Building Control with Passive Dampers: Optimal Performance-based Design for Earthquakes / Edition 1

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Overview

The recent introduction of active and passive structural control methods has given structural designers powerful tools for performance-based design. However, structural engineers often lack the tools for the optimal selection and placement of such systems. In Building Control with Passive Dampers, Takewaki brings together the most reliable, state-of-the-art methods used around the world, arming readers with a real sense of how to address optimal selection and placement of passive control systems.

The first book on optimal design, sizing, and location selection of passive dampers

Combines theory and practical applications

Describes step-by-step how to obtain optimal damper size and placement

Covers the state-of-the-art in optimal design of passive control

Integrates the most reliable techniques in the top literature and used in practice worldwide

Written by a recognized expert in the area

MATLAB code examples available from the book's Companion Website

This book is essential for post-graduate students, researchers, and design consultants involved in building control. Professional engineers and advanced undergraduates interested in seismic design, as well as mechanical engineers looking for vibration damping techniques, will also find this book a helpful reference.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470824917
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 10/13/2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 320
  • Sales rank: 1,231,202
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background and Review 1

1.2 Fundamentals of Passive-damper Installation 3

1.2.1 Viscous Dampers 4

1.2.2 Visco-elastic Dampers 5

1.3 Organization of This Book 6

References 9

2 Optimally Criteria-based Design: Single Criterion in Terms of Transfer Function 13

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Incremental Inverse Problem: Simple Example 15

2.3 Incremental Inverse Problem: General Formulation 19

2.4 Numerical Examples I 21

2.4.1 Viscous Damping Model 21

2.4.2 Hysteretic Damping Model 23

2.4.3 Six-DOF Models with Various Possibilities of Damper Placement 24

2.5 Optimality Criteria-based Design of Dampers: Simple Example 27

2.5.1 Optimality Criteria 33

2.5.2 Solution Algorithm 34

2.6 Optimality Criteria-based Design of Dampers: General Formulation 36

l2.7 Numerical Examples II 39

2.7.1 Example 1: Model with a Uniform Distribution of Story Stiffnesses 39

2.7.2 Example 2: Model with a Uniform Distribution of Amplitudes of Transfer Functions 41

2.8 Comparison with Other Methods 43

2.8.1 Method of Lopez Garcia 43

2.8.2 Method of Trombetti and Silvestri 44

2.9 Summary 44

Appendix 2.A 46

References 48

3 Optimality Criteria-based Design: Multiple Criteria-in Terms of Seismic Responses 51

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Illustrative Example 52

3.3 General Problem 54

3.4 Optimality Criteria 56

3.5 Solution Algorithm 56

3.6 Numerical Examples 63

3.6.1 Multicriteria Plot 73

3.7 Summary 74

References 75

4 Optimal Sensitivity-based Design of Dampers in Moment-resisting Frames 77

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Viscous-type Modeling of Damper Systems 78

4.3 Problem of Optimal DamperPlacement and Optimality Criteria (Viscous-type Modeling) 78

4.3.1 Optimality Criteria 81

4.4 Solution Algorithm (Viscous-type Modeling) 82

4.5 Numerical Examples I (Viscous-type Modeling) 87

4.6 Maxwell-type Modeling of Damper Systems 91

4.6.1 Modeling of a Main Frame 91

4.6.2 Modeling of a Damper-Support-member System 91

4.6.3 Effects of Support-Member Stiffnesses on Performance of Dampers 93

4.7 Problem of Optimal Damper Placement and Optimality Criteria (Maxwell-type Modeling) 94

4.7.1 Optimality Criteria 96

4.8 Solution Algorithm (Maxwell-type Modeling) 97

4.9 Numerical Examples II (Maxwell-type Modeling) 100

4.10 Nonmonotonic Sensitivity Case 104

4.11 Summary 106

Appendix 4.A 108

References 109

5 Optimal Sensitivity-based Design of Dampers in Three-dimensional Buildings 111

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Problem of Optimal Damper Placement 112

5.2.1 Modeling of Structure 112

5.2.2 Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Matrices 113

5.2.3 Relation of Element-end Displacements with Displacements at Center of Mass 113

5.2.4 Relation of Forces at Center of Mass due to Stiffness Element K(i, j) with Element-end Forces 114

5.2.5 Relation of Element-end Forces with Element-end Displacements 114

5.2.6 Relation of Forces at Center of Mass due to Stiffness Element K(i, j) with Displacements at Center of Mass 115

5.2.7 Equations of Motion and Transfer Function Amplitude 116

5.2.8 Problem of Optimal Damper Positioning 117

5.3 Optimality Criteria and Solution Algorithm 118

5.4 Nonmonotonic Path with Respect to Damper Level 123

5.5 Numerical Examples 125

5.6 Summary 129

References 130

6 Optimal Sensitivity-based Design of Dampers in Shear Buildings on Surface Ground under Earthquake Loading 131

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Building and Ground Model 132

6.3 Seismic Response 134

6.4 Problem of Optimal Damper Placement and Optimality Criteria 136

6.4.1 Optimality Conditions 136

6.5 Solution Algorithm 137

6.6 Numerical Examples 140

6.7 Summary 147

Appendix 6.A 149

Appendix 6.B 150

References 150

7 Optimal Sensitivity-based Design of Dampers in Bending-shear Buildings on Surface Ground under Earthquake Loading 153

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Building and Ground Model 154

7.2.1 Ground Model 154

7.2.2 Building Model 156

7.3 Equations of Motion in Ground 158

7.4 Equations of Motion in Building and Seismic Response 159

7.5 Problem of Optimal Damper Placement and Optimality Criteria 161

7.5.1 Optimality Conditions 161

7.6 Solution Algorithm 162

7.7 Numerical Examples 165

7.8 Summary 171

Appendix 7.A 175

Appendix 7.B 175

References 176

8 Optimal Sensitivity-based Design of Dampers in Shear Buildings with TMDs on Surface Ground under Earthquake Loading 179

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 Building with a TMD and Ground Model 180

8.3 Equations of Motion and Seismic Response 182

8.4 Problem of Optimal Damper Placement and Optimality Criteria 185

8.4.1 Optimality Conditions 185

8.5 Solution Algorithm 186

8.6 Numerical Examples 189

8.7 Whole Model and Decomposed Model 196

8.8 Summary 199

Appendix 8.A 199

Appendix 8.B 201

Appendix 8.C 202

References 203

9 Design of Dampers in Shear Buildings with Uncertainties 205

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Equations of Motion and Mean-square Response 206

9.3 Critical Excitation 208

9.4 Conservativeness of Bounds (Recorded Ground Motions) 211

9.5 Design of Dampers in Shear Buildings under Uncertain Ground Motions 213

9.5.1 Optimality Conditions 218

9.5.2 Solution Algorithm 218

9.6 Numerical Examples I 221

9.7 Approach Based on Info-gap Uncertainty Analysis 223

9.7.1 Info-gap Robustness Function 226

9.7.2 Earthquake Input Energy to an SDOF System 227

9.7.3 Earthquake Input Energy to an MDOF System 230

9.7.4 Critical Excitation Problem for Acceleration Power 232

9.8 Evaluation of Robustness of Shear Buildings with Uncertain Damper Properties under Uncertain Ground Motions 234

9.8.1 Load Uncertainty Representation in Terms of Info-gap Models 234

9.8.2 Info-gap Robustness Function for Load and Structural Uncertainties 235

9.9 Numerical Examples II 237

9.10 Summary 243

Appendix 9.A 244

Appendix 9.B 245

References 246

10 Theoretical Background of Effectiveness of Passive Control System 249

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Earthquake Input Energy to SDOF model 250

10.3 Constant Earthquake Input Energy Criterion in Time Domain 252

10.4 Constant Earthquake Input Energy Criterion to MDOF Model in Frequency Domain 253

10.5 Earthquake Input Energy as Sum of Input Energies to Subassemblages 255

10.6 Effectiveness of Passive Dampers in Terms of Earthquake Input Energy 259

10.7 Advantageous Feature of Frequency-domain Method 261

10.8 Numerical Examples for Tall Buildings with Supplemental Viscous Dampers and Base-isolated Tall Buildings 263

10.8.1 Tall Buildings with Supplemental Viscous Dampers 263

10.8.2 Base-isolated Tall Buildings 265

10.8.3 Energy Spectra for Recorded Ground Motions 266

10.9 Summary 271

References 272

11 Inelastic Dynamic Critical Response of Building Structures with Passive Dampers 275

11.1 Introduction 275

11.2 Input Ground Motion 276

11.2.1 Acceleration Power and Velocity Power of Sinusoidal Motion 276

11.2.2 Pulse-like Wave and Long-period Ground Motion 277

11.3 Structural Model|280

11.3.1 Main Frame 280

11.3.2 Building Model with Hysteretic Dampers 281

11.3.3 Building Model with Viscous Dampers 283

11.3.4 Dynamic Response Evaluation 283

11.4 Response Properties of Buildings with Hysteretic or Viscous Dampers 283

11.4.1 Two-dimensional Sweeping Performance Curves 283

11.4.2 Two-dimensional Sweeping Performance Curves with Respect to Various Normalization Indices of Ground Motion 285

11.5 Upper Bound of Total Input Energy to Passively Controlled Inelastic Structures Subjected to Resonant Sinusoidal Motion 288

11.5.1 Structure with Supplemental Viscous Dampers 290

11.5.2 Structure with Supplemental Hysteretic Dampers 291

11.6 Relationship of Maximum Interstory Drift of Uncontrolled Structures with Maximum Velocity of Ground Motion 293

11.7 Relationship of Total Input Energy to Uncontrolled Structures with Velocity Power of Ground Motion 295

11.8 Summary 296

Appendix 11.A 297

Appendix 11.B 298

Appendix 11.C 300

References 301

Index 303

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