Building the Mobile Internet

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Overview

The complete guide to technologies and protocols for delivering seamless mobile Internet experiences

In Building the Mobile Internet, three leading mobility architects and implementers from Cisco present complete foundational knowledge about tomorrow’s mobile Internet. The authors cover everything from market trends and user expectations to the latest technical approaches for making the Internet “mobile by design.”

Writing for senior technology decision-makers and network design professionals, the authors explain the relatively static nature of the Internet’s original protocols and design, discuss the concept of “mobility,” and identify evolving mobility requirements. Next, they thoroughly explain each of today’s most promising techniques for building mobility into the Internet, from data link layer to application layer. For each layer, the authors cover mechanisms, protocols, relevant Wi-Fi and cellular architectures, and key use cases.

Using this book’s guidance, mobile network executives can define more effective strategies, network designers can construct more effective architectures, and network engineers can execute more successful migrations.

Mark Grayson, Cisco Distinguished Consulting Engineer, leads Cisco’s mobile architecture strategy. He has 20+ years of wireless experience ranging from military and satellite systems to the evolution of traditional cellular architectures and the creation of new small cell solutions. He has been granted 50+ patents.

Kevin Shatzkamer, Cisco Distinguished Systems Architect, is responsible for long-term strategy and architectural evolution of Cisco mobile wireless networks. His experience ranges from 3G and LTE to security, video distribution, and QoS. He now works with both content providers and service providers to enhance the end-to-end digital media value chain for mobility.

Klaas Wierenga, Senior Consulting Engineer in Cisco’s Office of the CTO, has 15+ years of experience implementing diverse mobility, security, and identity solutions for enterprises, municipalities, hospitals, and universities. He created the worldwide eduroam service for federated network access in academia.

· Understanding key mobility market trends: device proliferation, accelerating consumption, and radio-specific scalability problems

· Reviewing the challenges that mobility presents to conventional Internet architectures

· Understanding nomadicity, including authentication for users moving across networks and operators

· Identifying opportunities to address mobility at the data link layer

· Comparing and using network layer solutions to deliver seamless mobility and session continuity

· Integrating mobility functionality into the transport/session layer

· Adding mobility functionality to the application layer–including support for moving media sessions between devices

· Redesigning Internet architecture to enable long-term improvements to mobility

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587142437
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 2/16/2011
  • Series: Networking Technology Series
  • Pages: 254
  • Sales rank: 927,135
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Mark Grayson is a distinguished consulting engineer at Cisco Systems with responsibility for leading Cisco’s mobile architecture strategy. He has over 20 years of experience in the wireless industry, ranging from the development of military systems, the definition of satellite communication architectures, and the evolution of traditional cellular systems to the creation of the latest small-cell solutions. He holds a first class honors degree in electronics and communications engineering from the University of Birmingham (England) together with a Ph.D. in radio communications. Mark has been granted over 50 patents in the area of mobile communications and is the coauthor of IP Design for Mobile Networks (Cisco Press).

You can contact Mark Grayson at mgrayson@cisco.com.

Kevin Shatzkamer is a distinguished systems architect at Cisco Systems with responsibility for long-term strategy and architectural evolution of mobile wireless networks. He has worked at Cisco and in the mobile wireless industry for over 10 years, focusing on various technologies that include 3G and LTE networks, packet gateways, network-based services and security, video distribution, quality of service, and end-to-end design theory. Kevin holds four issued patents and has 16 pending patents related to all areas of work. Kevin holds a Bachelor of Engineering degree from the University of Florida and a Master of Business Administration from Indiana University.

Kevin Shatzkamer is a regular speaker at various trade shows and industry forums and has previously published IP Design for Mobile Networks, a Cisco Press book that discusses the technologies and requirements shaping the future of the mobile Internet, from RAN to services. Kevin’s current area of focus is the end-to-end digital media value chain for mobility, working with both content providers and service providers to create unique mobile media service offerings.

You can contact Kevin Shatzkamer at kshatzka@cisco.com.

Klaas Wierenga is a senior consulting engineer in the office of the CTO at Cisco. His 15-plus years of experience include the planning, analysis, and design of numerous solutions for enterprises, municipalities, hospitals, and universities in the fields of mobility, security, and identity worldwide. Klaas is the original creator of the worldwide eduroam service for federated network access in academia and cocreator of the federated identity solution that forms the basis of the Dutch government’s e-Identity portfolio. He is the author of numerous publications and has presented many times on wireless networking, security, and identity topics. Klaas is active within 3GPP, in the group responsible for the security architecture of future mobile networks. He serves as chairman of the Abfab Working Group in the IETF, which deals with federated access for non-web applications, as well as of the Task Force on Mobility and Network Middleware of TERENA, the European Association for Research and Education Networks. Klaas holds a master’s degree in computer science from the University of Groningen (The Netherlands).

You can contact Klaas Wierenga at klaas@cisco.com.

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Table of Contents

Introduction xvii

Part I Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction to “Mobility” 1

Mobility Market 2

Consumption Trends 5

Mobile Challenges 9

Summary 11

Endnotes 12

Chapter 2 Internet “Sessions” 13

The Internet and Communication 13

Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching 14

IP over Everything, Everything over IP 15

Addresses 16

IPv4 Addresses 16

IPv6 Addresses 18

Routing 19

Routers 19

Routing Protocols 20

Broadcast 20

IP Multicast 20

Network Address Translation 21

TCP/IP Five-Layer Model 21

Layer 1: The Physical Layer 23

Layer 2: The Data Link Layer 23

Ethernet 23

ARP 24

Layer 3: The Internet or IP Layer 24

Layer 4: The Transport Layer 24

UDP 25

TCP 25

Layer 5: The Application Layer 27

Socket API 27

DNS 28

DHCP 29

HTTP 29

Sessions and Mobility 30

Session Persistence and the Locator-Identifier Problem 30

Building the Mobile Internet 31

Summary 32

Endnotes 32

Part II Mobility Approaches

Chapter 3 Nomadicity 35

Authentication and Authorization 36

Authentication and Authorization in LTE 36

Authentication and Authorization in Wi-Fi Networks 39

Captive Portals 39

802.1X and EAP 39

Authentication and Authorization for Internet Applications 41

Federated Identity 41

Federated Access in LTE 43

3GPP Access 43

Non-3GPP Access 43

Federated Access to Wi-Fi Networks 43

Roaming to Other Wi-Fi Networks 44

802.11u 45

Example of Wi-Fi Roaming: eduroam 45

Federated Access to Applications with SAML 48

Location Information and Context Awareness 49

Location Information in LTE 49

Location Information for Wi-Fi Networks 50

Privacy and Security 50

Privacy and Security in LTE 51

Privacy and Security in Wi-Fi Networks 51

Privacy and Security in SAML 51

DynDNS 52

Summary 52

Endnotes 53

Chapter 4 Data Link Layer Mobility 55

Mobility Across an Ethernet-Bridged Domain 56

Interaction Between Mobility and Dynamic IP Address Allocation 57

Mobility Using Wireless LAN Technology 58

Fast Wireless LAN Local Mobility 59

Wireless LANs and Mobility Across a Layer 3 Domain 62

Interwireless LAN Controller Mobility 64

GPRS Tunneling Protocol 68

GPRS Tunneling Protocol 70

3GPP Mobility Using GTP 73

Access Point Name 73

PDP Context Activation 74

Mobility and Context Transfer 76

Proxy Mobile IPv6-Based Mobility 77

IETF Network-Based Mobility 78

WiMAX Mobility Using Proxy Mobile IP 79

WiMAX Session Establishment 81

PMIPv6-Based WiMAX Session Mobility 82

PMIPv6-Based Session Termination 84

3GPP Mobility Using Proxy Mobile IP 84

Delivering Equivalent GTP Functions with PMIPv6 85

Intertechnology Handover 86

Data Link Layer Solutions to Providing Mobility Across Heterogeneous

Access Networks 87

3GPP Generic Access Network 87

Host Impacts of Data Link Layer Mobility 89

Summary 90

Endnotes 91

Chapter 5 Network Layer Mobility 93

Mobile IPv4 96

Mobile IPv4 Technology Overview 97

Network-Specific Terms 97

Network Element—Specific Terms 98

Addressing-Specific Terms 99

Mobile IPv4 Operation 100

Mobile IPv4 Agent Discovery 101

Agent Advertisements 101

Agent Solicitations 102

Mobile IPv4 Registration and AAA 103

Mobile IPv4 Registration 103

RRQ and RRP Messages 105

Authentication Extensions 108

Mobile IPv4 AAA Interactions 109

RADIUS Interactions 111

Diameter Applications 112

Mobile IPv4 Tunnels, Bindings, and Datagram Forwarding 114

Tunneling and Reverse Tunneling 115

Mobile IPv4 and Layer 2 Interactions 117

Mobile IPv4 in Practice 119

3GPP2 Implementation of Mobile IPv4 119

Mobile IPv6 Technology Overview 122

Mobile IPv6 Operation 123

Bidirectional Tunneling Mode 123

Route Optimization Mode 124

Mobile IPv6 Messages and Message Formats 126

Dynamic Home Agent Discovery 130

Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping 131

RADIUS Support for Mobile IPv6 131

Diameter Support for Mobile IPv6 134

Network Mobility Basic Support Protocol 134

Mobile IPv6 in Practice 135

WiMAX Forum NWG Implementation of Mobile IPv6 136

Dual-Stack Mobile IP 140

Mobile IPv4 Extensions to Support IPv6 141

Mobile IPv6 Extensions to Support IPv4 142

MOBIKE Technology Overview 143

IKEv2 Terminology and Processes 144

IKEv2 IKE_SA_INIT 145

IKEv2 IKE_AUTH 146

IKEv2 Message Formats 148

MOBIKE Protocol 150

MOBIKE Call Flows 151

Connectivity Discovery 152

Network Address Translation (NAT) Traversal 153

Authentication and Accounting 154

MOBIKE in Practice 155

Security Architecture for Non-3GPP Access to Evolved Packet System (EPS) 156

Summary 159

Endnotes 160

Chapter 6 Transport/Session Layer Mobility 161

Lower-Layer Mobility Implications to the Transport Layer 162

Solving Mobility Above the Network Layer 165

SCTP 166

SCTP Functional Overview 167

SCTP States 168

Initiation 168

Data Transfer 169

Shutdown 173

SCTP Messages 173

Message Format 173

Chunk Types 174

SCTP Extensions 176

Multipath TCP 179

Resource Pooling Principle 180

MPTCP Functional Architecture 181

Path Management 184

MPTCP Application Impacts 185

MPTCP for Mobility 185

MSOCKS: An Architecture for Transport Layer Mobility 186

TLM Protocol 187

MSOCKS Summary 189

Other Transport Layer Mobility Approaches 189

Migrate Internet Project 190

Migratory TCP 190

Session Layer Mobility Approaches 191

Summary 193

Endnotes 194

Chapter 7 Application Mobility 195

User-Centric Mobility 195

Application Mobility Using the Domain Name System 197

Applicability of DDNS to Interdevice and Intradevice Mobility 198

Application Mobility Using the Session Initiation Protocol 199

SIP and Capabilities 199

SIP Methods 200

SIP Message Format 201

SIP Request and Status Lines 201

SIP Header Fields 202

SIP Message Body 203

Basic SIP Mobility 204

SIP Registration 204

SIP Authentication 205

SIP Rendezvous Service 207

SIP UA Mobility Example 208

SIP Session Mobility 210

SIP REFER-Based Session Mobility 210

3PCC-Based Basic Session Mobility 212

3PCC-Based Enhanced Session Mobility 213

Other Application Aspects for Supporting Mobility 214

Summary 215

Endnotes 216

Chapter 8 Locator-Identifier Separation 219

Approaches to Locator-Identifier Separation 221

HIP 222

Benefits and Challenges 224

Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol — Mobile Node (LISP-MN) 225

LISP 225

LISP-MN 227

Benefits and Challenges 228

NAT66 229

Benefits and Challenges 230

Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP) 231

Benefits and Challenges 232

Summary 232

Parting Thoughts 232

Endnotes 233

TOC, 9781587142437, 1/5/2011

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  • Posted February 13, 2011

    VERY VERY HIGHLY RECOMMENDED!!

    Do you need to increase your understanding of how mobility can be supported in IP networking? If you do, then this book is for you! Authors Mark Grayson, Kevin Shatzkamer and Klaas Wierenga have done an outstanding job of writing a book that examines the different techniques for building mobility into the Internet. Authors Grayson, Shatzkamer and Wierenga, begin by defining the mobility market in terms of device proliferation, consumption trends and radio-specific challenges in scaling for massive adoption of the mobile Internet. They also explain the protocols and layers that make up the Internet architecture; as well as, the fundamental problem with that architecture in supporting mobility. The authors continue by describing how users and devices are authenticated for using the network and its applications; in particular, those that are not operated by the operator that the user has a subscription with. Then, they explain the benefits of solving mobility at the data link layer. Next, they provide an overview of a number of network layer solutions for delivering seamless mobility and session continuity. The authors also describe the advantages of integrating mobility functionality into transport/session layer. They continue by describing how the application layer can be enhanced with additional mobility functionality, thus allowing advanced mobility use cases to be supported, including the ability to move media sessions between different devices. Finally, the authors provide an overview of the approaches fro redesigning the Internet architecture to allow better mobility; as well as, a discussion of the pros and cons of some typical examples of those approaches. This most excellent book takes a look at mobility from a broad perspective of use cases and examines how mobility solutions are in fact pervasive across all layers of the protocol stack. Perhaps more importantly, the book provides details of how mobility functionality has been added to these layers and describes use cases that demonstrate the different approaches to building the mobile Internet.

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  • Posted February 12, 2011

    more from this reviewer

    v6 algorithms seem simpler than v4

    The problems tackled here tend to be harder than traditional routing scenarios on the Internet, where in the latter the nodes have a fixed address. The inclusion of mobility, principally expressed as in hardware like smartphones or laptops, is trickier. While the book mainly discusses solutions to this, another theme is interwoven throughout the text- the use of IPv6 addresses. As explained early in the narrative, the rise of IPv6 is due to the very success of IPv4, which is rapidly leading to the exhaustion of v4 addresses. Though it would greatly simplify the text for it to focus just on v6, v4 addresses are still in the majority and will be used heavily for the foreseeable future.

    Speaking of special cases, in a different context, WiFi is studied here, because it is commonly used as a nomadic connection to the Internet. It stands apart from LTE [Long Term Evolution]. The latter is for cellphones. The mobile handling in LTE differs from WiFi in part because while both are nomadic, a cellphone user is more mobile, so switching between basestations is common, while far less so for WiFi laptop users.

    The text talks about mobility at different levels of the Internet protocol stack. The handling at each level is quite specific to that level, and the book lets you appreciate the implications.

    The use of v6 is also seen as simpler than v4. The complexity of some of the v4 algorithms may be seen as ingenious, and they are, but there is a kludginess reflecting that v4 was first devised long before mobility was an issue. So the mobile v4 algorithms of the book are a retrofit. In contrast, the v6 algorithms are simpler in part because when v6 was first devised, nomadic needs were already anticipated. But for you as a network engineer, you probably cannot avoid knowing the v4 sections of the book.

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