Business Data Communications / Edition 6

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Overview

Business Data Communications, 6/e, is ideal for use in Business Data Communications, Data Communications, and introductory Networking for Business courses.

Business Data Communications, 6/e,covers the fundamentals of data communications, networking, distributed applications, and network management and security. Stallings presents these concepts in a way that relates specifically to the business environment and the concerns of business management and staff, structuring his text around requirements, ingredients, and applications. While making liberal use of real-world case studies and charts and graphs to provide a business perspective, the book also provides the student with a solid grasp of the technical foundation of business data communications. Throughout the text, references to the interactive, online animations supply a powerful tool in understanding complex protocol mechanisms.

The Sixth Edition maintains Stallings' superlative support for either a research projects or modeling projects component in the course. The diverse set of projects and student exercises enables the instructor to use the book as a component in a rich and varied learning experience and to tailor a course plan to meet the specific needs of the instructor and students.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A textbook for an introductory course in information communications intended for business and information management students. The fourth edition adds two chapters in a new part that covers the TCP/IP set of protocols, the Internet, and quality of service. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Booknews
A text providing a comprehensive look at the fundamentals of data communication using case studies to explore how the latest trends, including the Internet, intranets, the Web, TCP/IP, wireless network, and network security affect information communications in the business environment. Extensive updates to this edition include a new chapter on doing business on the Internet and improved treatment of network security emphasizing management strategies. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136067412
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 10/17/2008
  • Series: Alternative eText Formats Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 367,798
  • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. William Stallings has authored 17 titles, and counting revised editions, over 41 books on computer security, computer networking, and computer architecture. In over 20 years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, technical manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms. Currently he is an independent consultant whose clients have included computer and networking manufacturers and customers, software development firms, and leading-edge government research institutions. He has received the award for the Best Computer Science textbook of the year from the Text and Academic Authors Association 10 times - most recently in 2008 for his text, Computer Security: Principles and Practice.

Dr. Stallings is a member of the editorial board of Cryptologia, a scholarly journal devoted to all aspects of cryptology. He is a frequent lecturer and author of numerous technical papers. Dr. Stallings created and maintains the Computer Science Student Resource Site, which provides documents and links on subjects of interest to computer science students and professionals. He holds a PhD from M.I.T. in Computer Science and a B.S. from Notre Dame in electrical engineering.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Background

Four trends have made a solid understanding of the fundamentals of data communications essential to business and information management students:

  • The increasing use of data processing equipment. As the cost of computer hardware has dropped, data processing equipment has become an increasingly important and pervasive part of the office, factory, and engineering environments.
  • The increasing use of distributed systems. Dropping hardware costs have resulted in the increasing use of small systems, including servers, workstations, and personal computers. These systems are distributed throughout a business and must be interconnected to exchange messages, share files, and share resources, such as printers.
  • The increasing diversity of networking options. The emergence of a broad range of local area network (LAN) standards plus the evolution of LAN technology have led to a broad, overlapping range of products for local area communications. Similarly, the planning for the next generation of telephone equipment and networks and the evolution of new transmission and networking technologies have led to a broad, overlapping range of options for long-distance communications.
  • The sudden emergence of the Internet and the World Wide Web. In a very short time, the Internet and especially the World Wide Web have attracted millions of business and personal users. No business can ignore the potential of this enormous facility.

As a result of these factors, business data communications courses have become common in business and information managementsequences, and this book intends to address the needs for such a course. However, a focus on data communications is no longer enough.

Over the past twenty years, as data processing capability has been introduced into the office, data communications products and services have gradually assumed increasing importance. Now, technological developments and the widespread acceptance of standards are transforming the ways in which information is used to support the business function. In addition to the traditional communications requirements for voice and data (meaning text and numerical data), there is now the need to deal with pictorial images and video information. These four types of information (voice, data, image, and video) are essential to the survival of any business in today's competitive international environment. What is needed is a treatment not just of data communications but of information communications for the business environment.

Information communications and computer networking have become essential to the functioning of today's businesses, large and small. Furthermore, they have become a major and growing cost to organizations. Management and staff need a thorough understanding of information communications in order to assess needs; plan for the introduction of products, services, and systems; and manage the systems and technical personnel that operate them. This understanding must comprise the following:

  • Technology: The underlying technology of information communications facilities, networking systems, and communications software
  • Architecture: The way in which hardware, software, and services can be organized to provide computer and terminal interconnection
  • Applications: How information communications and networking systems can meet the requirements of today's businesses

Approach

The purpose of this text is to present the concepts of information communications in a way that relates specifically to the business environment and to the concerns of business management and staff. To this end, the book takes an approach based on requirements, ingredients, and applications:

  • Requirements: The need to provide services that enable businesses to utilize information is the driving force behind data and information communications technology. The text outlines the specific requirements that this technology is intended to address. This linkage between requirements and technology is essential to motivate a text of this nature.
  • Ingredients: The technology of information communications includes the hardware, software, and communications services available to support distributed systems. An understanding of this technology is essential for a manager to make intelligent choices among the many alternatives.
  • Applications: Management and staff must understand not only the technology but also the way in which that technology can be applied to satisfy' business requirements.

These three concepts structure the presentation. They provide a way for the student to understand the context of what is being discussed at any point in the text, and they motivate the material. Thus, the student will gain a practical understanding of business information communications.

An important theme throughout the book is the essential role of standards. The proliferation of personal computers and other computer systems inevitably means that the manager will be faced with the need to integrate equipment from a variety of vendors. The only way to manage this requirement effectively is through standards. And, indeed, increasingly vendors are offering products and services that conform to international standards. This text addresses some of the key groupings of standards that are shaping the marketplace and that define the choices available to the decision-maker.

Intended Audience

This book is addressed to students and professionals who now have or expect to have some information communications responsibility. As a full-time job, some readers may have or plan to have responsibility for management of the company's telecommunications function. But virtually all managers and many staff personnel will need to have a basic understanding of business information communications to perform their tasks effectively.

For students, this text is intended as an introductory course in information communications for business and information management students. It does not assume any background in data communications but does assume a basic knowledge of data processing.

The book is also intended for self-study and is designed for use as both a tutorial and a reference book for those already involved in business information communications.

Plan of the Text

This text is a survey of the broad and fast-changing field of information communications. It is organized in such a way that new material is seen to fit into the context of the material already presented. By emphasizing requirements and applications as well as technology, the student is provided with motivation and a means of assessing the importance of a particular topic with respect to the whole. The book is divided into six parts:

  • Part One: Requirements—Defines the needs for information communications in the business environment. It discusses the way in which various forms of information are used and the need for interconnection and networking facilities. An examination of the nature and role of distributed data processing is the highlight of this first part.
  • Part Two: TCP/IP and the Internet—Provides an overview of the Internet and the basic protocols that are the foundation of the Internet and also addresses the critical issue of quality of service. This part provides a context for much of the material covered in the remainder of the book.
  • Part Three: Data Communications Fundamentals—Deals with the basic technology of the communication of information. The emphasis is on digital communications techniques, since these are rapidly displacing analog techniques for all products and services related to information communications. Key topics include transmission media, data link control protocols, multiplexing, and compression.
  • Part Four: Networking—Examines the way in which communications facilities are organized into a network. There is a wide variety of options available to the manager and planner; this part presents the range of options and compare their strengths and weaknesses so that the reader can make informed choices based on specific requirements. Both wide area networks (WANs) and local area networks (LANs) are covered.
  • Part Five: Applications—Deals with the specific business applications that require information communications facilities and networks. This part presents key applications, such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web. The part closes with a discussion of client/server computing and intranets.
  • Part Six: Management Issues—This part examines some of the most important issues that confront the manager with respect to the in-house implementation or the purchase of networking and communications services. It begins with the increasingly important issue of doing business on the Internet. This is followed by a discussion of network management and network security.

In addition, the book includes an extensive glossary, a list of frequently used acronyms, and a bibliography. Each chapter includes problems and suggestions for further reading. Finally, a number of real-world cases studies are sprinkled throughout the book.

Note to the Instructor

The major goal of this text is to make it as effective a teaching tool for this exciting and fast-moving subject as possible. This goal is reflected both in the structure of the book and in the supporting material.

The book contains a number of features that provide strong pedagogical support for the instructor. Each chapter begins with a list of chapter objectives, which provides, in effect, an outline of the chapter and alerts the student to look for certain key concepts as the chapter is read. Key terms are introduced in boldface in the chapter, and all of the new key terms for that chapter are listed at the end of the chapter. Acronyms are highlighted and listed on the back endpaper; this is important because the field of information communications is loaded with acronyms. A glossary at the end of the book provides a handy summary of key terms. The summary at the end of each chapter highlights the key concepts and places them in the context of the entire book. In addition, there are questions and homework problems to reinforce and extend what has been learned. The book is also liberally supplied with figures and tables to enhance points made in the text.

Throughout the book a number of case studies are presented. These are not "made-up" or "toy" cases, but actual cases reported in the literature. Each case is chosen to reinforce or extend concepts introduced prior to the case study.

The text is also accompanied by supplementary material that will aid the instructor. A solutions manual provides answers to all of the problems and questions at the end of each chapter. A test bank of additional problems is also available. PDF figures and Powerpoint slides are available on line and on a CD-ROM version of the instructor's manual.

Internet Services for Instructors and Students

There is a Web page for this book that provides support for students and instructors. The page includes links to relevant sites, transparency masters of figures in the book in PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format, Powerpoint slides, and sign-up information for the book's Internet mailing list. The Web page is at WilliamStallings.com. An Internet mailing list has been set up so that instructors using this book can exchange information, suggestions, and questions with each other and with the author. As soon as typos or other errors are discovered, an errata list for this book will be available at WilliamStallings.com/BDC4e.htm.

Note to the Reader

In a book on this topic, for this sort of audience, it is tempting to launch immediately into a description of communications and networking technology and to examine and compare the various approaches. Certainly, this is an essential element of a book that deals with business information communications. However, we believe that this approach is inappropriate. The business reader wants, and rightly so, to see the technical material in the context of the needs of the business and the ways in which communications and networking technology support desired business functions. Thus this book begins by defining the requirements for information communications in business. The types of information and their utility are examined first. This sets the stage for an examination of communications and networking alternatives. And, as these alternatives are presented and compared, the applications for which they are suited, as well as the underlying technology, are explored. It is hoped that this strategy will make the material more comprehensible and provide a structure that is more natural to a reader with a business orientation.

What's New in the Fourth Edition

In the four years since the third edition of this book was published, the field has seen continued innovations and improvements. In this new edition, we try to capture these changes while maintaining a broad and comprehensive coverage of the entire field. To begin the process of revision, the third edition of this book was extensively reviewed by a number of professors who teach the subject and by professionals working in the field. The result is that, in many places, the narrative has been clarified and tightened, and illustrations have been improved. Also, a number of new "field-tested" problems have been added.

Beyond these refinements to improve pedagogy and user friendliness, there have been major substantive changes throughout the book. Highlights include the following:

  • TCP/IP and the Internet: A new part has been added early in the book (Part Two) that covers the TCP/IP set of protocols, the Internet, and Internet quality of service. TCP/IP has won the "protocol wars" with OSI and is now the focus of the protocol coverage in this book. Part Two motivates the topics covered in the remainder of the book.
  • Wireless networks: Wireless networking, both for local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs), has become an increasingly important component of many networking configurations. This new edition expands and updates the coverage of wireless technology and networks.
  • High-speed LANs: Coverage of this important area is expanded and updated and includes detailed treatment of leading-edge approaches, including Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T), Gigabit Ethernet, and Fibre Channel.
  • Business Internets: Innovative uses of Internet technology, including intranets and extranets, have flourished in the business environment. Chapter 17 provides extensive coverage of this important area.
  • Quality of Service: Quality of service (QoS) and the related areas of integrated services, differentiated services, and RSVP are introduced in this edition. The implications of these important topics are examined in Chapter 5.
  • Network security: The chapter on network security (Chapter 20) has been updated provide a timely presentation that emphasizes the important tools and strategies that management needs to implement. The chapter also includes an extensive discussion of Web security.

In addition, throughout the book, virtually every topic has been updated to reflect the developments in standards and technology that have occurred since the publication of the third edition.

Acknowledgments

Richard Van Slyke of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute has made substantial contributions to the second and third editions of this book and was listed as a coauthor. Much of his contribution has been retained and revised. In addition, he has contributed new material to this edition.

This new edition has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people reviewed the fourth edition and made many helpful suggestions: Glenda Dilts of Devry Institute; Qing Hu of Florida Atlantic University; Neil Shaw of the University of Texas–Arlington; Hugo Moortgat of San Francisco State; Mark Pullen of George Mason University; Jim Holden of Clarion University; Peter Mathys of the University of Colorado; Art Dearing of Tarleton State University; and Divakaran Liginla of the University of Wisconsin.

In addition, Professor M. Tamer Ozsu of the University of Alberta and Professor Nalin Sharda of Victoria University of Technology provided detailed reviews of Chapters 2 and 3, respectively, and Zygmunt Haas of Brooklyn Polytechnic reviewed the material on wireless networks.

Professor Varadharajan Sridhar of the Indian Institute of Management contributed the case study on Staten Island University Hospital, and Steven Kilby of AT&T contributed the case studies on ING Life and Archstone.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 0 Introduction

0.1 Outline of This Book

0.2 Topic Ordering

0.3 Internet and Web Resources

0.4 Useful Publications

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Information and Communication

1.2 Data Communications and Networking for Today's Enterprise

1.3 Convergence and Unified Communications

1.4 The Nature of Business Information Requirements

1.5 Distributed Data Processing

1.6 The Internet and Distributed Applications

1.7 Networks

1.8 The Transmission of Information

1.9 Management Issues

1.10 Standards

1.11 Recommended Web Sites

1.12 Key Terms and Review Questions

Appendix 1A Prefixes for Numerical Units

PART ONE REQUIREMENTS

Chapter 2 Business Information

2.1 Audio

2.2 Data

2.3 Image

2.4 Video

2.5 Performance Measures

Application Note: File Sizes

2.6 Summary

2.7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

2.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 3 Distributed Data Processing

3.1 Centralized Versus Distributed Processing

3.2 Forms of Distributed Data Processing

3.3 Distributed Data

3.4 Networking Implications of DDP

Application Note: Distributed Computing Support

3.5 Summary

3.6 Recommended Reading

3.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Case Study I MasterCard International

PART TWO THE INTERNET AND DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS

Chapter 4 Internet History and Architecture

4.1 Internet History

4.2 Internet Architecture

4.3 Internet Domains

Application Note: Fitting DNS into your organizational structure

4.4 Summary

4.5 Recommended Reading

4.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 5 TCP/IP and OSI

5.1 A Simple Protocol Architecture

5.2 The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture

5.3 Internetworking

5.4 The OSI Protocol Architecture

5.5 Virtual Private Networks and IP Security

Application Note: Practical Guide to Networking

5.6 Summary

5.7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

5.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Appendix 5A TCP and IP Details

Appendix 5B The Trivial File Transfer Protocol

Case Study II Florida Department of Management Services - Part One

Chapter 6 Client/Server and Intranet Computing

6.1 The Growth of Client/Server Computing

6.2 Client/Server Applications

6.3 Middleware

6.4 Intranets

6.5 Extranets

6.6 Service Oriented Architecture

Application Note: To Be Fat or Thin — That is the Question

6.6 Summary

6.7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

6.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 7 Internet-Based Applications

7.1 Electronic Mail and SMTP

7.2 Web Access and HTTP

7.3 Web Security

7.4 Internet Telephony and SIP

Application Note: To Serve or Not to Serve?

7.5 Summary

7.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

7.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Case Study III ING Life

Chapter 8 Internet Operation

8.1 Internet Addressing

8.2 Internet Routing Protocols

8.3 The Need for Speed and Quality of Service

8.4 Differentiated Services

8.5 Service Level Agreements

8.6 IP Performance Metrics

Application Note: Where Does My Network Address Come From?

8.7 Summary

8.8 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

8.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

PART THREE LOCAL AREA NETWORKS

Chapter 9 LAN Architecture and Protocols

9.1 Background

9.2 LAN Configurations

9.3 Guided Transmission Media

9.4 LAN Protocol Architecture

Application Note: Cabling Infrastructure

9.5 Summary

9.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

9.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Appendix 9A Decibels and Signal Strength

Chapter 10 Ethernet and Fibre Channel

10.1 The Emergence of High-Speed LANs

10.2 Traditional Ethernet

10.3 Bridges, Hubs, and Switches

10.4 High-Speed Ethernet

Application Note: Networking with Ethernet

10.5 Summary

10.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

10.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Case Study IV Carlson Companies

Chapter 11 Wireless LANs

11.1 Overview

11.2 Wi-Fi Architecture and Services

11.3 IEEE 802.11 MAC and Physical Layer Standards

11.4 IEEE 802.11 Security

Application Note: Deploying Wireless LANs

11.5 Summary

11.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

11.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Case Study V St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital

PART FOUR WIDE AREA NETWORKS

Chapter 12 Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

12.1 Switching Techniques

12.2 Circuit Switching Networks

12.3 Packet Switching Networks

12.4 Traditional Wide Area Network Alternatives

Application Note: Switching

12.5 Summary

12.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

12.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 13 Frame Relay and ATM

13.1 Wide Area Networking Alternatives

13.2 Frame Relay

13.3 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Application Note: Off-site Connectivity Solutions

13.4 Summary

13.5 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

13.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Case Study VI Florida Department of Management Services - Part Two

Case Study VII Guardian Life Insurance

Chapter 14 Wireless WANs

14.1 Cellular Wireless Networks

14.2 Multiple Access

14.3 Third-Generation Wireless Communications

14.4 Satellite Communications

Application Note: PDAs, Cell Phones, and Laptops

14.5 Summary

14.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

14.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Case Study VIII Choice Hotels International

PART FIVE DATA COMMUNICATIONS

Chapter 15 Data Transmission

15.1 Signals for Conveying Information

15.2 Transmission Impairments and Channel Capacity

Application Note: PDAs, Cell Phones, and Laptops

15.3 Summary

15.4 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

15.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 16 Data Communication Fundamentals

16.1 Analog and Digital Data Communication

16.2 Data Encoding Techniques

16.3 Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission

16.4 Error Detection

Application Note: Devices, Encoding, Communication Parameters and Protocols

16.5 Summary

16.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

16.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 17 Data Link Control and Multiplexing

17.1 Flow Control and Error Control

17.2 High-Level Data Link Control

17.3 Motivation for Multiplexing

17.4 Frequency-Division Multiplexing

17.5 Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing

Application Note: Changing Communications

17.6 Summary

17.7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

17.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Case Study IX Haukeland University Hospital

PART SIX MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Chapter 18 Computer and Network Security Threats

18.1 Computer Security Concepts

18.2 Threats, Attacks, and Assets

18.3 Intruders

18.4 Malicious Software Overview

18.5 Viruses, Worms, and Bots

18.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

18.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 19 Computer and Network Security Techniques

19.1 Virtual Private Networks and IPSec

19.2 SSL and TLS

19.3 Wi-Fi Protected Access

19.4 Intrusion Detection

19.5 Malware Defense

19.6 Recommended Reading

19.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Case Study X The Hacker in All of Us

Chapter 20 Network Management (ONLINE)

20.1 Network Management Requirements

20.2 Network Management Systems

20.3 Technical Control

20.4 Performance Monitoring

20.5 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

20.6 Summary

20.7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

20.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 21 Network Planning and Design (ONLINE)

21.1 The Project Environment – The Big Picture

21.2 Planning

21.3 Design Techniques

21.4 Some Capacity Planning and Network Design Tools

21.5 Recommended Reading

21.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Appendix 21A Some Simple Design Algorithms

Appendix 21B Selling Books Online – A Case Study

Appendix A Business Data Communications Projects

A.1 Animation Projects

A.2 Practical Exercises

A.3 Ethereal Projects

A.4 Research Projects

A.5 Reading/Report Assignments

A.6 Writing Assignments

Glossary

References

Index

ONLINE APPENDICES William Stallings.com/BDC/BDC6e.html

Appendix B Standards Organizations

B.1 The Importance of Standards

B.2 Standards and Regulation

B.3 Standards-Setting Organizations

Appendix C Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)

C.1 Uniform Resource Locator

C.2 Uniform Resource Identifier

C.3 To Learn More

Appendix D The International Reference Alphabet

Appendix E The TCP/IP Checksum

E.1 Ones-Complement Addition

E.2 Use in TCP and IP

Appendix F IBM's System Network Architecture (SNA)

F.1 Network Architecture

F.2 Advanced Program-to-Program Communication

F.3 Protocol Architecture

Appendix G Fibre Channel

Appendix H Bluetooth

Appendix I Multipath Interference and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

Appendix J Cryptographic Algorithms

J.1 Symmetric Encryption

J.2 Public-Key Cryptography

J.3 Secure Hash Functions

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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Background

Four trends have made a solid understanding of the fundamentals of data communications essential to business and information management students:

  • The increasing use of data processing equipment. As the cost of computer hardware has dropped, data processing equipment has become an increasingly important and pervasive part of the office, factory, and engineering environments.
  • The increasing use of distributed systems. Dropping hardware costs have resulted in the increasing use of small systems, including servers, workstations, and personal computers. These systems are distributed throughout a business and must be interconnected to exchange messages, share files, and share resources, such as printers.
  • The increasing diversity of networking options. The emergence of a broad range of local area network (LAN) standards plus the evolution of LAN technology have led to a broad, overlapping range of products for local area communications. Similarly, the planning for the next generation of telephone equipment and networks and the evolution of new transmission and networking technologies have led to a broad, overlapping range of options for long-distance communications.
  • The sudden emergence of the Internet and the World Wide Web. In a very short time, the Internet and especially the World Wide Web have attracted millions of business and personal users. No business can ignore the potential of this enormous facility.

As a result of these factors, business data communications courses have become common in business and informationmanagementsequences, and this book intends to address the needs for such a course. However, a focus on data communications is no longer enough.

Over the past twenty years, as data processing capability has been introduced into the office, data communications products and services have gradually assumed increasing importance. Now, technological developments and the widespread acceptance of standards are transforming the ways in which information is used to support the business function. In addition to the traditional communications requirements for voice and data (meaning text and numerical data), there is now the need to deal with pictorial images and video information. These four types of information (voice, data, image, and video) are essential to the survival of any business in today's competitive international environment. What is needed is a treatment not just of data communications but of information communications for the business environment.

Information communications and computer networking have become essential to the functioning of today's businesses, large and small. Furthermore, they have become a major and growing cost to organizations. Management and staff need a thorough understanding of information communications in order to assess needs; plan for the introduction of products, services, and systems; and manage the systems and technical personnel that operate them. This understanding must comprise the following:

  • Technology: The underlying technology of information communications facilities, networking systems, and communications software
  • Architecture: The way in which hardware, software, and services can be organized to provide computer and terminal interconnection
  • Applications: How information communications and networking systems can meet the requirements of today's businesses

Approach

The purpose of this text is to present the concepts of information communications in a way that relates specifically to the business environment and to the concerns of business management and staff. To this end, the book takes an approach based on requirements, ingredients, and applications:

  • Requirements: The need to provide services that enable businesses to utilize information is the driving force behind data and information communications technology. The text outlines the specific requirements that this technology is intended to address. This linkage between requirements and technology is essential to motivate a text of this nature.
  • Ingredients: The technology of information communications includes the hardware, software, and communications services available to support distributed systems. An understanding of this technology is essential for a manager to make intelligent choices among the many alternatives.
  • Applications: Management and staff must understand not only the technology but also the way in which that technology can be applied to satisfy' business requirements.

These three concepts structure the presentation. They provide a way for the student to understand the context of what is being discussed at any point in the text, and they motivate the material. Thus, the student will gain a practical understanding of business information communications.

An important theme throughout the book is the essential role of standards. The proliferation of personal computers and other computer systems inevitably means that the manager will be faced with the need to integrate equipment from a variety of vendors. The only way to manage this requirement effectively is through standards. And, indeed, increasingly vendors are offering products and services that conform to international standards. This text addresses some of the key groupings of standards that are shaping the marketplace and that define the choices available to the decision-maker.

Intended Audience

This book is addressed to students and professionals who now have or expect to have some information communications responsibility. As a full-time job, some readers may have or plan to have responsibility for management of the company's telecommunications function. But virtually all managers and many staff personnel will need to have a basic understanding of business information communications to perform their tasks effectively.

For students, this text is intended as an introductory course in information communications for business and information management students. It does not assume any background in data communications but does assume a basic knowledge of data processing.

The book is also intended for self-study and is designed for use as both a tutorial and a reference book for those already involved in business information communications.

Plan of the Text

This text is a survey of the broad and fast-changing field of information communications. It is organized in such a way that new material is seen to fit into the context of the material already presented. By emphasizing requirements and applications as well as technology, the student is provided with motivation and a means of assessing the importance of a particular topic with respect to the whole. The book is divided into six parts:

  • Part One: Requirements—Defines the needs for information communications in the business environment. It discusses the way in which various forms of information are used and the need for interconnection and networking facilities. An examination of the nature and role of distributed data processing is the highlight of this first part.
  • Part Two: TCP/IP and the Internet—Provides an overview of the Internet and the basic protocols that are the foundation of the Internet and also addresses the critical issue of quality of service. This part provides a context for much of the material covered in the remainder of the book.
  • Part Three: Data Communications Fundamentals—Deals with the basic technology of the communication of information. The emphasis is on digital communications techniques, since these are rapidly displacing analog techniques for all products and services related to information communications. Key topics include transmission media, data link control protocols, multiplexing, and compression.
  • Part Four: Networking—Examines the way in which communications facilities are organized into a network. There is a wide variety of options available to the manager and planner; this part presents the range of options and compare their strengths and weaknesses so that the reader can make informed choices based on specific requirements. Both wide area networks (WANs) and local area networks (LANs) are covered.
  • Part Five: Applications—Deals with the specific business applications that require information communications facilities and networks. This part presents key applications, such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web. The part closes with a discussion of client/server computing and intranets.
  • Part Six: Management Issues—This part examines some of the most important issues that confront the manager with respect to the in-house implementation or the purchase of networking and communications services. It begins with the increasingly important issue of doing business on the Internet. This is followed by a discussion of network management and network security.

In addition, the book includes an extensive glossary, a list of frequently used acronyms, and a bibliography. Each chapter includes problems and suggestions for further reading. Finally, a number of real-world cases studies are sprinkled throughout the book.

Note to the Instructor

The major goal of this text is to make it as effective a teaching tool for this exciting and fast-moving subject as possible. This goal is reflected both in the structure of the book and in the supporting material.

The book contains a number of features that provide strong pedagogical support for the instructor. Each chapter begins with a list of chapter objectives, which provides, in effect, an outline of the chapter and alerts the student to look for certain key concepts as the chapter is read. Key terms are introduced in boldface in the chapter, and all of the new key terms for that chapter are listed at the end of the chapter. Acronyms are highlighted and listed on the back endpaper; this is important because the field of information communications is loaded with acronyms. A glossary at the end of the book provides a handy summary of key terms. The summary at the end of each chapter highlights the key concepts and places them in the context of the entire book. In addition, there are questions and homework problems to reinforce and extend what has been learned. The book is also liberally supplied with figures and tables to enhance points made in the text.

Throughout the book a number of case studies are presented. These are not "made-up" or "toy" cases, but actual cases reported in the literature. Each case is chosen to reinforce or extend concepts introduced prior to the case study.

The text is also accompanied by supplementary material that will aid the instructor. A solutions manual provides answers to all of the problems and questions at the end of each chapter. A test bank of additional problems is also available. PDF figures and Powerpoint slides are available on line and on a CD-ROM version of the instructor's manual.

Internet Services for Instructors and Students

There is a Web page for this book that provides support for students and instructors. The page includes links to relevant sites, transparency masters of figures in the book in PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format, Powerpoint slides, and sign-up information for the book's Internet mailing list. The Web page is at WilliamStallings.com. An Internet mailing list has been set up so that instructors using this book can exchange information, suggestions, and questions with each other and with the author. As soon as typos or other errors are discovered, an errata list for this book will be available at WilliamStallings.com/BDC4e.htm.

Note to the Reader

In a book on this topic, for this sort of audience, it is tempting to launch immediately into a description of communications and networking technology and to examine and compare the various approaches. Certainly, this is an essential element of a book that deals with business information communications. However, we believe that this approach is inappropriate. The business reader wants, and rightly so, to see the technical material in the context of the needs of the business and the ways in which communications and networking technology support desired business functions. Thus this book begins by defining the requirements for information communications in business. The types of information and their utility are examined first. This sets the stage for an examination of communications and networking alternatives. And, as these alternatives are presented and compared, the applications for which they are suited, as well as the underlying technology, are explored. It is hoped that this strategy will make the material more comprehensible and provide a structure that is more natural to a reader with a business orientation.

What's New in the Fourth Edition

In the four years since the third edition of this book was published, the field has seen continued innovations and improvements. In this new edition, we try to capture these changes while maintaining a broad and comprehensive coverage of the entire field. To begin the process of revision, the third edition of this book was extensively reviewed by a number of professors who teach the subject and by professionals working in the field. The result is that, in many places, the narrative has been clarified and tightened, and illustrations have been improved. Also, a number of new "field-tested" problems have been added.

Beyond these refinements to improve pedagogy and user friendliness, there have been major substantive changes throughout the book. Highlights include the following:

  • TCP/IP and the Internet: A new part has been added early in the book (Part Two) that covers the TCP/IP set of protocols, the Internet, and Internet quality of service. TCP/IP has won the "protocol wars" with OSI and is now the focus of the protocol coverage in this book. Part Two motivates the topics covered in the remainder of the book.
  • Wireless networks: Wireless networking, both for local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs), has become an increasingly important component of many networking configurations. This new edition expands and updates the coverage of wireless technology and networks.
  • High-speed LANs: Coverage of this important area is expanded and updated and includes detailed treatment of leading-edge approaches, including Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T), Gigabit Ethernet, and Fibre Channel.
  • Business Internets: Innovative uses of Internet technology, including intranets and extranets, have flourished in the business environment. Chapter 17 provides extensive coverage of this important area.
  • Quality of Service: Quality of service (QoS) and the related areas of integrated services, differentiated services, and RSVP are introduced in this edition. The implications of these important topics are examined in Chapter 5.
  • Network security: The chapter on network security (Chapter 20) has been updated provide a timely presentation that emphasizes the important tools and strategies that management needs to implement. The chapter also includes an extensive discussion of Web security.

In addition, throughout the book, virtually every topic has been updated to reflect the developments in standards and technology that have occurred since the publication of the third edition.

Acknowledgments

Richard Van Slyke of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute has made substantial contributions to the second and third editions of this book and was listed as a coauthor. Much of his contribution has been retained and revised. In addition, he has contributed new material to this edition.

This new edition has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people reviewed the fourth edition and made many helpful suggestions: Glenda Dilts of Devry Institute; Qing Hu of Florida Atlantic University; Neil Shaw of the University of Texas–Arlington; Hugo Moortgat of San Francisco State; Mark Pullen of George Mason University; Jim Holden of Clarion University; Peter Mathys of the University of Colorado; Art Dearing of Tarleton State University; and Divakaran Liginla of the University of Wisconsin.

In addition, Professor M. Tamer Ozsu of the University of Alberta and Professor Nalin Sharda of Victoria University of Technology provided detailed reviews of Chapters 2 and 3, respectively, and Zygmunt Haas of Brooklyn Polytechnic reviewed the material on wireless networks.

Professor Varadharajan Sridhar of the Indian Institute of Management contributed the case study on Staten Island University Hospital, and Steven Kilby of AT&T contributed the case studies on ING Life and Archstone.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Preface

Background

Four trends have made a solid understanding of the fundamentals of data communications essential to business and information management students:

  • The increasing use of data processing equipment. As the cost of computer hardware has dropped, data processing equipment has become an increasingly important and pervasive part of the office, factory, and engineering environments.
  • The increasing use of distributed systems. Dropping hardware costs have resulted in the increasing use of small systems, including servers, workstations, and personal computers. These systems are distributed throughout a business and must be interconnected to exchange messages, share files, and share resources, such as printers.
  • The increasing diversity of networking options. The emergence of a broad range of local area network (LAN) standards plus the evolution of LAN technology have led to a broad, overlapping range of products for local area communications. Similarly, the planning for the next generation of telephone equipment and networks and the evolution of new transmission and networking technologies have led to a broad, overlapping range of options for long-distance communications.
  • The sudden emergence of the Internet and the World Wide Web. In a very short time, the Internet and especially the World Wide Web have attracted millions of business and personal users. No business can ignore the potential of this enormous facility.

As a result of these factors, business data communications courses have become common in business and information managementsequences, and this book intends to address the needs for such a course. However, a focus on data communications is no longer enough.

Over the past twenty years, as data processing capability has been introduced into the office, data communications products and services have gradually assumed increasing importance. Now, technological developments and the widespread acceptance of standards are transforming the ways in which information is used to support the business function. In addition to the traditional communications requirements for voice and data (meaning text and numerical data), there is now the need to deal with pictorial images and video information. These four types of information (voice, data, image, and video) are essential to the survival of any business in today's competitive international environment. What is needed is a treatment not just of data communications but of information communications for the business environment.

Information communications and computer networking have become essential to the functioning of today's businesses, large and small. Furthermore, they have become a major and growing cost to organizations. Management and staff need a thorough understanding of information communications in order to assess needs; plan for the introduction of products, services, and systems; and manage the systems and technical personnel that operate them. This understanding must comprise the following:

  • Technology: The underlying technology of information communications facilities, networking systems, and communications software
  • Architecture: The way in which hardware, software, and services can be organized to provide computer and terminal interconnection
  • Applications: How information communications and networking systems can meet the requirements of today's businesses

Approach

The purpose of this text is to present the concepts of information communications in a way that relates specifically to the business environment and to the concerns of business management and staff. To this end, the book takes an approach based on requirements, ingredients, and applications:

  • Requirements: The need to provide services that enable businesses to utilize information is the driving force behind data and information communications technology. The text outlines the specific requirements that this technology is intended to address. This linkage between requirements and technology is essential to motivate a text of this nature.
  • Ingredients: The technology of information communications includes the hardware, software, and communications services available to support distributed systems. An understanding of this technology is essential for a manager to make intelligent choices among the many alternatives.
  • Applications: Management and staff must understand not only the technology but also the way in which that technology can be applied to satisfy' business requirements.

These three concepts structure the presentation. They provide a way for the student to understand the context of what is being discussed at any point in the text, and they motivate the material. Thus, the student will gain a practical understanding of business information communications.

An important theme throughout the book is the essential role of standards. The proliferation of personal computers and other computer systems inevitably means that the manager will be faced with the need to integrate equipment from a variety of vendors. The only way to manage this requirement effectively is through standards. And, indeed, increasingly vendors are offering products and services that conform to international standards. This text addresses some of the key groupings of standards that are shaping the marketplace and that define the choices available to the decision-maker.

Intended Audience

This book is addressed to students and professionals who now have or expect to have some information communications responsibility. As a full-time job, some readers may have or plan to have responsibility for management of the company's telecommunications function. But virtually all managers and many staff personnel will need to have a basic understanding of business information communications to perform their tasks effectively.

For students, this text is intended as an introductory course in information communications for business and information management students. It does not assume any background in data communications but does assume a basic knowledge of data processing.

The book is also intended for self-study and is designed for use as both a tutorial and a reference book for those already involved in business information communications.

Plan of the Text

This text is a survey of the broad and fast-changing field of information communications. It is organized in such a way that new material is seen to fit into the context of the material already presented. By emphasizing requirements and applications as well as technology, the student is provided with motivation and a means of assessing the importance of a particular topic with respect to the whole. The book is divided into six parts:

  • Part One: Requirements—Defines the needs for information communications in the business environment. It discusses the way in which various forms of information are used and the need for interconnection and networking facilities. An examination of the nature and role of distributed data processing is the highlight of this first part.
  • Part Two: TCP/IP and the Internet—Provides an overview of the Internet and the basic protocols that are the foundation of the Internet and also addresses the critical issue of quality of service. This part provides a context for much of the material covered in the remainder of the book.
  • Part Three: Data Communications Fundamentals—Deals with the basic technology of the communication of information. The emphasis is on digital communications techniques, since these are rapidly displacing analog techniques for all products and services related to information communications. Key topics include transmission media, data link control protocols, multiplexing, and compression.
  • Part Four: Networking—Examines the way in which communications facilities are organized into a network. There is a wide variety of options available to the manager and planner; this part presents the range of options and compare their strengths and weaknesses so that the reader can make informed choices based on specific requirements. Both wide area networks (WANs) and local area networks (LANs) are covered.
  • Part Five: Applications—Deals with the specific business applications that require information communications facilities and networks. This part presents key applications, such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web. The part closes with a discussion of client/server computing and intranets.
  • Part Six: Management Issues—This part examines some of the most important issues that confront the manager with respect to the in-house implementation or the purchase of networking and communications services. It begins with the increasingly important issue of doing business on the Internet. This is followed by a discussion of network management and network security.

In addition, the book includes an extensive glossary, a list of frequently used acronyms, and a bibliography. Each chapter includes problems and suggestions for further reading. Finally, a number of real-world cases studies are sprinkled throughout the book.

Note to the Instructor

The major goal of this text is to make it as effective a teaching tool for this exciting and fast-moving subject as possible. This goal is reflected both in the structure of the book and in the supporting material.

The book contains a number of features that provide strong pedagogical support for the instructor. Each chapter begins with a list of chapter objectives, which provides, in effect, an outline of the chapter and alerts the student to look for certain key concepts as the chapter is read. Key terms are introduced in boldface in the chapter, and all of the new key terms for that chapter are listed at the end of the chapter. Acronyms are highlighted and listed on the back endpaper; this is important because the field of information communications is loaded with acronyms. A glossary at the end of the book provides a handy summary of key terms. The summary at the end of each chapter highlights the key concepts and places them in the context of the entire book. In addition, there are questions and homework problems to reinforce and extend what has been learned. The book is also liberally supplied with figures and tables to enhance points made in the text.

Throughout the book a number of case studies are presented. These are not "made-up" or "toy" cases, but actual cases reported in the literature. Each case is chosen to reinforce or extend concepts introduced prior to the case study.

The text is also accompanied by supplementary material that will aid the instructor. A solutions manual provides answers to all of the problems and questions at the end of each chapter. A test bank of additional problems is also available. PDF figures and Powerpoint slides are available on line and on a CD-ROM version of the instructor's manual.

Internet Services for Instructors and Students

There is a Web page for this book that provides support for students and instructors. The page includes links to relevant sites, transparency masters of figures in the book in PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format, Powerpoint slides, and sign-up information for the book's Internet mailing list. An Internet mailing list has been set up so that instructors using this book can exchange information, suggestions, and questions with each other and with the author.

Note to the Reader

In a book on this topic, for this sort of audience, it is tempting to launch immediately into a description of communications and networking technology and to examine and compare the various approaches. Certainly, this is an essential element of a book that deals with business information communications. However, we believe that this approach is inappropriate. The business reader wants, and rightly so, to see the technical material in the context of the needs of the business and the ways in which communications and networking technology support desired business functions. Thus this book begins by defining the requirements for information communications in business. The types of information and their utility are examined first. This sets the stage for an examination of communications and networking alternatives. And, as these alternatives are presented and compared, the applications for which they are suited, as well as the underlying technology, are explored. It is hoped that this strategy will make the material more comprehensible and provide a structure that is more natural to a reader with a business orientation.

What's New in the Fourth Edition

In the four years since the third edition of this book was published, the field has seen continued innovations and improvements. In this new edition, we try to capture these changes while maintaining a broad and comprehensive coverage of the entire field. To begin the process of revision, the third edition of this book was extensively reviewed by a number of professors who teach the subject and by professionals working in the field. The result is that, in many places, the narrative has been clarified and tightened, and illustrations have been improved. Also, a number of new "field-tested" problems have been added.

Beyond these refinements to improve pedagogy and user friendliness, there have been major substantive changes throughout the book. Highlights include the following:

  • TCP/IP and the Internet: A new part has been added early in the book (Part Two) that covers the TCP/IP set of protocols, the Internet, and Internet quality of service. TCP/IP has won the "protocol wars" with OSI and is now the focus of the protocol coverage in this book. Part Two motivates the topics covered in the remainder of the book.
  • Wireless networks: Wireless networking, both for local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs), has become an increasingly important component of many networking configurations. This new edition expands and updates the coverage of wireless technology and networks.
  • High-speed LANs: Coverage of this important area is expanded and updated and includes detailed treatment of leading-edge approaches, including Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T), Gigabit Ethernet, and Fibre Channel.
  • Business Internets: Innovative uses of Internet technology, including intranets and extranets, have flourished in the business environment. Chapter 17 provides extensive coverage of this important area.
  • Quality of Service: Quality of service (QoS) and the related areas of integrated services, differentiated services, and RSVP are introduced in this edition. The implications of these important topics are examined in Chapter 5.
  • Network security: The chapter on network security (Chapter 20) has been updated provide a timely presentation that emphasizes the important tools and strategies that management needs to implement. The chapter also includes an extensive discussion of Web security.

In addition, throughout the book, virtually every topic has been updated to reflect the developments in standards and technology that have occurred since the publication of the third edition.

Acknowledgments

Richard Van Slyke of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute has made substantial contributions to the second and third editions of this book and was listed as a coauthor. Much of his contribution has been retained and revised. In addition, he has contributed new material to this edition.

This new edition has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people reviewed the fourth edition and made many helpful suggestions: Glenda Dilts of Devry Institute; Qing Hu of Florida Atlantic University; Neil Shaw of the University of Texas–Arlington; Hugo Moortgat of San Francisco State; Mark Pullen of George Mason University; Jim Holden of Clarion University; Peter Mathys of the University of Colorado; Art Dearing of Tarleton State University; and Divakaran Liginla of the University of Wisconsin.

In addition, Professor M. Tamer Ozsu of the University of Alberta and Professor Nalin Sharda of Victoria University of Technology provided detailed reviews of Chapters 2 and 3, respectively, and Zygmunt Haas of Brooklyn Polytechnic reviewed the material on wireless networks.

Professor Varadharajan Sridhar of the Indian Institute of Management contributed the case study on Staten Island University Hospital, and Steven Kilby of AT&T contributed the case studies on ING Life and Archstone.

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 23, 2012

    Complete Rewrite is Needed

    I work in the IT industry and I am back in school to finish my Bachelors Degree. This book was selected for the class with the same name. The only way I can see this book being useful is with an instructor who utilizes the material for topical information.

    The information is horribly out of date. What's worse is that publisher has mashed together 20+ years of computer developments. Some stuff is semi-current while other stuff is simply historical by now. For a book published in 2008, you'd expect at least one reference to cloud computing. You might also expect the word "torrent" to appear in the text and it does not. BitTorrent makes up over 40% of Internet traffic. The chapter 7 case study is based on a business problem from 1997.

    The book also makes attempts at sounding authoritative with some of the most vague areas of the computing industry. This isn't the only textbook to do so.

    This book should be put out to pasture and replaced with something more current. Hopefully the 6th edition is the last and teachers will pass over this selection.

    I don't normally write reviews. However, I am hoping some teacher reads this review and thinks better of tormenting his/her students. I am sick of leaving snarky comments on my assignments about how CD's are no longer a relevant file transfer media.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
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