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Stanley D. Klein
"A very useful book. In addition to a thorough review of sibling literature and research, it offers a wide range of 'how-to' practical applications."
Excerpted from Chapter 9 of Brothers and Sisters: A Special Part of Exceptional Families, Third Edition, by Peggy A.Gallagher, Ph.D., Thomas H. Powell, Ed.D.,& Cheryl A. Rhodes, M.S., L.M.F.T.
Copyright © 2006 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
The school-age period for siblings may be the most intense in terms of their special needs. Itzkowitz (1989) found that during this period, siblings had the greatest needs for information and support services regarding their brothers' and sisters' disabilities. Because siblings spend much of their time in school, it is the logical setting for the provision of support services. The school, therefore, has a special responsibility for addressing those needs.
SPECIAL EDUCATION LAWS AND REGULATIONS RELATED TO EDUCATION
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 (PL 105-17), reauthorized as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (PL 108-446), and The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 (PL 101-336) are two federal laws that define and protect the rights of children with special needs with regard to access to education and participation in community programs such as child care. The trend toward inclusion in service delivery means that a child with a disability will most likely attend the same school and after-school program as siblings without disabilities.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004
Turnbull, Turnbull, Erwin, and Soodak (2006) identified six key principles that govern the education of students with disabilities: 1) zero reject (no school may exclude a student age 3 through 21 who has a disability.); 2) nondiscriminatory evaluation (to deter- mine whether a student has a disability and if so the type of support needed); 3) free appropriate public education or FAPE (public education programs will be individualized to meet students needs and strengths); 4) least restrictive environment or LRE (students with disabilities must receive education in general education classes with their peers without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate to the needs of that child, often referred to as inclusion or mainstreaming); 5) procedural due process (professionals and parents should be accountable to each other); and 6) parent participation (parents and students should participate in making decisions about a student's education). IDEA grants parents the rights to gain access to educational records and to serve on local special education advisory committees.
Unless a child's individualized education program (IEP) requires some other arrangement, the child is to be educated in the (local) school that he or she would attend if the child did not have a disability. Even for students with the most severe disabilities, the local school tends to be the least restrictive setting (Brinker, 1984; Lipsky & Gartner, 1992; Stainback & Stainback, 1992). The law mandates that a child should not be moved from education in age-appropriate regular classrooms solely because of needed modifications in the general curriculum. This policy extends to the provision of nonacademic and extracurricular services and activities, including meals, recess periods, and the services and activities. For more information go to IDEA 2004 Resources (U.S. Department of Education http://www.ed.gov/policy/speced/guid/idea2004 .html) or IDEA Law and Resources (Council for Exceptional Children http://www.cec.sped.org/law_res/law/index.php).
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
ADA is a comprehensive, federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. The ADA defines disability as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits
|1||Listening to siblings||1|
|2||What we know about sibling relationships||13|
|3||What we know about special brothers and sisters in the family system||53|
|4||Concerns and needs of siblings living with brothers and sisters with disabilities||97|
|5||Providing information to children with siblings with disabilities||111|
|6||Providing support of siblings with brothers and sisters with disabilities||143|
|7||Social interaction between brothers, sister and others : how relationships are formed and maintained||177|
|8||Siblings as teachers||205|
|9||Siblings at school : going beyond academics to support siblings' unique needs||231|
|10||Siblings as adults : building secure futures||255|
|11||Capstone strategies for parents and siblings||279|