant feedback on their readiness for exam day.

A variety of supplements are available for instructors. First, a set of over 350 Full Color Transparencies, far more than is available with any other textbook of microbiology, accompany every adoption of BBOM 10/e. Although computer lectures are becoming the norm in many classrooms, the transparency is still the visual aid workhorse for many instructors. To help instructors in this regard, all of the most teachable figures in the book are covered in the transparency set. Second, a first-rate Instructor's Resource CD-ROM is available that contains virtually all of the art and photos from BBOM 10/e in Microsoft PowerPoint® to assist instructors in tailoring computer presentations to the goals and objectives of their particular course. In addition, all of the animations and exercises that appear on the student website will be on the Instructor's Resource CD-ROM. Whether one uses transparencies or CD-ROMs, the BBOM 10/e instructor package offers all of the necessary tools for developing clear, compelling, and stimulating presentations for the classroom.

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