BRS Neuroanatomy / Edition 5

BRS Neuroanatomy / Edition 5

by Douglas J. Gould, James D. Fix
     
 


BRS Neuroanatomy is a succinct outline-format review for USMLE, other licensing exams, and course exams. This title includes over 600USMLE-style questions with complete answers and explanations, with exams at the end of each chapter and an end-of-book Comprehensive Examination.See more details below

Overview


BRS Neuroanatomy is a succinct outline-format review for USMLE, other licensing exams, and course exams. This title includes over 600USMLE-style questions with complete answers and explanations, with exams at the end of each chapter and an end-of-book Comprehensive Examination.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781451176094
Publisher:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication date:
08/15/2013
Series:
Board Review Series
Edition description:
Fifth
Pages:
416
Sales rank:
441,624
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Reviewers vi

Preface vii

Acknowledgments viii

1 Gross Anatomy of the Brain 1

Objectives 1

I Introduction 1

II Divisions of the Brain 1

III Atlas of the Brain and Brainstem 10

Review Test 22

2 Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid 24

Objectives 24

I Meninges 24

II Ventricles 28

III Cerebrospinal Fluid 30

IV Hydrocephalus 30

V Meningitis 31

VI Herniation 32

VII Circumventricular Organs 34

Review Test 36

3 Blood Supply of the Central Nervous System 39

Objectives 39

I Arteries of the Spinal Cord 39

II Venous Drainage of the Spinal Cord 40

III Arteries of the Brain 41

IV Cerebral Arterial Circle (of Willis) 45

V Meningeal Arteries 45

VI Veins of the Brain 45

VII Venous Dural Sinuses 46

VIII Angiography 48

IX Intracranial Hemorrhage 52

Review Test 54

4 Development of the Nervous System 58

Objectives 58

I Overview 58

II Development of the Neural Tube 58

III Neural Crest 59

IV Placodes 61

V Stages of Neural Tube Development 61

VI Spinal Cord (Medulla Spinalis) 63

VII Medulla oblongata (Myelencephalon) 64

VIII Metencephalon 66

IX Mesencephalon (Midbrain) 67

X Development of the Diencephalon, Optic Structures, and Hypophysis 68

XI Development of the Telencephalon 70

XII Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System 71 Review Test 77

5 Neurohistology 79

Objectives 79

I Overview 79

II Neurons 79

III Neuroglia 82

IV Nerve Cell Degeneration and Regeneration 86

V Axonal Transport 87

VI Capillaries of the Central Nervous System 87

VII Sensory Receptors 89

Review Test 91

6 Spinal Cord 93

Objectives 93

I Introduction 93

II External Morphology 93

III Internal Morphology 98

IV Myotatic Reflex 101

Review Test 102

7 Tracts of the Spinal Cord 104

Objectives 104

I Ascending Tracts 104

II Descending Tracts 109

III Integrative Pathways 111

IV Clinical Correlations 112

Review Test 114

8 Lesions of the Spinal Cord 117

Objectives 117

I Lower Motor Neuron Lesions 117

II Upper Motor Neuron Lesions (UMNs) 119

III Sensory Pathway Lesions 119

IV Peripheral Nervous System Lesions 120

V Combined Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Lesions 120

VI Combined Motor and Sensory Lesions 121

VII Intervertebral Disk Herniation 124

Review Test 125

9 Brainstem 129

Objectives 129

I Introduction 129

II Medulla Oblongata (Myelencephalon) 129

III Pons 134

IV Mesencephalon (Midbrain) 138

V Corticobulbar (Corticonuclear) Fibers 142

Review Test 143

10 Cranial Nerves 145

Objectives 145

I Introduction 145

II Nervus Terminalis (NT; Cranial Nerve 0) 145

III Olfactory Nerve (CN I) 145

IV Optic Nerve (CN II) 146

V Oculomotor Nerve (CN III) 148

VI Trochlear Nerve (CN IV) 149

VII Trigeminal Nerve (CNV) 150

VIII Abducent Nerve (CN VI) 151

IX Facial Nerve (CNVII) 151

X Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII) 154

XI Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX) 154

XII Vagal Nerve (CN X) 155

XIII Accessory Nerve (CN XI) 156

XIV Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII) 157

Review Test 159

11 Trigeminal System 162

Objectives 162

I Trigeminal Nerve (CN V) 162

II Ascending Trigeminothalamic Tracts 163

III Trigeminal Sensory Nuclei 165

IV Trigeminocerebellar Fibers 166

V Trigeminal Reflexes 167

VI Clinical Correlations 168

Review Test 170

12 Lesions of the Brainstem 172

Objectives 172

I Introduction 172

II Vascular Lesions of the Medulla 172

III Vascular Lesions of the Pons 173

IV Lesions of the Midbrain 175

V Acoustic Neuroma (Schwannoma) 176

VI Intemuclear Ophthalmoplegia 177

VII Jugular Foramen (Vernet) Syndrome 177

VIII Subclavian Steal Syndrome 178

Review Test 179

13 Diencephalon: Thalamus and Hypothalamus 183

Objectives 183

I Introduction: The Thalamus 183

II Boundaries of the Thalamus 183

III Primary Thalamic Nuclei and their Major Connections 184

IV Blood Supply of the Thalamus 187

V Internal Capsule 187

VI Blood Supply of the Internal Capsule 188

VII Clinical Correlations 188

VIII Overview: The Hypothalamus 189

IX Surface Anatomy of the Hypothalamus 189

X Hypothalamic Regions and Nuclei 189

XI Major Hypothalamic Connections 192

XII Major Fiber Systems 194

XIII Functional Considerations 195

XIV Clinical Correlations 196

Review Test 197

14 Auditory System 202

Objectives 202

I introduction 202

II Outer, Middle, and Inner Ear 202

III Auditory Pathway 204

IV Efferent Cochlear (Olivocochlear) Bundle 206

V Hearing Defects 206

VI Tuning Fork Tests 207

VII Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (Baer) 207

Review Test 209

15 Vestibular System 211

Objectives 211

I Introduction 211

II Labyrinth 211

III Vestibular Pathways 213

IV Efferent Vestibular Connections 214

V Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus 214

VI Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes 215

VII Decerebrate and Decorticate Rigidity 216

VIII Clinical Correlations 216

Review Test 218

16 Visual System 220

Objectives 220

I Introduction 220

II The Retina 220

III Visual Pathway 224

IV Pupillary Light Reflexes and Pathway 225

V Pupillary Dilation Pathway 227

VI The Convergence-Accommodation Reaction 227

VII Centers for Ocular Motility 228

VIII Clinical Correlations 229

Review Test 232

17 Olfactory, Gustatory, and Limbic Systems 236

Objectives 236

I Olfactory System 236

II Gustatory System 237

III Limbic System 239

Review Test 245

18 Basal Nuclei and the Extrapyramidal Motor System 249

Objectives 249

I Basal Nuclei 249

II Extrapyramidal Motor System 249

Review Test 256

19 Cerebellum 258

Objectives 258

I Overview 258

II Major Divisions of the Cerebellum 258

III Cerebellar Cortex 260

IV Major Cerebellar Pathways 262

V Cerebellar Dysfunction 264

VI Cerebellar Lesions 264

Review Test 266

20 Autonomous Nervous System 268

Objectives 268

I Overview 268

II Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System 268

III Visceral Afferent Fibers and Pain 272

IV Autonomic Innervation of Selected Organs 273

V Clinical Correlations 275

Review Test 276

21 Neurotransmitters and Pathways 278

Objectives 278

I Introduction 278

II Acetylcholine 279

III Dopamine 280

IV Norepinephrine (Noradrenalin) 281

V Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) 282

VI Opioid Peptides 283

VII Nonopioid Neuropeptides 284

VIII Amino Acids 284

IX Nitric Oxide 287

X Functional and Clinical Correlations 287

Review Test 289

22 Cerebral Cortex 293

Objectives 293

I Overview 293

II Neocortex 293

III Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex 294

IV Cerebral Dominance 299

V Split-Brain Syndrome 301

VI Blood Supply to the Major Functional Cortical Areas 302

VII Apraxia 303

VIII Aphasia 304

IX Dysprosodies 305

Review Test 306

Comprehensive Examination 311

Appendix: Table of Cranial Nerves 339

Glossary 342

Index 353

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