Building Tablet PC Applications

Overview

Many pen-based software platforms have been introduced in the last decade, but only recently has the introduction of faster processors and hardware enabled mainstream introduction of tablet-sized pen-based PCs. This book tackles the challenge of writing compelling Tablet PC software on two fronts. First, it distills decades of usability research into pen-based computing to present an authoritative discussion of the optimal design of pen-based user interfaces. Second, it provides an in-depth exposition of the ...

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Overview

Many pen-based software platforms have been introduced in the last decade, but only recently has the introduction of faster processors and hardware enabled mainstream introduction of tablet-sized pen-based PCs. This book tackles the challenge of writing compelling Tablet PC software on two fronts. First, it distills decades of usability research into pen-based computing to present an authoritative discussion of the optimal design of pen-based user interfaces. Second, it provides an in-depth exposition of the Tablet PC Ink SDK, complete with tips and tricks on how developers can produce the most powerful and natural “ink-aware” applications.

  • Distills decades of usability research into pen-based software to present an authoritative discussion of the optimal design of pen-based user interfaces
  • Provides an in-depth exposition of the TabletPC Ink SDK, complete with tips and tricks on how developers can produce the most powerful and natural pen-based, “ink-aware” applications
  • Co-written by the lead software developer on the Microsoft TabletPC team
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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
The Barnes & Noble Review
The latest new PC “form factor” is Microsoft’s Tablet PC, which makes possible an entirely new generation of pen-based, “ink-aware” Windows XP applications. If someone writes them, that is. The first book on Tablet PC development comes straight out of Microsoft’s development group -- and it’s full of code, resources, and guidelines that will be indispensable to anyone who wants to try their hand.

Rob Jarrett and Philip Su start with a look at the sorry history of “pen-based” computing -- and explain why this time just might be different. They share Microsoft’s extensive user research on pen-based computing, encompassing more than 100 separate studies. Then it’s on to an in-depth look at Microsoft’s new SDK, including APIs that expose pen-and-ink features for use in .NET apps; COM equivalents for C/C++ and VB6; and .NET and ActiveX controls for integrating ink into existing software.

You’ll find detailed introductions to tablet input, ink recognition, and especially ink data management. (With the Tablet PC, “ink” is a native data type: The computer won’t automatically try to transform it into text -- even though it’s fairly good at doing so.) The authors conclude with a closer look at ink-enabling your existing Windows applications -- including an honest look at the obstacles. (Surprisingly, implementing Undo is a bear.) There’s also a detailed look at the performance impact of “ink,” and a simple framework for testing it.

If “ink” might add value to your application, you owe it to yourself to explore Building Tablet PC Applications. Bill Camarda

Bill Camarda is a consultant, writer, and web/multimedia content developer. His 15 books include Special Edition Using Word 2000 and Upgrading & Fixing Networks For Dummies®, Second Edition.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780735617230
  • Publisher: Microsoft Press
  • Publication date: 10/2/2002
  • Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
  • Pages: 576
  • Product dimensions: 7.28 (w) x 9.12 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Philip Su is a lead developer at Microsoft in the Tablet PC group, working on integration of the Tablet PC platform into Microsoft Journal software. Previously, he worked as a lead developer on Microsoft Money and as a software design engineer on Microsoft Word. Philip is also the founder and CEO of Sonetics Software, LLC, a company that specializes in digital audio software. Philip has won numerous awards, including the prestigious National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship as well as the Maryland Technical Invention of the Year Award. His areas of interest include discrete digital audio processing, multimodal user interfaces, and digital media. He holds dual B.S. degrees in computer science and neurobiology, graduating summa cum laude from University of Maryland.

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Table of Contents

Dedication;
Foreword;
Acknowledgments;
Rob and Philip Thank…;
Rob Thanks…;
Philip Thanks…;
Introduction;
A Beautiful Day;
Chapter Overviews;
Some Final Thoughts;
Part I: The Tablet PC and Its Applications;
Chapter 1: Tablet Computing Comes of Age;
1.1 What Makes a Tablet Computer;
1.2 A Brief History of Tablet Computing;
1.3 The Microsoft Tablet PC;
1.4 Summary;
Chapter 2: Designing Tablet PC Applications;
2.1 User Research;
2.2 Of Mice and Pen;
2.3 Digitizer Technology;
2.4 Thinking in Ink;
2.5 Summary;
Part II: The Tablet PC Platform SDK;
Chapter 3: Introduction to the Tablet PC Platform SDK;
3.1 A Sort of Homecoming;
3.2 Installing the Tablet PC Platform SDK;
3.3 Overview of the Managed API;
3.4 Ink Control Comparison with Managed API;
3.5 Welcome to the Great Adventure;
Chapter 4: Tablet PC Platform SDK: Tablet Input;
4.1 Sample Applications;
4.2 Capturing Input from the Pen;
4.3 Anatomy of the Tablet PC’s Tablet Input Subsystem;
4.4 Platform SDK Support for Tablet Input;
4.5 Getting Introspective;
4.6 Best Practices for InkCollector and InkOverlay;
4.7 Summary;
Chapter 5: Tablet PC Platform SDK: Ink Data Management, Part I;
5.1 Ink and Stroke Objects;
5.2 Rendering Digital Ink;
5.3 Summary;
Chapter 6: Tablet PC Platform SDK: Ink Data Management, Part II;
6.1 Stroke Geometry;
6.2 Targeting and Hit-Testing Ink Strokes;
6.3 Splitting and Trimming Ink;
6.4 Serialization, the Clipboard, and Drag and Drop;
6.5 Summary;
Chapter 7: Tablet PC Platform SDK: Ink Recognition;
7.1 Recognizer Architecture;
7.2 Performing Simple Recognition;
7.3 Using the Recognition Classes;
7.4 Summary;
Chapter 8: Ink Controls;
8.1 Achtung Baby;
8.2 InkEdit;
8.3 InkPicture;
8.4 Summary;
Part III: Advanced Tablet PC Topics;
Chapter 9: Updating Existing Applications;
9.1 Even Better than the Real Thing;
9.2 Technical Considerations;
9.3 InkPadJunior;
9.4 Summary;
Part IV: Appendixes;
Appendix A: BuildingTabletApps Library Reference;
The InkInputPanel Class;
The InkControl and InkControl2 Classes;
The FormatInkDlg Class;
The InkEx Class;
The RendererEx Class;
The LassoUI Class;
The CopyAsTextDlg Class;
Appendix B: Tablet PC Hardware Guidelines;
Windows XP Tablet PC Edition Hardware Requirements;
About the Author;
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First Chapter

Tablet PC Platform SDK: TabletInput
    • Sample Applications
  • Capturing Input from the Pen
    • Requirement #1—Mouse Emulation
    • Requirement #2—Digital Ink
    • Requirement #3—Pen-Based Actions
    • Summing Up the Requirements
  • Anatomy of the Tablet PC’s Tablet Input Subsystem
    • Tablet Hardware
    • Chock-full of HID-y Goodness
    • The Center of the TIS Universe: Wisptis.exe
    • Winlogon Desktop Support
    • What About Ink?
  • Platform SDK Support for Tablet Input
    • Getting Ink from a Tablet
    • When Ink Is Not Enough
    • InkCollector Events
    • InkOverlay Events
    • Specifying the Tablet Data to Capture—Packet Properties
    • Extending InkOverlay Behaviors
    • Sample Application: TopOfPenErase
    • Sample Application: ModelessSwitch
  • Getting Introspective
    • Tablets Collection
    • Tablet Class
    • Common Properties on InkCollector and InkOverlay
  • Best Practices for InkCollector and InkOverlay
    • Summary

Tablet PC Platform SDK: Tablet Input

The previous chapter illustrated how the Tablet PC platform is divided into three logical pieces: tablet input, ink data management, and ink recognition. This chapter will take a close look at the tablet input piece of the platform from an architectural as well as a programmatic standpoint.

We’ll begin by learning about how physical pen strokes become useful input to both tablet-aware and tablet-unaware applications. Then we’ll see how to use the Tablet PC Platform SDK to enumerate, introspect, and—most important—capture input from tablet devices. At the end of the chapter, some best practice methods to help yield the best Tablet PC user experience will be discussed.

100 Sample Applications

Various sample applications with source code are provided to demonstrate the practical application of concepts as they are presented. Each application was designed to focus only on what’s necessary to illustrate relevant material—other aspects of the applications were intentionally kept minimal for clarity’s sake. Considerable effort has been put into testing the applications and making sure that they follow correct usage of the Tablet PC Platform SDK, though in the spirit of software design it’s always possible for a bug to creep in. You certainly don’t have to be prepared to call the fire department if you copy and paste code from this book into your own application, but please don’t call "Mr. T’s House of SmackDown!" if an unexpected "feature" crops up during a demo of your app to your boss.

102 Capturing Input from the Pen

Before we cover how to write applications that receive pen input from the tablet digitizer, let’s take a look at the software that enables us to harness the power of the pen.

NOTE
This section can be considered optional reading because one doesn’t really need to know the internals of tablet input to get inking in an application. You can therefore skip ahead to the section titled "Platform SDK Support for Tablet Input" if you’re not interested in how things work, though we do hope you stick around here because we think it’s interesting stuff.

The Tablet PC’s tablet input subsystem refers to the logical pieces of software that transfer and transform the data generated from a tablet digitizer into the input an application can make use of. Exactly what kind of input is it that an application can make use of? Chapter 2 gives us a good idea of the experience we want to provide for a Tablet PC user, so let’s see whether we can come up with some requirements here that might help us better understand the functions of the input subsystem.

Requirement #1—Mouse Emulation

As you know by now, all tablet-unaware Microsoft Windows XP–compatible applications are fully supported under Windows XP Tablet PC Edition—the pen behaves like a mouse in these cases. It also happens that mouse input is valuable to tablet-aware applications—standard Windows behaviors, controls, and the like are already driven by the mouse, so it’s convenient to be able to leverage this functionality for the pen. And of course, it’s likely that a physical mouse device will be used to drive the application because many Tablet PCs will have integrated mouse hardware such as a touch pad or mini-trackball.

NOTE:
We predict that someday all mouse input handling in Windows will also become tablet input–enabled. This will pave the way for pen-specific behaviors in all areas of the Windows user interface.

Because most applications rely heavily on mouse input, our first requirement of the input subsystem is that it be able to map pen input to mouse input—a process we’ll refer to as mouse emulation. Both left-mouse and right-mouse buttons should be supported for compatibility.

106 Requirement #2—Digital Ink

Tablet-enabled applications often accept user input in the form of digital ink, which can be added to a document or recognized into a command. Capturing ink from the pen is one of the most important aspects of realizing an electronic paper paradigm. As such, digital ink must mirror physical ink as closely as possible to provide the most natural and unobtrusive end-user experience. From a user’s perspective, ink should "just work" on a Tablet PC and be practically indistinguishable in behavior from physical ink. We can therefore impose the following sub-requirements on a system that’s used to capture digital ink:

  • Performance Ink should appear to be flowing directly out of the tip of the pen in real time and never lagging behind. This requires that the time between sampling the position of the pen and rendering ink on screen be imperceptible to an average user.
  • Accuracy Ink should follow the exact path of the pen as the pen moves. This requires that the frequency and resolution at which data is captured should result in the digital ink appearing to be smooth in shape to an average user. And as you’ll see later, using data captured at higher frequency and resolution also helps improve handwriting and gesture recognition results.
  • Robust data capture Ink should reflect as much of the physical handling that the pen is subjected to as possible. This requires that not only the pen position be sampled, but that support for sampling of pen tip pressure, the angle between the pen and tablet surface, the rotation of the pen body, and the like should also be provided.

In the initial version of the Tablet PC Platform, normal pressure is the only property besides X and Y position that the rendering of ink can reflect. However, future versions of the Tablet PC Platform will likely take more properties into account.

It is entirely possible for you to custom draw ink if you wish to have more properties taken into account, as we’ll learn in Chapter 5. In the majority of cases, we think x, y, and pressure yield incredible results.

108 Requirement #3—Pen-Based Actions

Pen-specific actions like press-and-hold, using the top-of-pen eraser, and pressing pen buttons can become powerful means to streamline the user model of a tablet-aware application. In addition, employing pen input for means other than digital ink is useful because pen-specific properties can enhance existing user interface behaviors. For example, pen rotation could be used to rotate a selection while it’s being dragged, or pen pressure could be used to determine how large an erasing area should be used for an eraser tool. Distinguishing between the user tapping the pen and the user dragging it is therefore important functionality.

NOTE:
Pen-specific actions should not be confused with ink-based gestures such as scratchout, up arrow, and "curlique". Pen actions—which are formally known as system gestures—don’t use ink and don’t define any application behavior. They are on a par with mouse actions such as click and drag.

Although the tablet hardware’s device driver can easily report top-of-pen use (called pen inversion) and pen button presses, detecting press-and-hold and associated actions such as tap and drag is a nontrivial algorithm that arguably falls outside the driver’s scope; this algorithm is best centralized so that any tablet device can use it.

110 Summing Up the Requirements

We have now specified that the input system must be able to transform raw pen movement into mouse input (supporting left-mouse and right-mouse button emulation), provide realistic digital ink, and detect higher-level pen-based actions (press-and-hold, pen inversion, pen button presses, and tap versus drag). The Tablet PC Platform’s tablet input subsystem (which we’ll start referring to as "the TIS" for brevity) provides all this and more.

112 Anatomy of the Tablet PC’s Tablet Input Subsystem

An architectural view of the TIS is outlined in Figures 4-1 and 4-2. There are two main configurations under which the subsystem runs: the first is with Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, and the second is with a Windows 2000–based or Windows XP–based operating system with the Tablet PC runtime libraries installed.

We’ll be focusing primarily on the subsystem as it runs on Windows XP Tablet PC Edition because it’s a superset of the Tablet PC runtime. But don’t worry; any differences between the two configurations will be pointed out as they arise.

Figure 4-1  The Tablet PC tablet input subsystem architecture, shown running on Windows XP Tablet PC Edition (Image unavailable)

Figure 4-2  The Tablet PC tablet input subsystem architecture, shown running as the Tablet PC runtime libraries on a Windows-based operating system (Image unavailable)

114>Tablet Hardware

In Chapter 1, the essence of a Tablet PC was identified as a portable PC combined with a digitizer integrated with the screen, driven by Windows XP Tablet PC Edition. A digitizer (sometimes ambiguously referred to as just a tablet) in the Tablet PC Platform’s view is a device that provides user input to a computer via a pointer on a flat rectangular surface. The device is able to sample the X and Y position of the pointer at regular time intervals and determine whether the pointer is active—typically, this means whether the pointer is touching the tablet’s surface. In most cases, the pointer is a pen stylus, although the Tablet PC Platform also recognizes a mouse as a tablet device. Indeed, a mouse is an example of a tablet device—it reports X and Y position as well as whether the pointer is active.

NOTE:
Placing the pointer tip on the digitizer surface is called making the pointer active. A synonym for active is down.

116 Chock-full of HID-y Goodness

Before the days of Tablet PC, a low-level standard already existed that directly facilitated getting input from a tablet device. Known as HID (short for Human Interface Device), the specification was initially developed to standardize communication to USB hardware such as keyboards, mice, joysticks, tablets, and just about any other device we can use to generate input for using a computer. The tablet input subsystem exclusively leverages HID devices for tablet input, and as such, the digitizers on Tablet PCs (even ones integrated with the video display) are either USB-based and HID-compliant via firmware or come supplied with a miniport driver emulating a HID interface.

NOTE:
WinTab:
Some alert readers may be aware of another standard tablet input API called WinTab. It was discovered during the development of the TIS that using WinTab would prove problematic—WinTab’s API design puts all responsibility for functional conformance on the shoulders of the driver’s implementers (third parties). Some already released WinTab drivers’ behavior deviated slightly from the spec, so it became difficult or impossible for the TIS to support WinTab in a generic way. Contrast this with the HID model in which the device or device driver has to specify only supported functionality (named usages) and Windows takes care of the API nuances. It was therefore decided that HID devices were the better way to go.

The HID driver, like most other Windows XP drivers, runs at the kernel level, constantly acquiring data from the tablet device and packaging it into HID format if it needs to. This allows the TIS to read input data from the device in a generic fashion.

118 The Center of the TIS Universe: Wisptis.exe

Arguably the most interesting piece in both Figures 4-1 and 4-2 is a process called Wisptis.exe because it’s pretty much the heart and soul of the TIS. It acts like a hub between the HID driver of tablet hardware and applications, and it turns out to be responsible for realizing most of the requirements of the input system we defined earlier in the chapter. The Wisptis process performs the retrieval of input from the tablet devices, mouse emulation, detection of pen-based actions, and the dispatching of events to tablet-aware applications.

Why Wisptis.exe?:
Wisptis.exe refers to "WISP TIS." WISP (Windows Ink Services for Pen) was the former name for the Tablet PC Platform, and TIS—well, hopefully at this point in the chapter you know what that means. NOTE:
Multiple tablet devices may be installed and used at the same time, a feature fully supported by the TIS. This is actually quite a common occurrence because, as we now know, the mouse is considered a tablet device, so if your Tablet PC has an integrated touchpad or is ever docked in a desktop scenario, or if you’ve attached an external tablet to your desktop machine, from the TIS perspective there will be at least two tablet devices installed.

Getting Input from the Driver

Input is received from the digitizer via the HID driver and from the mouse via a low-level mouse hook. Data received from the digitizer is used for performing mouse emulation and detecting pen-based actions.

It’s interesting to note that even though the mouse is viewed as a tablet device and a USB mouse uses a HID driver to communicate with Windows, the TIS does not get mouse data from the HID driver. Why? There are a couple of reasons. First, the mouse might not be USB-based (serial and PS/2 mice are still common) and a generic solution to reading mouse input is desirable; second, User32.dll opens the mouse driver exclusively, making it impossible for the TIS to get at the mouse directly. That’s why the TIS gets the mouse input data from User32.dll via a low-level hook.

You might be thinking that a cleaner architectural model would be to integrate tablet support directly into User32.dll, and we’d tend to agree with you. However, a design goal of the TIS (and a practical one at that) was to merely augment the existing OS as much as possible, rather than "invade" it with new code. Additionally, we’ll soon see that User32’s existing message-based input architecture doesn’t lend itself too well to tablet input.

Performing Mouse Emulation

The mouse cursor is controlled by the pen through one of two sets of mappings. The first set is used when the press-and-hold option (see Chapter 2) is disabled.

This works pretty well in practice, with one small exception. Getting ToolTips to pop up can be pretty tough because the mouse cursor has to be completely still when hovering over, say, a toolbar button. Most people have a slight sway to the pen when they try to hold it still, so getting the mouse cursor to be motionless will typically require too much effort. Thus, a requirement for a hover filter is imposed, whose purpose is to ignore small changes in pen movement while the pen is in the air. Chapter 2 covers the hovering problem in more detail.

The second set of mappings is used when the press-and-hold option is enabled; observe that Table 4-2 is a little more complex than Table 4-1.

Table 4-2  The Mapping of Higher-Level Pen Actions to Mouse Actions to Perform Mouse Emulation when Press-and-Hold Is Active

Notice how we need to trigger mouse actions on pen actions such as press-and-hold, tap, and drag. This is because when the pen initially touches the digitizer, the fact that press-and-hold is enabled means we don’t yet know whether the user wants to perform a left button or a right button operation. You might think that the left mouse button can always get pressed on pen down, and when a press-and-hold occurs the left button would get released immediately, followed by a right button down, but that won’t work well at all. Consider the following example: using everyone’s favorite accessory, Notepad, select some text and right click it with the mouse. Notice how the selection stays intact and a context menu appears. If we use the "pen touching the digitizer always causes a left button down" method, whenever the user performs a press-and-hold it will cause a mouse left click followed by a right button down. Try doing those actions with the selection in Notepad. You’ll see that the selection gets dismissed on the left click, and the right click displays the context menu with different items enabled—definitely not desirable behavior.

Detecting press-and-hold, tap versus drag, and hover filtering brings us to the next bit of functionality Wisptis.exe provides: detection of pen-based actions.

Detecting Pen-Based Actions

One of the things that makes a Tablet PC so appealing is its emphasis on natural computing—that is, taking human physiology into account for its input model. It’s more natural for most people to use a pen than a mouse, as was discussed in Chapter 2.

Contrasting the pen with the mouse brings up an interesting difference: pens tend to be much "noisier" with their data. That’s not really the correct term, as it implies low accuracy of data capture, but what’s being referred to is how a pen generates much more subtle variance in movement than a mouse does because of the human factor. A mouse is normally at rest and gets interrupted from that state when we move it, whereas a pen that’s held is at the mercy of our central nervous system’s accuracy. To improve the Tablet PC user experience, therefore, it’s a good idea for certain pen input to be filtered a little.

NOTE:
Consider this author’s observation: the difficulty of making ToolTips appear is exponentially proportional to the amount of caffeine ingested.

Figure 4-3 is a state diagram of how the detection of pen-based actions occurs. The boxes represent events that should be both mapped to mouse input and sent to tablet-aware applications.

Figure 4-3  A high-level state diagram illustrating how pen-based actions are detected (Image unavailable)

The precise algorithms for determining pen hovering and tap versus drag won’t be covered here because they’re a little out of this book’s scope.

Dispatching Events

It’s not helpful if Wisptis.exe can determine all sorts of useful pen and mouse input but can’t tell anybody about it. Luckily for us, the last key function Wisptis.exe performs is client notification of input events for both mouse and tablet input.

Mouse input is easy enough to send to applications because User32.dll provides a convenient function named SendInput to automate mouse action. Tablet input, on the other hand, needs a more efficient mechanism because there’s typically so much data to send. Remember that in order to have great ink, the frequency of data sampling must be high and pen handling such as pressure and tilt should be captured if possible. Both of these variables raise the required data throughput of tablet input data across processes substantially. The Windows mouse message architecture would not be able to efficiently handle the data throughput requirements of tablet input because of both the high amount of data per message and its sampling frequency. Realistically behaving ink needs to be responsive and accurate; therefore, another mechanism must be used.

Wisptis.exe communicates tablet input events to a tablet-aware application using RPC (remote procedure) calls and a shared-memory queue. A DLL running in the app’s process space, InkObj.dll, receives notifications from Wisptis.exe that events are occurring, reads them from the shared-memory queue, and dispatches them to the appropriate handler in the tablet-aware app. Figure 4-4 illustrates the communication of data between Wisptis.exe and a tablet-aware application.

Figure 4-4  Wisptis.exe communicates tablet input data to a tablet-aware application through a queue to avoid losing any data. (Image unavailable)

Although tablet-unaware applications receive mouse events, it’s interesting to note that tablet-aware applications receive both mouse events and tablet input events. The reason for this is simple: backward compatibility. Many existing Windows technologies rely only on mouse messages—OLE drag and drop, windowless controls, and even setting the mouse cursor properly all require mouse input. We’ll cover some interesting side effects of receiving two sets of events later in the chapter.

Making Sense of It All

Wisptis.exe sure does a lot of stuff, doesn’t it? To help illustrate what’s going on, the following pseudocode highlights the main functionality of Wisptis.exe.

In essence, the data that is retrieved from the HID driver is used to determine whether the targeted application is tablet aware. If the application is tablet aware, the data is dispatched to it. The data is then processed by some code to detect pen-based actions, and if an action is detected the pen action is then dispatched to the targeted tablet-aware application, if there is one. Finally, the corresponding mouse behavior is performed.

120 Winlogon Desktop Support

The following applies only to Windows XP Tablet PC Edition. Notice how the diagram in Figure 4-1 is divided into left and right portions—this logical division represents the Winlogon "secure" desktop and the Application desktop. The Winlogon desktop is the one you see at the Windows XP login screen; it operates at a high security level. When the Winlogon desktop is active (for example, the user is logging in or is unlocking his or her machine), the Tablet PC Input Panel (TIP) can be used to enter credentials. Because the Wisptis.exe process executes only in a user’s session, mouse emulation is then needed to be able to use the TIP. A small DLL file, named Tpgwlnot.dll, executes in the Winlogon.exe process and performs that mouse emulation, though only with basic functionality—no pen-based actions are detected. Tpgwlnot.dll also launches Wisptis.exe when a user first logs on and restarts it if needed (for example, Wisptis.exe terminates because the user ends the process or an exception occurs).

122 What About Ink?

So far, everything we’ve covered in the Tablet PC’s TIS has met the requirements of the input system we defined, except for one thing: real-time ink! Some of the pieces are there—such as good data capture and throughput—but rendering and storing the strokes in memory aren’t. The Tablet PC Platform supports this, though not as part of the TIS. Instead, that functionality lies in the domain of ink data management, mostly the subject of the next two chapters.

Now that we conceptually understand what the tablet input subsystem does, let’s actually use it to do something, shall we? It’s time to write some code!

124 Platform SDK Support for Tablet Input

There are two key classes in the Tablet PC managed API that facilitate tablet input—the InkCollector class and the InkOverlay class. You may also recall that the Tablet PC Platform SDK provides some controls that perform tablet input as well; they will be the subject of Chapter 8. For the time being, we’ll focus on tablet input at the class level.

126 Getting Ink from a Tablet

Real-time inking is arguably the most desirable functionality in a Tablet PC application. After all, that’s one of the key differentiators between a Tablet PC and a traditional PC, and it turns out to be one of the most nontrivial to implement. The designers of the Tablet PC Platform realize this, and they have turned a non-trivial task into a trivial one by packaging real-time inking functionality into the InkCollector and InkOverlay classes.

Say Hello to the InkCollector

We’ll start off by looking at InkCollector—a class whose primary purpose is to provide real-time ink input to an application. InkCollector objects use a Windows Forms–based window as an ink canvas—a rectangular region in which pen input will be captured. This window is commonly referred to as the InkCollector’s host window.

The InkCollector class can provide an application with useful events such as system gesture detection and ink gesture recognition if desired. It also remembers the ink that the user has drawn, so repaints of the host window preserve any ink that was previously drawn. The bonus here is that the InkCollector class is extremely easy to use, as you’ll see in this first sample application.

NOTE:
Recall that only Windows XP Tablet PC Edition ships "out of the box" with ink recognition capability.

Sample Application: "HelloInkCollector"

Let’s dive right into learning about using InkCollector by looking at some code. This sample shows the most straightforward use of the InkCollector class in an application: a form is created and an InkCollector instance is attached to the window. Digital ink can then be drawn on the form, as shown in Figure 4-5, using the tablet hardware installed in the system, including the mouse.

Figure 4-5  Greetings from the HelloInkCollector sample application (Image unavailable)

Perhaps what’s most surprising about the HelloInkCollector application is that the key functionality is only two lines of code! Check it out:

You’ll notice how the Visual Studio .NET forms designer was not used to create the user interface for the application—this was done purposefully. All the sample applications are like this, for two reasons: it simplifies things for those who wish to manually type in the code, and it keeps the code succinct (hopefully) in its meaning.

After creating a form, the HelloInkCollector application includes the form’s handle property in the InkCollector constructor—this tells InkCollector we want the form to be the host window:

// Create a new InkCollector, using the form for the host
// window
inkCollector = new InkCollector(Handle);

Once the InkCollector object has been created, inking functionality can be activated by setting the Enabled property to true.

At this point, the user is free to ink on the form using any installed tablet device. When the form is invalidated the ink will repaint automatically, and if you try to draw ink off the edge of the form, the ink will be clipped to the form’s boundaries. Not bad for a couple of lines of code!

NOTE:
The HelloInkCollector sample uses an entire form’s client area for the ink canvas. If a smaller area in the form is desired, there are three ways to accomplish this: the first method is to use a child window on the form as the host window (which is what the rest of the samples in this chapter do), the second method is to specify to InkCollector an input rectangle within the host window via the SetWindowInputRectangle API, and the third is to set the InkCollector’s Margin X and Margin Y properties.

Now that we have a basic application that provides inking functionality up and running, let’s see how easy it is to get some editing functionality running.

128 When Ink Is Not Enough

The InkCollector class is great at providing real-time ink, but oftentimes you’ll want to give your users the ability to select, manipulate, and erase the ink they’ve drawn. InkCollector doesn’t have any support for this, but it’s definitely possible to augment InkCollector and write all that functionality yourself. However, that would be a rather time-consuming task, and quite a wasteful one—especially if only standard ink interaction behavior was desired! Tablet PC developers everywhere would be reinventing the wheel, which isn’t exactly an indicator of a great software platform. Fortunately, the Tablet PC Platform SDK provides a class named InkOverlay that implements common ink-interaction behaviors—it supports selecting, moving, resizing, and erasing ink, as well as all the real-time inking capability that InkCollector has.

NOTE:
InkOverlay is a proper superset of the InkCollector—an instance of InkCollector can be replaced by an instance of InkOverlay and it will always function identically. The Ink Controls: InkPicture and InkEdit:
In addition to the InkCollector and InkOverlay classes, the Tablet PC Platform provides two controls that are capable of accepting input: InkPicture and InkEdit. They are both Windows Forms controls and are designed to make forms-based ink capture easier. We’ll discuss them in detail in Chapter 8.

InkOverlay has a property named EditingMode that indicates the input behavior (or input mode) that should be currently active. The property is of the type InkOverlayEditingMode. Table 4-3 lists its members and the resulting behaviors.

Sample Application: HelloInkOverlay

Demonstrating most of the extra functionality that InkOverlay has over InkCollector is quite easy. This next sample application is similar to HelloInkCollector except it uses a panel control as the host window, adds a ComboBox to change the EditingMode, and adds a push button to change ink color. You could also use a panel as the host window and include the ability to change ink color in HelloInkCollector because inking functionality is identical between InkCollector and InkOverlay. For the first sample to be as brief as possible we opted not to include them. Figure 4-6 shows what HelloInkOverlay looks like in action.

Figure 4-6  The InkOverlay class provides everything InkCollector does and also has selection and erasing abilities. (Image unavailable)

HelloInkOverlay.cs

That’s a fair bit longer of a listing than HelloInkCollector, isn’t it? There isn’t much more Tablet Input API usage, though—you’ll notice that most of the extra code deals with the child controls on the form. Let’s take a closer look at the interesting parts of the sample.

After creating the child controls, placing them on the form, and filling up the ComboBox using C#’s awesome reflective abilities, an InkOverlay object is created, specifying the panel control as the host window:

That’s a bit different from using the entire form as the host window, but InkCollector and InkOverlay can handle this situation nicely (pardon the pun). Ink will be clipped to the edge of the control, and the user won’t be able to start inking outside the control’s boundaries. By using the 3-D border effect and white background on the panel control we get a nice visual representation of where the user can and cannot ink.

Next the selection in the ComboBox is updated using the EditingMode property of InkOverlay, and then tablet input is enabled.

This code snippet changes the color of the ink using the common color dialog:

InkCollector and InkOverlay objects keep a set of ink rendering properties around named default drawing attributes. These are characteristics such as color, thickness, and pen tip style that are encapsulated by a class named DrawingAttributes. InkCollector uses a property of type DrawingAttributes to maintain the default drawing attributes, named DefaultDrawingAttributes.

Subsequent strokes created in the InkCollector will take on the new color set from the dialog. More detailed coverage of drawing attributes and ink rendering will be covered in the next chapter.

Lastly, when the EditingMode ComboBox selection is changed, the editing mode of the InkOverlay instance is updated.

When you run the HelloInkOverlay application, it will quickly become apparent just how much functionality InkOverlay has. You can draw ink, select the ink, move it, resize it, and erase it—all from a small program.

Changing the Eraser Mode

The Delete mode can be either stroke-based or point-based, referring to the granularity of ink that is removed when the stroke is touched. Stroke-based erasure will delete the entire stroke when it’s hit, and point-based erasure chops out ink from a stroke when it’s hit (much like a real eraser does). The property EraserMode in the InkOverlay class indicates which form of erasing should be performed. It is of type InkOverlayEraserMode, which is an enumeration with two members: StrokeErase and PointErase. The default value of the EraserMode property is InkOverlayEraserMode.StrokeErase. Point-based erase has an eraser size—essentially the amount of ink to erase from within a stroke—that is specified by the EraserWidth property on an InkOverlay object.

Try uncommenting the code just after the InkOverlay object is created to play around with the point-level erase functionality:

The eraser width is specified in 100ths of a millimeter, otherwise known as HIMETRIC units—the coordinate measurement used for all ink in the Tablet PC Platform.

The InkControl Class in the BuildingTabletApps Library

Included on the CD-ROM of this book is the BuildingTabletApps library, containing numerous helper classes and functions you are free to leverage in your own applications. The functionality of HelloInkOverlay is encapsulated in the InkControl class, used in upcoming chapters’ sample applications to provide a "quick and dirty" editing UI, avoiding the replication of HelloInkOverlay’s code in every case.

InkOverlay’s Attach Mode

Another advantage the InkOverlay class has over InkCollector is the ability to attach to the host window in two ways. By default, InkCollector and InkOverlay objects will use the actual host window as the canvas to collect and draw ink on. Depending on the behavior of the host window, though, it is possible for redraw problems to occur.

For example, a host window might draw on itself when an event other than paint occurs, which could result in ink being obscured until the next paint event occurs. Another example is if a control is specified as the host window when the host window belongs to another process (perhaps an OCX is used that is implemented in a separate .exe). In this case, ink collection will fail because the InkCollector and InkOverlay require the host window to belong to the same process as they do.

To solve these problems, the InkOverlay class can use a window of its own to collect and render ink. Setting the AttachMode property of an InkOverlay to InkOverlayAttachMode.InFront results in a transparent window being used instead of the host window. The default value of the AttachMode property is InkOverlayAttachMode.Behind, the other value in the InkOverlayAttachMode enumeration.

The InkOverlay class is a great way for your application to get common ink behavior. However, it can’t fully provide the ink experience that the Tablet PC can in an application like Windows Journal. A brief summary of the functionality that the InkOverlay class doesn’t provide you is listed here:

  • Using the top-of-pen as an eraser
  • Press-and-hold (or right-click and right-drag) in ink mode to modelessly switch to select mode
  • An insert/remove space mode
  • Showing selection feedback in real time (for instance, as the lasso is being drawn, ink becomes selected or deselected immediately as it is enclosed or excluded by the lasso)
  • Using a scratchout gesture to delete strokes

Luckily, that’s a pretty short list. And these deficiencies are addressed by sample applications in this book. The first two items are covered in this chapter; the next two are covered in the next chapter, and the last is covered in Chapter 7.

NOTE:
It’s not really fair to do a full-out feature comparison of InkOverlay and Windows Journal because Journal was written as an end-to-end application. However, there is a quantifiable set of features that defines an inking experience, and it’s that set that is being used to compare the two pieces of software. NOTE:
If the InkOverlay class is a superset of InkCollector with commonly used functionality, you might ask why InkCollector even exists. That’s a good question! The most reasonable answer we can come up with is this: InkCollector is useful if you want to customize tablet input behavior and when little or none of InkOverlay’s functionality is desired— that makes a cleaner basis to start from. Otherwise, you might as well always use InkOverlay and get its extra functionality for free.

Now that we’ve seen the surface of tablet input functionality that the Tablet PC Platform provides, let’s move on to studying tablet input events of InkCollector and InkOverlay. To keep things simple, we’ll return to using InkCollector as the subject for tablet input capture; later on the extra events InkOverlay has will be discussed.

130>InkCollector Events

The default behavior of InkCollector and InkOverlay is cool—but what if you wanted to extend or alter that behavior, or perform certain custom actions for your own application’s needs? For example, you might want your application to

  • Be notified whenever an ink stroke is drawn so that the stroke can be serialized and sent over a network connection to another machine, perhaps as part of a collaborative whiteboard application.
  • Be notified when a press-and-hold system gesture occurs so that an object can be selected.
  • Prevent inking entirely but still receive "raw" tablet input events so that direct-manipulation editing operations can be performed.

NOTE:
Applying the term raw to tablet input refers to the simplest form of events that occur when a pen interacts with a digitizer: hover, pen down, pen move, and pen up.

InkCollector and InkOverlay expose an extensive set of event notifications that can be used to trigger other functionality or alter default behavior. These events can be grouped into various categories of notifications to better understand their purpose.

Ink Stroke Events

This first class of events occurs as a result of digital ink being created. An ink stroke can cause either the Stroke event or Gesture event to fire when it’s created—by default, InkCollector and InkOverlay do not try to recognize strokes as gestures, so the Stroke event always is fired when a stroke is created. InkCollector and InkOverlay have a property named CollectionMode (of type CollectionMode) that indicates how gesture recognition should take place—collect ink only and not recognize gestures (the default value of InkOnly), collect ink and recognize ink as gestures if possible (InkAndGesture), or recognize ink as gestures only (GestureOnly). The Stroke and Gesture events are shown in Table 4-4.

Table 4-4  Stroke and Gesture Events

When either the Stroke or Gesture event fires, the corresponding EventArgs-based object has a property named Cancel that allows the ink stroke to be thrown away or added to the InkCollector or InkOverlay’s Ink object. By default, the Stroke event has this property set to false (to mean always save the stroke unless code in the event handler says otherwise), as does the Gesture event (to mean always throw the stroke away and fire the stroke event unless code in the event handler says otherwise).

Pen Movement Events

The next category of events occurs as a result of discrete physical actions with the cursor. A cursor in the Tablet PC Platform sense simply refers to a pen or a mouse. Take a look at the pen movement events in Table 4-5. You can see how the names of these events map easily to their descriptions.

The CursorInRange and CursorOutOfRange events indicate the cursor is coming in or out of physical range with the ink canvas area—this can mean either horizontally (within the x and y plane) or vertically (if the tablet hardware supports this). The CursorDown, CursorButtonDown, and CursorButtonUp events refer to the cursor tip going down or pen buttons being pressed or released.

The NewPackets and NewInAirPackets events signal that the current cursor state has been updated. They will be further discussed later in this chapter.

The SystemGesture event is one of the most useful events in this list because it refers to the fact that a system gesture (referred to as a pen-based action earlier in the chapter) has been recognized. The InkCollectorSystemGestureEventArgs object given to the event handler specifies which system gesture was recognized through its Id property—a value in the SystemGesture enumeration. System gestures are useful when implementing your own editing behaviors.

NOTE:
Members of the SystemGesture enumeration include Tap, Drag, RightTap, RightDrag, and DoubleTap.

Mouse Trigger Events

Mouse events are typically sent alongside tablet input events. The mouse trigger events of the InkCollector class, described in Table 4-6, are used to prevent those mouse events from being fired.

Each event’s EventArg-based parameter has a Cancel property that is initially set to false. If the event handler sets the value to true, the corresponding mouse event will not fire.

Tablet Hardware Events

The class of events pertaining to tablet hardware occurs when a tablet device is either added or removed from the system.

NOTE:
The InkCollectorTabletRemovedEventArgs class’s property TabletId is the index into the Tablets collection of the Tablet object being removed. The Tablets collection is introduced in the upcoming section, "Getting Introspective."

Rendering Events (InkOverlay Only)

The InkOverlay class provides two events related to rendering—the Painting event, which indicates that the InkOverlay object is about to draw itself, and the Painted event, which indicates that drawing is complete.

The Painting event proves useful if you’d ever want to alter any properties of the Graphic object being drawn to, adjust the clipping rectangle, or cancel rendering from happening altogether. The Painted event allows you to augment the rendering of the InkOverlay with any drawing of your own—for example, when implementing some tagging functionality an application would draw its tag icons in an event handler for the Painted event.

Ink Editing Events (InkOverlay Only)

The events in this ink editing category, described in Table 4-9, are fairly interesting because they can be used to somewhat alter the InkOverlay’s behavior.

The events with the suffix "ing" permit their impending behavior to be changed (or even canceled) by setting relevant data in the EventArgs-based object given to an event handler. SelectionChanging event’s EventArgs object makes available for inspection and modification the collection of strokes that is to become selected, SelectionMoving makes available for inspection and modification the rectangle of the in-progress move location, SelectionResizing makes available for inspection and modification the rectangle of the in-progress resize amount, and StrokesDeleting makes available for inspection and modification the collection of strokes to be deleted.

Exposing data such as this enables an application to implement functionality such as read-only ink, unselectable ink, or even remotely automated user interface interaction.

Sample Application: InputWatcher

After all this talking about events, it would be great to get a better idea of exactly what InkCollector events get fired, when, and in what order. This next sample application lets you see just that—the events from an InkCollector object are monitored. The sample allows you to turn on those events you want to see logged, and when events fire their results are logged to a window. You can also change the collection mode of the InkCollector to observe the effect it has. The application is shown in Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-7  InputWatcher logs events from InkCollector to an output window. (Image unavailable)

The source for this sample is quite lengthy, but you might find it’s well worth playing around with it in Visual Studio .NET to get a better feel for the various properties on the EventArgs-based objects. So here is the source listing in its entirety:

InputWatcher.cs

Whew, that is a really long listing! But don’t worry, it’s not as complex as it appears. Unfortunately, there’s a lot of bloat that occurs because we are unable to generically add and remove delegates to the InkCollector, and also because we can’t generically process events received.

The InputWatcher application starts off in a similar fashion to what we’ve already seen. The main form creates its child controls: a panel to be used as an InkCollector’s host window, a button to clear out any ink in the InkCollector and any output in the log window, a ComboBox to specify collection mode, a checked ListBox for choosing events to log, and a ListBox used for crude output logging. The user interface elements are then initialized with relevant data, and an InkCollector instance is created using the panel as the host window.

Things start to get interesting in the clbEvents_ItemCheck event handler, which adds or removes InkCollector event handlers from the InkCollector object depending on the CheckBox state of the ListBox item. Each handler is responsible for logging interesting properties of the event to the output window.

The cbxMode_SelIndexChg event handler deals with the selection changing in the ComboBox that specifies collection mode. Note that the InkCollector is disabled when the collection mode is changed and then re-enabled afterward:

Some of the InkCollector’s properties and methods require tablet input to be shut off in order for them to be used—a safeguard to prevent simultaneous user input and programmatic usage.

The purpose of the SetGestureStatus calls in the preceding code is to provide the gesture recognizer component with the list of gestures we’re interested in recognizing. This can improve recognition performance and accuracy, which will be discussed in Chapter 7. By default, the gesture recognizer won’t try to recognize any gestures; it will merely return ApplicationGesture.NoGesture in the InkCollectorGestureEventArgs object’s Gestures array. To get some recognition results, when a collection mode in which gesture recognition can occur is set, we’ll ask for every gesture to be recognized for simplicity.

The last piece of code we’ll look at in this sample is the btnClear_Click event handler. This method removes all strokes from the InkCollector with the following code:

The Ink object attached to the InkCollector provides a method named DeleteStrokes we can use to remove all the strokes from it. Once the strokes are removed, we need to refresh the host window to reflect the absence of ink in the Ink object.

Analyzing the Events

After running InputWatcher and doing some inking on the ink canvas, you’ll quickly notice that the log window shows no output. That’s because all the events are turned off when the application starts up—try turning on the Stroke and Gesture events and drawing some ink. Notice how in InkOnly collection mode only Stroke events occur. If you have a gesture recognizer installed, set the collection mode to InkAndGesture and write some text (for instance, your name). You might see some Gesture events firing as well as Stroke events, meaning that the gesture recognizer thinks one or more of the strokes you wrote looks like a known gesture. If the collection mode is set to GestureOnly, you’ll notice that only Gesture events will fire—this means that every stroke is being recognized as a gesture, although perhaps an unknown one. Additionally, multiple strokes can form a gesture such as a double circle.

Let’s take a look at some sequences of events for common actions, so try this: turn on every single event type and draw a stroke across the ink canvas. Whoa! The output window is deluged with loads of events, mostly of the types MouseMove, NewInAirPackets, and NewPackets. This actually does make sense because those events represent an update to the current state of the cursor, when it’s either on the digitizer’s surface or hovering over it. More information on what exactly "the current state of the cursor" means will be discussed in the upcoming section, "Specifying the Tablet Data to Capture—Packet Properties."

To reduce the quantity of events logged to the output window, turn off the MouseDown, MouseMove, MouseUp, and NewInAirPackets events and tap the Clear button. Now draw a stroke again—this time the output won’t be quite as overwhelming. You should see something similar to the following:

The installed tablet devices each have at least one cursor that is used to perform input. To distinguish between various cursors, they are assigned a unique ID, known as the CursorId. Each cursor also has one or more cursor buttons, where a cursor button can be either a tip on a stylus or a physical button on a cursor.

The preceding events show that when the pen touches the digitizer surface, a CursorButtonDown event is fired and immediately followed by a CursorDown event. Remember that a cursor button can be a tip of a pen, so the tip being touched to the digitizer surface is considered the button being pressed down—hence the CursorButtonDown event being fired. The CursorDown event refers to the fact that a tip or the primary button on the cursor has been pressed down, signaling the start of an ink stroke.

The various NewPackets events following the CursorDown mean the cursor’s input state is updated—that is, the cursor’s location and possibly other data such as pressure amount and tilt has been sampled and packaged into one or more packets and then sent to the InkCollector instance. These events are received throughout the duration of the cursor being pressed down.

The SystemGesture event indicates that a Drag system gesture was detected, though in your case it could be Tap, RightDrag, or RightTap, depending on how the stroke was drawn. Notice how the system gesture event didn’t fire immediately after CursorDown because Wisptis.exe needs to compute whether a tap or a drag is occurring, as we found out earlier in the chapter. The other NewPackets events following SystemGesture indicate how data is continuously being sampled for the cursor and sent to the InkCollector object.

Finally a Stroke event is fired, indicating that a new stroke has been created, and a CursorButtonUp event is fired, meaning that the cursor has been lifted or its primary button has been released.

TIP:
The CursorButtonDown and CursorButtonUp events always bookend each other, as does CursorDown with Stroke or Gesture.

Now try hovering the pen over the input area and clicking the barrel button if it has one. You should see something similar to this output:

CursorButtonDown CursorId=8 BtnName=barrel BtnId={GUID value}
CursorButtonUp CursorId=8 BtnName=barrel BtnId={GUID value}

The cursor ID is the same as before, but this time the button name and perhaps the GUID value are different, implying that a different button was detected.

If your pen has an eraser tip, try inverting the pen over the input area and then turning it back over to the writing end—observe:

The NewCursor property of the InkCollectorCursorInRangeEventArgs class discloses whether the InkCollector instance has seen that cursor over the InkCollector’s lifetime. That information can be useful for your application to initialize some data structures to handle unique properties of the cursor, or even to trigger some user interface prompting the user to set some initial properties for the cursor (for instance, ink color and ink vs. eraser functionality). The collection of cursors encountered by the InkCollector is provided by the cursor’s property of the InkCollector class. The preceding example also shows how the eraser tip is considered a different cursor from the ink tip because it has a different cursor ID and NewCursor equals true. Note also how the Inverted property equals true— we’ll use that information later when we implement top-of-pen erase functionality. When the pen is righted again, we see that the cursor ID is the original value it was before the eraser tip was used—and we also know the ink tip is being used because the Inverted property equals false, and the InkCollector has seen the cursor before.

Mouse Message Synchronization:
Events from the InkCollector travel a different path through the Windows OS than mouse messages do. InkCollector events come from Wisptis.exe, dispatched to a tablet-aware application by RPC. Mouse events are triggered by Wisptis.exe, but come from User32.dll and are dispatched to an application through the application’s message queue. Both processes (Wisptis.exe and the application receiving the event) are naturally executing asynchronously to one another. Because of this, you cannot rely on the ordering of InkCollector events in conjunction with mouse events. It’s perfectly OK to rely on the ordering of just InkCollector events and/or just mouse events, but not both together.

132InkOverlay Events

The additional events that the InkOverlay class fires, that is, Painting, Painted, SelectionChanging, SelectionChanged, SelectionMoving, SelectionMoved, SelectionResizing, SelectionResized, StrokesDeleting, and StrokesDeleted, weren’t included in the already long sample for brevity, and for the fact that they are straightforward in their behavior. Hence, it’s left as an exercise for the reader to add the InkOverlay events to InputWatcher and observe when they fire.

What you’ll see in the modified InputWatcher application is that the events suffixed with "ing" always precede their corresponding counterpart suffixed with "ed". For example, SelectionChanging will always fire before SelectionChanged, and SelectionMoving will always fire before SelectionMoved.

134 Specifying the Tablet Data to Capture—Packet Properties

Now it’s time to take a closer look at the data received by the NewPackets and NewInAirPackets events. What exactly is a packet, and what information is in one? To explain this, we’ll take another quick dive under the covers of the TIS to see what’s going on.

Recall that in addition to the location of the cursor, tablet digitizer hardware may provide other data such as pen pressure, tilt angle, and rotation angle to Wisptis.exe via the HID driver. This data can be used to render ink in a more expressive and realistic manner, and/or provide extended user input capabilities as discussed earlier. The various properties available from a digitizer are known as packet properties, referring to how data is communicated from the HID driver to Wisptis.exe in the form of packets—chunks of data with a format known to both the driver and Wisptis.exe. Packet properties are communicated from Wisptis.exe to a tablet-aware application, though it is the application’s responsibility to tell Wisptis.exe which properties it wants to receive.

TIP:
The availability of various packet properties is totally dependent on the hardware manufacturer (and software driver if applicable) of the tablet device. The sample application DeviceWalker found later in this chapter is able to display exactly which properties are supported by your installed hardware.

The InkCollector class exposes packet properties via its DesiredPacketDescription property. A packet description is defined to be simply a list of packet properties. As such, the DesiredPacketDescription property is an array of zero or more System.Guids—valid values of which are found as static members in the Microsoft.Ink.PacketProperty class. A few of the properties and their descriptions are given in Table 4-10.

Figure 4-8 shows how packets relate to packet properties, packet property values, and the packet description.

Figure 4-8  The relationship of packets, packet properties, packet property values, and packet description (Image unavailable)

InkCollector always ensures that X, Y, and PacketStatus are in the packet description it provides to Wisptis.exe, even if DesiredPacketDescription is null or doesn’t contain those values. In fact, if the X, Y, or PacketStatus packet property is present in the desired packet description of an InkCollector object, that property is ignored. Those packet properties are always prepended by InkCollector to the packet description when it’s specified to Wisptis.exe to make sure that the location and cursor button state of the pointer is always captured.

If the tablet digitizer you’re using supports pressure information, you’ll notice that ink drawn in HelloInkCollector will vary in width according to how much pressure was applied. This is because by default the DesiredPacketDescription property of an InkCollector object is an array containing the X, Y, and NormalPressure packet properties. Figure 4-9 shows what pressurized ink looks like—cool!

If your tablet hardware does support pressure sensitivity, try adding the following line of code in HelloInkCollector just after the InkCollector object is created:

When you compile and run the application, you’ll notice that ink thickness will not change with the amount of pressure used as strokes are drawn.

Figure 4-9  The result of pressure support in the HelloInkCollector application (Image unavailable)

Requesting Packet Properties:
If an InkCollector object’s desired packet description contains packet properties that aren’t supported by an installed tablet device, that’s OK—they’re properties that are desired, not required. The InkCollector won’t yield any data from that tablet for those properties, and it will work fine. To prove this point, notice how ink can be drawn with the mouse in the HelloInkCollector application when the DesiredPacketProperties contain PacketProperty.NormalPressure—the ink just won’t have any pressure data.

We’ll see how to determine the list of packet properties that are supported by a tablet device in the next sample application.

The NewPackets and NewInAirPackets events notify an application that a set of packet property values was received—NewPackets indicates the packets were received when the cursor was down, and NewInAirPackets indicates the packets were received when the cursor was hovering. They are two separate events instead of one because not all the EventArgs data overlaps between them.

Sample Application: PacketPropertyWatcher

To illustrate using packet property values, this sample application will list all supported packet properties for the default tablet device, allow the selection of any number of them, and display the corresponding values as the pointer is used with an instance of InkCollector.

TIP:
Because the Tablet PC Platform supports multiple tablet devices being installed, a default tablet exists to identify which tablet device should be used as the primary one.

If the only tablet device you have installed is a mouse, or if the default tablet device installed is rather meager in capability, chances are that there won’t be any packet properties available besides X and Y coordinates and PacketStatus. In this case, this sample application might not clearly demonstrate much functionality, but it is hopefully still useful for reference.

Figure 4-10 shows what the sample looks like in action.

Figure 4-10  Th e PacketPropertyWatcher sample application displaying the values of desired packet property types from the default tablet. (Image unavailable)

Now let’s take a look at the source code to PacketPropertyWatcher:

PacketPropertyWatcher.cs

The main form of the application starts off as usual by creating its child controls: a Panel to be used as an InkCollector host window, a CheckedListBox to list all the supported packet properties, and an EditBox to act as a crude UI for displaying the packet property values.

After an InkCollector instance is created using pnlInput as the host window, it is followed by some rather curious-looking code:

Recall that by default an InkCollector instance receives tablet input from all installed tablet devices. Different tablet devices can (and usually do) have different sets of supported packet properties, so to keep the user interface of this application as simple as possible we’ll just deal with the default tablet. Any other installed tablet device could be used, but the default one is typically the most capable. We tell the InkCollector which tablet device to accept input from by calling InkCollector’s SetSingleTabletIntegratedMode method.

Single vs. Multiple Tablet Mode:
Most tablet-aware applications will want all installed tablet devices used for input. However, if that’s not desirable for whatever reason, the InkCollector class supports excluding the mouse from input as well as listening to a single tablet device. InkCollector constructor overloads or the methods SetAllTabletsMode and SetSingleTabletIntegratedMode are used, respectively.

The term "integrated" indicates how input on the digitizer device should be mapped to the screen. It loosely refers to the physical relationship of the tablet device to the screen display, though it doesn’t enforce that relationship: external tablets are nonintegrated with the display, and tablets layered over the display are integrated. In the integrated case, digitizer input should be mapped to the entire screen area so that the mouse cursor will follow the pen. In the nonintegrated case, digitizer input is mapped to the InkCollector object’s host window dimensions to typically allow greater precision.

Version 1 of the Tablet PC Platform supports only integrated mapping; sometime in the future, nonintegrated mapping may be added.

The Tablets class encapsulates the collection of installed tablet devices in the system—its elements are Tablet objects. By simply creating an instance of Tablets, the collection is automatically filled and can then be used—or as the preceding code shows, its DefaultTablet property can be queried. We’ll learn more about the Tablets and Tablet classes toward the end of the chapter in the section "Getting Introspective."

Next the PacketPropertyWatcher application uses the reflective abilities of C# and the .NET Framework to fill up the CheckedListBox with the packet properties supported by the default tablet device. The Tablet class method IsPacketPropertySupported(Guid g) determines whether a given tablet device supports a given packet property. As the various packet property GUIDs are iterated over, adding only the supported ones to the CheckedListBox is done as follows:

The event handlers to the InkCollector events NewPackets and NewInAirPackets are added, and the InkCollector is enabled so that tablet input can begin.

When an item is checked or unchecked in the CheckedListBox, the clbPacketProps_ItemCheck event handler adds or removes the corresponding packet property from the InkCollector’s DesiredPacketDescription. The first part of the function computes the GUID of the packet property because items in the CheckedListBox are stored as strings, and the second part does the adding or removing:

You might be wondering what’s going on with that first while statement. Well, it turns out that to change the DesiredPacketDescription property of an InkCollector it must be in the disabled state. When changing the enabled state of an InkCollector object, no current ink collection can be occurring or else an exception will be thrown. InkCollector’s property CollectingInk is polled to cause the program flow to temporarily halt if any in-progress inking is occurring. You might now be thinking that in order for the checked ListBox’s itemChecked event to fire, the InkCollector couldn’t be in the middle of inking because the pointer was used to select the item, right? Yes, physically that’s what might have happened, but recall the asynchronous execution of Windows messages and tablet input, and how either form of event could occur in any order. If the user is quick enough, he or she could stop inking and immediately choose an item in the ListBox, causing a Windows message to fire indicating an item has been checked or unchecked in the ListBox. This would cause InkCollector’s Enabled property to be set to false, but in the meantime it’s possible that the InkCollector is still processing tablet input from the ink stroke. That would cause the Enabled property to throw an exception—an undesirable behavior.

The simple rule here is this: whenever you’re going to disable an InkCollector object, make sure you wait until any inking is completed to avoid any problems.

Once the InkCollector is disabled, the desired packet description is modified to either add or remove the chosen packet property GUID from it. Then the InkCollector is re-enabled so that tablet input can resume.

The inkCollector_NewInAirPackets and inkCollector_NewPackets event handlers call the UpdateOutput method to get the packet data displayed in the output window. Packets arrive as an array of integers along with the count of the number of packets contained in the array. Because multiple packets can arrive in one event, UpdateOutput displays only the data in the last packet—there’s no use in trying to display the others as they’d just quickly flicker by in the output window. You can see how this is handled in the following code:

The method first computes the length of one packet in the array, easily accomplished by dividing the number of packets into the total array length. An offset to the last packet in the array is computed, and then a for-loop concatenates each packet value to a string. The resulting string is then displayed in the output window.

If we wanted to actually make sense of the various members in the packet, we’d need the packet description for the tablet device. This is easily obtained in a NewPackets event handler because a Stroke object is available in the EventArgs that has a specific PacketDescription property. For a NewInAirPackets event handler, the packet description would have to be manually computed, and this is accomplished by obtaining the DesiredPacketDescription from the InkCollector, seeing if each GUID in the packet description is supported by the tablet device using the method Tablet.IsPacketPropertySupported, and then constructing an array of supported properties, always prepending the GUIDs for X and Y.

Notice that in the PacketPropertyWatcher application if you turn off the X and Y properties their values will still be displayed in the output window, proving that those properties are always collected.

Ink Coordinates

You may have noticed that the X and Y values in the packet may seem rather large in magnitude—too big to be screen pixels. Recall that tablet input not only needs to be captured quickly, but its resolution must be significantly high enough to give a great inking experience and yield high recognition accuracy.

The X and Y values in a packet are in ink coordinate space—otherwise known as HIMETRIC units. We’ll learn more about them in the next chapter, along with how to convert X and Y values into screen pixels (for example, to implement your own editing behavior or a custom ink type, perhaps).

136 Extending InkOverlay Behaviors

The functionality in the InkOverlay is cool, and it provides us with some pretty complex functionality for free. As we saw earlier, though, if you contrast InkOverlay to the inking experience Windows Journal yields, you’ll see that some functionality is missing. That functionality is what your application’s users may request once they begin using a Tablet PC with your application. Recall the list of missing functionality we enumerated earlier:

  • Using the top-of-pen as an eraser
  • Press-and-hold (or right-click and right-drag) in ink mode to modelessly switch to select mode
  • An insert/remove space mode
  • Showing selection feedback in real time (for example, as the lasso is being drawn, ink becomes selected or deselected immediately as it is enclosed or excluded by the lasso)
  • Using a scratchout gesture to delete strokes

This section addresses the first two items listed: lack of top-of-pen erase and modeless switching to select mode. The samples here illustrate possible solutions to rolling your own functionality into these areas.

138 Sample Application: TopOfPenErase

Top-of-pen erase is an extremely handy shortcut to access ink erasing functionality, not to mention an easy one to understand. The InkOverlay class provides an explicit editing mode for erasing ink (EditingMode == DeleteMode), and we saw earlier that eraser tip usage of a pen is detected through the Cursor class’s property Inverted. If we can put these two pieces of functionality together, it seems that we’re most of the way there in implementing top-of-pen erase.

The task at hand here then is to switch an InkOverlay into DeleteMode when the cursor becomes inverted and switch back to the previous mode when the pen returns to being right side up. Sounds easy enough, doesn’t it? Let’s enhance the HelloInkOverlay sample presented earlier so that it provides top-of-pen erasing:

TopOfPenErase.cs

The example differs only slightly from the original—a member variable modeSaved and an event handler for CursorInRange are added. The inkOverlay_CursorInRange event handler switches to DeleteMode when the pen is inverted and reverts to the previous mode when it is righted again. The modeSaved member stores the current InkOverlayEditingMode before the switch to DeleteMode occurs so that we know which mode to return to when the ink tip gets detected.

Notice how the modeSaved member is also updated in cbxEditMode_SelIndexChg. This is done to avoid a bug—the accidental reverting to modeSaved’s value if the CursorInRange event fires when the eraser tip isn’t used (for instance, the cursor goes outside the input area and then returns). To see the problem, try this: comment out the line that updates the value and run the application. Switch to select mode, move the pen outside the input area and then back into it—you’ll see that ink mode gets switched to instead of select mode.

140 Sample Application: ModelessSwitch

Explicit mode switching, particularly between inking and editing, is cumbersome, inefficient, and annoying. Using right-tap and right-drag (via press-and-hold, a pen barrel button, or the right mouse button) to access selection and editing behavior is convenient, not to mention powerful.

This next sample application shows an implementation of modeless switching between ink and input modes via right-tap and right-drag. In Chapter 6, at which point we’ll better understand rendering and hit-testing ink, we’ll utilize some homemade lasso selection capability (with real-time selection feedback!) so that we can complete this application’s functionality.

The application is based on the HelloInkCollector sample with one initial change—an InkOverlay is used instead of an InkCollector to get selection functionality.

ModelessSwitch.cs

You can see there’s a fair amount of logic over and above HelloInkCollector to support modeless switching. Let’s take a look at what this extra code does.

The implicit mode switch to select mode is triggered by a right-tap or right-drag, which the SystemGesture event will notify us of. When either system gesture fires, we want to throw away the ink stroke that was created; otherwise, ugly ink blobs will be added into our Ink object.

The system gestures RightTap and RightDrag are responded to in the InkOverlay_SystemGesture event handler. In the RightTap case, a reference to the stroke is saved so that it can be later thrown away in the imminent Stroke event (by setting Cancel to true in the InkCollectorStrokeEventArgs). For RightDrag, not only is a reference to the stroke saved for later disposal, but also dynamic ink rendering is turned off so that the ink stroke doesn’t continue to be drawn. Also, the stroke is made completely invisible by having its drawing attributes’ Transparency property set to 255 (the maximum value). These both give the user the visual impression that the stroke disappears during creation.

142 Getting Introspective

Sitting alone in front of a crackling fire, sipping a glass of cabernet, listening to William Shatner’s rendition of "Mr. Tambourine Man"… life, the universe—what does it all mean? OK, that’s actually not what’s being referred to here. Rather, we’re going to talk about how your tablet-aware application might find it useful to know more about the hardware environment it’s running in—perhaps find out how many tablet devices are installed, what their capabilities are, and so on.

This section covers the Platform SDK support to introspect the system, in order to garner all the information you’d ever need about the installed tablet devices.

144>Tablets Collection

We briefly saw earlier that the Tablets class encapsulates the collection of installed tablet devices in the system. The collection’s elements are Tablet objects, representing a single installed tablet device. You obtain an instance of Tablets simply by allocating it—Tablet PC Platform will automatically fill in the contents.

Besides having the normal collection properties and methods, the Tablets class also has a DefaultTablet property that identifies the primary tablet device installed in the system.

146>Tablet Class

Tablet devices installed in the system have various attributes, such as a name, a coordinate system, a list of all the packet properties it can report, and other capabilities such as being able to uniquely identify pens.

The Tablet class encapsulates the properties of an installed tablet device. Let’s take a look at each of these properties in Table 4-11:

The HardwareCapabilities property is a bitfield of values found in the TabletHardwareCapabilities enumeration. The various capabilities of tablet hardware that the Tablet PC Platform currently enumerates are as listed in Table 4-12:

Table 4-12  The Members of the TabletHardwareCapabilities Enumeration

The Tablet class’s IsPacketPropertySupported method is a useful function that tells you whether the tablet supports or provides a given packet property type. We saw use of this function earlier in the PacketPropertyWatcher sample so that the ListBox could be filled up only with packet properties that the default tablet supported.

The GetPropertyMetrics method returns an instance of TabletPropertyMetrics given a packet property GUID. TabletPropertyMetrics is used to provide the units, resolution, and minimum and maximum values of a packet property type. This is useful information if you ever want to parse packet data beyond just X and Y values—for example, if you wanted pen pressure or rotation to perform some special behavior, the TabletPropertyMetrics of the packet property should be used so that you know how to interpret those packet data values.

Sample Application: DeviceWalker

This final sample application displays all installed tablet devices, their capabilities, and supported packet properties, as shown in Figure 4-11.

Figure 4-11  The DeviceWalker sample application shows the capabilities of all the tablet devices installed in the system. (Image unavailable)

DeviceWalker.cs

The cbTablets_SelIndexChg method does the lion’s share of the work in this application—it fills in the UI with the hardware capabilities and supported packet properties of the currently selected tablet device. Again we take advantage of C#’s reflection abilities to enumerate various members of enumerations and classes.

148>Common Properties on InkCollector and InkOverlay

In an effort to bring together all that we’ve learned thus far, we’ve put together a mini-review of the InkCollector and InkOverlay classes by listing the commonly used properties, methods, and events in them. Tables 4-13 and 4-14 aren’t meant to be an exhaustive reference, merely an effort to summarize the information that has been covered in the chapter.

Table 4-13  InkCollector and InkOverlay Mini-Reference

Table 4-14  InkOverlay Mini-Reference

150 Best Practices for InkCollector and InkOverlay

Now that you’re armed with a boatload of knowledge about tablet input, it’s worth covering a few points of interest in properly using certain facilities. To sum up the core philosophy behind getting the most out of tablet input, "conservation is key."

Let’s look at some things you should keep in mind when using either the InkCollector or InkOverlay classes.

NewPackets and NewInAirPackets Events

Remember that tablet events occur a lot more frequently than mouse events do. Performance is crucial when you use the NewPackets and NewInAirPackets event handlers because they’re called so often. Ink performance can suffer dramatically if too much time is taken executing code in them—so if you can, don’t even use those handlers in your application. You might be able to use the mouse events instead.

If you do need to use NewPackets and NewInAirPackets, the code in the handlers should be efficient; try to avoid potentially slow operations such as rendering or network access.

Choosing Desired Packet Properties

Packet property types are cool, but try to be conservative when requesting them. Recall that Wisptis.exe packs the property values into packets that are sent to a tablet-aware application via a packet queue. Because each packet property adds an integer value to each packet, requesting many packet properties can cause the packet size to be large. This can slow down the communication between Wisptis.exe and your application, resulting in poor inking performance.

Gesture Recognition

A similar philosophy to packet properties should be taken with gesture recognition. Gestures can take a long time to recognize, so the set of gestures your application uses should be kept to a minimum. This is not to say gestures are bad because they’re definitely not! It’s just that executing code that recognizes gestures your application isn’t interested in will only slow down getting the results of gestures your application is interested in. Therefore, use the InkCollector’s SetGestureStatus method to specify only the gestures you’re interested in being recognized.

Mouse Events

Recall that mouse events occur asynchronously to tablet input events. This can have a negative effect on user interface behavior if you’re not careful. If your application changes the user interface state as a result of a tablet event (for example, showing a context menu, bringing up a dialog, or hiding a form), the corresponding mouse event may occur either before or after that user interface change. That may cause some strange behavior that can be tough to debug.

Consider this example—in the SystemGesture event handler, an application chooses to show a context menu as the result of a RightTap. Sometimes the menu will randomly immediately disappear, not allowing the user to choose any item in it. What’s happening? The mouse events that Wisptis.exe is generating are getting processed after the tablet input event is, and that causes User32.dll to think that the user has clicked the right-mouse button, causing the menu to be dismissed. Yuck!

The general rule of thumb here is: perform user interface changes only for those mouse events that have an effect in mouse event handlers.

152>Summary

This chapter covered a lot of material—hopefully everything you’d ever want to know about tablet input.

We started off looking at the requirements and the architecture of the tablet input subsystem in Windows XP Tablet PC Edition and under a Windows-based OS running Tablet PC runtime libraries. We were then introduced to the InkCollector and InkOverlay classes and how they facilitate any occurring tablet input. We learned about the capabilities of InkCollector and InkOverlay and how to leverage them in a hands-on sense through various sample applications. And finally we presented some real-world knowledge from folks who have used the stuff.

Now that you know all about collecting ink, the next two chapters will show you how to manipulate it in all sorts of fun ways.

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