Building Service-Aware Networks: The Next-Generation WAN/MAN (Paperback)


Building Service-Aware Networks

The Next-Generation WAN/MAN

Muhammad Afaq Khan, CCIE® No. 9070

A thorough introduction to the ASR 1000 series router

Building Service-Aware Networks is the insider’s guide to the next-generation Aggregation Services Router (ASR) 1000. Authored by a leading Cisco® expert, this book offers practical, hands-on ...

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Building Service-Aware Networks

The Next-Generation WAN/MAN

Muhammad Afaq Khan, CCIE® No. 9070

A thorough introduction to the ASR 1000 series router

Building Service-Aware Networks is the insider’s guide to the next-generation Aggregation Services Router (ASR) 1000. Authored by a leading Cisco® expert, this book offers practical, hands-on coverage for the entire system lifecycle, including planning, setup and configuration, migration, and day-to-day management.

Muhammad Afaq Khan systematically introduces the ASR 1000’s evolved architecture, showing how the ASR 1000 can deliver major performance and availability improvements in tomorrow’s complex, collaborative, mobile, and converged network environments. Then, to help you plan your network deployments more effectively, the author walks you through realistic deploy-ment scenarios for IP routing, IP services, WAN optimization services, security services, and unified communications. He presents a wide variety of realistic, easy-to-adapt configuration examples for enterprise and provider inetworks, including everything from command-line interface (CLI) snippets to best practices for troubleshooting.

  • Understand tomorrow’s enterprise business requirements, the demand they create for routing infrastructure, and how the ASR 1000 meets them
  • Leverage the ASR 1000’s revolutionary system architecture to dramatically improve performance and availability
  • Select and qualify an enterprise edge platform for next-generation WANs
  • Understand ASR 1000 series architecture, hardware, software, packaging, licensing, and releases
  • Perform initial ASR 1000 setup and configuration
  • Implement In Service Software Upgrades (ISSU)
  • Size routers for enterprise and carrier environments
  • Consolidate multiple applications, platforms, and functions onto the ASR 1000
  • Troubleshoot ASR 1000 common system error messages, step by step

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

Category: Networking

Covers: Routing and Switching

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587143793
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 3/22/2013
  • Series: Networking Technology Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 336
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Muhammad Afaq Khan, CCIE No. 9070, attended the NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, where he earned his bachelor’s degree in computer systems. After finishing at NEDUET, Afaq worked for various start-ups as a C/C++/Web programmer. From 2001 to date, Afaq has been with Cisco both in post-sales technical support and technical/product marketing roles. Currently, Afaq works as a senior technical marketing engineer for the Cisco Edge Routing Business Unit, focusing on both inbound and outbound marketing for Cisco ASR 1000 series routers. Afaq is also a sought-after speaker at the Cisco WW Networkers event and many other similar technical seminars. He holds three CCIEs in the areas of routing, security, and service provider technologies. He also holds multiple patents in the area of computer networking. Afaq lives with his wife and son in Santa Clara, California.

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Table of Contents


Part I Overview of WAN Architectures

Chapter 1 Introduction to WAN Architectures

Introduction to WAN Solutions

Branch/Private WAN Aggregation Role

Basic Feature Requirements

Basic Service Level Agreement Requirements

Internet Edge Role

Basic Feature Requirements

Data Center Interconnect

Basic Feature Requirements

Large Branch WAN


Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 2 Next-Generation WAN Architectures

The Evolution of Next-Generation WAN Architectures

Business Drivers Behind WAN Evolution

Service Awareness and Integration

Infrastructure Consolidation


Security and Reliability

Bandwidth Commoditization

Carbon Footprint Reduction

Regulatory Compliance

Time to Adoption

Mean Time to Understanding and Troubleshooting

How the Changing Business Requirements Relate to Network Infrastructure


Review Questions


Further Reading


Chapter 3 Selecting and Qualifying Enterprise Edge Platforms for Next-Generation WANs

Essential Attributes of an Enterprise Edge Platform

Carrier-Class Routing

True Services Integration

Robust In-Built Quality of Service

Flexible System Architecture

Feature Velocity

Common Sharing and Sparing for Investment Protection

Interface Diversity and Density

Power and Space Friendly

Industry Standard Compliance

Qualifying the Enterprise WAN/MAN Edge Platform

Anatomy of a Test Plan

Test Scope and Objective

Test Setup and Topology

Test Resources

Test Approach and Methodology

Test Entry and Exit Criteria

Test Schedule

Test Results Reporting

Test Case Details


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 4 Sizing Up a Router

What to Look for When Choosing a Router

Metrics for Benchmarking a Router

Routing-Plane Performance and Scale

Data-Plane Performance and Scale


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Part II ASR 1000 System Hardware, Software, and Configuration

Chapter 5 System Overview and Carrier-Class Attributes

Introduction to ASR 1000 Series Routers

ASR 1000 Carrier-Class Attributes




Quality of Service

ROI and Investment Protection

ASR 1000 Applications

ASR 1000 Enterprise WAN Aggregation

Enterprise Internet Gateway

Enterprise Security Headend (Branch and Remote User Aggregation)

Service Provider Layer 3 VPN

Service Provider Layer 2 VPN

Broadband Aggregation, Including FTTH and DSL LNS, LAC, and PTA

High-End Customer Premises Equipment

Reinventing Enterprise Routing with the ASR 1000

Cisco QuantumFlow Processor and Embedded Services

True Carrier-Class Routing

Chassis Design and Modularity

Operating System Modularity

In-Service Software Upgrade

Separation of Planes

Dealing with Oversubscription

Integrated QoS

BITS Reference Clock

Nonstop Router Management

Breadth and Diversity of LAN/WAN Interfaces

Introducing ASR 1000 System Hardware Components

Chassis Options

Chassis Slots Naming and Numbering

Route Processor

Embedded Service Processor

SPA Interface Processor

Introducing ASR 1000 Software Components


RP Software

ESP Software

SIP Software

IOSD and Linux Kernel


Basic Partitioning of the ASR 1000 System

Routing Plane

Data Plane

Input/Output Plane

Introduction to ASR 1000 System Redundancy and Modularity


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 6 Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router Hardware and Software Details

Route Processor Overview

Route Processor Functional Elements

Front Panel

CPU, DRAM, Bootflash, Hard Disk Drive, and Interconnect Application-Specific Integrated Circuits

RP Initialization

RP Packet Handling

Hardware-Assisted Control-Plane Protection

Legacy Protocol Traffic

ESP Overview

ESP Functional Elements

ESP Initialization

ESP Packet Handling

ESP and Crypto Engine

SPA Interface Processor Overview

High-Level System Software Architecture

RP Software Details

RP Chassis Manager

RP Forwarding Manager

RP Interface Manager

ESP Software Details

QFP Software

ESP Forwarding Manager

ESP Chassis Manager

SIP Software Details

SIP Chassis Manager

SIP Interface Manager

SPA Drivers

Day in the Life of a Packet

Ingress Processing

Arrival Processing

Egress Processing


Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 7 Cisco IOS XE Software Packaging, Releases, and Licensing

Cisco IOS XE Software Overview

Cisco IOS XE Software Packaging

Software Redundancy

Cisco IOS XE Software Releases

Cisco IOS XE Software Licensing


Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 8 Cisco ASR 1000 Initial Setup and Configuration

Booting the ASR 1000

Initial Cisco ASR 1000 Configuration

Understanding the Cisco ASR 1000 File System Structure


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 9 In-Service Software Upgrade and Software Modularity

Why ISSU Is Needed

Operational Benefits

Business Benefits

ASR 1000 ISSU Details

A Consolidated Package ISSU on a Fully Redundant 6RU

ISSU on 6RU System (with Dual RP and ESP) for IOSD Using Legacy issu Commands

Subpackage ISSU on a Fully Redundant 6RU

Upgrading SIP/SPA Subpackages

Upgrading the RP-Specific Subpackages on the Active RP

Upgrading the ESP Subpackage on the Standby RP (Formerly Active)

Running Dual IOSD on a 2 or 4RU System


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Part III System Management and Troubleshooting

Chapter 10 Using the ASR 1000 Embedded Graphical User Interface

Introduction to the ASR 1000 Web GUI

Configuring the ASR 1000 GUI

Common Usage Examples


Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 11 Understanding ASR 1000 System Troubleshooting and Error Messages

Troubleshooting Methodology

ASR 1000–Specific Troubleshooting Commands

Troubleshooting System Hardware and Software

Displaying the Overall Processor and Memory Utilization on an ASR 1000 System

Displaying IPv4-Related Drops for the Active QFP

Displaying Overall QFP Memory Statistics for IRAM, DRAM, and SRAM Usage

Displaying QFP Memory Statistics on a Per-IOS Feature and Internal-Usage Basis

Tracking Control CPU Usage from the Linux Shell

Tracking a Command Output Repeatedly Using the monitor Command

Displaying the Status of Front-Panel LEDs Using the show platform hardware Command

Displaying the Status of SPAs in a SIP

Displaying Statistics for a Slot or SIP

Displaying Drop Statistics for All Interfaces in the System

Displaying the Interface-Level FIA for Both the Ingress and Egress Feature Set

Displaying System Components Such as RP, ESP, and SIP Insertion and Uptime

Displaying QFP PPE Utilization Information

Useful debug Commands

Troubleshooting IOS Features via Platform-Specific Commands

Common System Error Messages

Message: “Warning: Filesystem Is Not Clean” During RP Boot

Message: “%IOSXE-7-PLATFORM: F0: sntp: Resetting on Error x > y”

Message: “%ASR1000_PEM-3-PEMFAIL: The PEM in Slot 0 Is Switched Off or Encountering a Failure Condition”


Review Questions


Further Reading

Part IV ASR 1000—Bringing Innovative Solutions to the Routing Industry

Chapter 12 IP Routing Use Cases

Introduction to the Scalable and Modular Control Plane on the ASR 1000

NSF/SSO, NSR, Graceful Restart to Ensure Robust Routing

Use Case: Achieving High Availability Using NSF/SSO

Packet Capture Using Encapsulated Remote SPAN

Use Case: Ethernet Frame Capture and Transport Across a Layer 3 Cloud

Achieving Segmentation Using MPLS over GRE and MPLS VPNs over GRE Solutions

Use Case: Self-Managed MPLS and Enterprise Private WAN Segmentation

Scalable v4/VPNv4 Route Reflector

Use Case: Route Reflection

Scalable and Flexible Internet Edge

Use Case: Internet Gateway/Edge Router

Scalable Data Center Interconnect

Use Case: Encrypting Traffic over an EoMPLS Psuedowire at Layer 2 Using TrustSec


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 13 IP Services Use Cases

Introduction to IOS IP Services on the ASR 1000

Scalable In-Built QoS Using QFP’s Traffic Manager

Ingress SIP Buffering

Traffic Manager Packet Buffering

Unicast Packets

Multicast Packets

Punt Packet

Egress SIP Buffering

ESP Interconnect Scheduler Default Behavior (Aggregating All SIP Traffic)

ASR 1000 Traffic Manager Priority Queues

Scalable Hierarchical QoS and Metro-E Use Case

Scalable IPv4 and IPv6 Multicast Acceleration Using Cisco QuantumFlow Processor

Multicast High Availability on the ASR 1000

Multicast Replication on the ESP

Scalable In-Built Multigigabit NAT

High-Speed Logging Using NetFlow v9 Format for NAT and Firewall

Scalable In-Built Multigigabit NBAR and FPM


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 14 Security Services Use Cases

Introduction to IOS Security Services on the Cisco ASR 1000

Secure Connectivity Solutions

Introduction to IPsec Solutions on the Cisco ASR 1000

IPsec Packet Flow (Ingress)

IPsec Packet Flow (Egress)

IPsec High-Availability Considerations

IPsec and Interaction with IP Multicast

Scalable Encryption with QoS Before/After Crypto Engine

Scalable DMVPN Hub and Spoke

Scalable GETVPN Group Member for Data Center and Large Branch Solutions

Cisco ASR 1000 GETVPN Solution Benefits

Cisco ASR 1000 GETVPN Solution Architecture Overview

GETVPN Configuration Overview

Cisco ASR 1000 Memory, Performance, and Scaling

Caveats and Limitations

Cisco ASR 1000 GETVPN Deployment Models

Troubleshooting GETVPN on Cisco ASR 1000

Integrated Threat Control Solutions

Introduction to Threat Control Solutions on the ASR 1000

Using In-Built Firewall High Availability

IOS Firewall Zone/Zone Pair Scale

Scalable Multigigabit Router Firewall at the Internet Edge: Use Case


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 15 WAN Optimization Services Use Cases

Introduction to WAN Optimization Solutions on the Cisco ASR 1000

Using WCCPv2 for Web Caching

Interaction of WCCPv2 with Other IOS Features

WAN Optimization Through WAAS Integration

Campus WAN Headend Deployment

Branch Deployment

WAN Headend and IronPort’s WSA Appliance

Troubleshooting WCCPv2 on Cisco ASR 1000

Voice Header Compression Using Cisco IOS cRTP

Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 16 Unified Communications Services Use Cases

Introduction to Unified WAN Solutions on Cisco ASR 1000

Using Integrated CUBE

CUBE (SP) Deployment Scenarios

SP-to-SP Peering

SP-to-Managed Enterprise and Residential SIP Trunking

Business-to-Business Telepresence

Troubleshooting CUBE

Using the WebEx Node Services Module

WebEx Node Deployment Architecture

Deployment Considerations

Installation Steps


Review Questions


Further Reading

9781587057885 TOC 8/19/2009

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