Building in the 21st Century / Edition 1

Building in the 21st Century / Edition 1

by Robert Cooke

ISBN-10: 1405156554

ISBN-13: 9781405156554

Pub. Date: 01/09/2008

Publisher: Wiley

This book has been written specifically to provide a text for the latest BTEC/EdEXCEL construction technician's course, and it will also be of interest to students taking GCSE in Construction and as an introductory volume for HNC/D students of construction.

The BTEC course units have recently been revised with a greater slant towards sustainability and environmental


This book has been written specifically to provide a text for the latest BTEC/EdEXCEL construction technician's course, and it will also be of interest to students taking GCSE in Construction and as an introductory volume for HNC/D students of construction.

The BTEC course units have recently been revised with a greater slant towards sustainability and environmental issues.

This new book will:

- cover the new BTEC syllabus
- be highly illustrated with modern diagrams and plenty of photographs
- introduce basic fundamentals of construction and the environment
- integrate all aspects of one topic to provide better understanding of the subject.

Product Details

Publication date:
Product dimensions:
7.35(w) x 9.50(h) x 1.01(d)

Table of Contents



1 Surveying processes.

Part A.

1.1 The role of the surveyor.

1.2 Land surveying.

The survey.


Reasons for land surveys.


Health and safety issues.

1.3 Land survey methods.

Optical method.

Lineal method.

1.4 Measuring irregular edges.



1.5 Drawing office procedure.

1.6 Measuring over sloping distances.

Method for using an Abney level.

Method of measuring plan length.

Part B.

1.7 Levelling surveys.

Levelling equipment.

Setting up an optical level.

Adjusting for parallax.

Taking readings.

Flying levels (line levelling).

1.8 Height of collimation method.

HOC method.

Booking method.

1.9 Rise and fall method.

Booking method.

Which method is better — HOC or R&F?.

1.10 Change points.

CP method.

Booking method.

1.11 Inverse levels.


Booking method.

HOC method.

R&F method.

1.12 Invert levels.

1.13 Health and safety.

1.14 Levelling instruments.

Optical and electronic levels.

Other levelling devices.

2 Topographical surveys.

2.1 Measuring angles.

2.2 Setting up a theodolite or total station.

2.3 Measuring vertical angles.


2.4 Measuring heights using angles.




2.5 Measuring horizontal angles.


2.6 Whole circle bearings.


Drawing office work.

2.7 Coordinates.

Polar coordinates.

Rectangular coordinates.

2.8 Setting out.

Setting out a small building.

Setting out drainage runs.

2.9 Traversing.

Open traverse.

Closed traverse.

3 Building surveying.

Part A.

3.1 Types of building survey.

3.2 Valuation surveys.

3.3 Conditions surveys.

3.4 Dilapidations surveys.

3.5 Maintenance surveys.

3.6 Approach to carrying out a conditions survey.

Health and safety.


3.7 Conditions survey procedure.





Fascias and soffits.


Glazing — and identifying rot in painted timber.

Cracks in masonry.

Spandrel panels.

Doors, door frames, etc.



3.8 Services and heating systems.

Part B.

3.9 Structural surveys.


3.10 The actual structural survey.

3.11 Change in moisture content.

3.12 Lateral support has been removed.

3.13 Party Wall Act survey.

3.14 Measured survey.

3.15 Approach to carrying out a measured survey.

The actual measured survey.

4 Foundations.

4.1 Introduction.

Foundation function.


4.2 Foundation types.

Spread footings.

Strip foundations.

Simple raft.


Short bore pile and beam.

4.3 Foundations on an incline.

4.4 How to calculate loadings.


Roof loading.

Wall loading.

Floor loading.

Natural loadings.

4.5 Using spreadsheets to calculate loadings.

Foundation loading.

4.6 Foundation design theory.

Example 1.

Example 2.

4.7 Ground surveys.

Trial pit tests.

Borehole tests.

4.8 Desk top surveys.

4.9 Foundation materials.

Concrete mixes.


Portland cement.

Blastfurnace slag cement.

Commercial concrete manufacture.

Concrete for foundations.

Testing fresh concrete and aggregates.

Useful British Standards and Eurocodes.

4.10 Health and safety relating to concrete and cement.

Personal protective equipment.

4.11 Problems with foundations.

Tree root problems.

Chemical attack.

4.12 Soils and substrata.


Gravel and sand.

Shifting sand.

Plate tectonics.

Effects of climate.

4.13 Safe loads in subsoils.

5 Walls and openings.

5.1 Wall types.

Traditional construction.

5.2 Wall design.

Wall functions.

Materials used.

Designs and stability.

5.3 Openings.



5.4 Sound insulation.

5.5 Thermal insulation.

5.6 How to calculate U values.

5.7 Fire insulation.

6 Floors and stairs.

6.1 Floors.

6.2 Solid floors.

6.3 Suspended ground floors.

Block and beam.

6.4 Suspended timber ground floors.

6.5 Suspended timber upper floors.

6.6 Detailing for fire resistance.

6.7 Stairs.

7 Roofs.

7.1 Roofs.


Materials used.

7.2 Pitched roofs.

7.3 Ventilation.

7.4 Flat roofs.

Construction details.

7.5 Roof terminology.

Cut roofs.

Trussed roofs (new type).

Cold deck flat roofs.

Warm deck flat roofs.

Inverted flat roofs.

7.6 Stability.

7.7 Fire insulation.

8 Construction techniques.

8.1 Traditional masonry.

8.2 Cross wall construction.

8.3 Modern timber frame.

Modern panel type.


Finishing timber frame buildings.

Fire precautions.

Stick type.


Historical perspective.

8.4 Steel frame.

Advantages of steel framed structures.

Disadvantages of steel framed structures.

8.5 Skeletal frame cast in-situ reinforced concrete.

Fire resistance.

Cast in-situ beams.

Pouring concrete.

8.6 Skeletal frame precast reinforced concrete.


Low rise commercial buildings.

8.7 Portal frame.


8.8 Stairs.

8.9 Walling.

Masonry wall to column detail.

Health and safety issues with cast in-situ concrete.

Toughened glass assemblies.

Metal and glass curtain walling.

Metal cladding.

8.10 Laminated timber skeletal framed building.

9 Site issues.

9.1 Site planning.

Pre-contract site planning.

Post-contract site planning.

9.2 Health and safety.

9.3 Site security.


Good neighbour policy.

9.4 Site plant.

9.5 Temporary water removal.

10 Construction and the environment.

10.1 Natural environment.


Fresh water.


10.2 What causes pollution?.

10.3 What is thought to cause global warming?.

10.4 Ozone and other greenhouse gases.

10.5 The Kyotol Protocol.

10.6 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

10.7 Pollution from fossil fuels.

10.8 Green belt.

10.9 Air pollution.

Air pollution today.

Local air pollution.

Regional air pollution.

What makes acid rain?.

Global air pollution.

10.10 Environmental audit.

Running costs.

Waste disposal.

End of life.

What effect will the project have on the natural environment?.

10.11 Is timber frame so environmentally friendly?.

What is sustainable construction?.

11 Energy.

11.1 The science of energy.

11.2 Energy calculations.

11.3 How is energy converted into electricity?.

Wind power.

Wave power and sea pressures.

Tidal power.

Hydroelectric power.

Water current power.

Solar power.

Evacuated tubes.

Photovoltaic cells.

Geothermal energy.

Fossil fuel combustion.



Natural gas — including carbon sequestration.


Incineration and waste.

Biomass as fuel.

Hydrogen as fuel.

12 Utilities.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Water.

Why is so much water lost to leakage from the water mains?.

Water falls as rain so why should we pay for it?.

Desalination plants.

Potable water supply.

Plumbing — hot and cold water supply.

12.3 Gas.

Natural gas supply.

12.4 Electricity.

Mains electricity supply.

Domestic supply.

12.5 Sewage.

Domestic sewers.

12.6 Drainage.

12.7 Telecommunications.

12.8 Street identification.


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