Byting BackA-Regaining Information Superiority Against 21st-Century Insurgents: RAND Counterinsurgency StudyA-Volume 1 [NOOK Book]

Overview


U.S. counterinsurgency efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan have failed to exploit information power, which could be a U.S. advantage but instead is being used advantageously by insurgents. Because insurgency and counterinsurgency involve a battle for the allegiance of a population between a government and an armed opposition movement, the key to exploiting information power is to connect with and learn from the population itself, increasing the effectiveness of both the local government and the U.S. military and ...
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Byting BackA-Regaining Information Superiority Against 21st-Century Insurgents: RAND Counterinsurgency StudyA-Volume 1

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Overview


U.S. counterinsurgency efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan have failed to exploit information power, which could be a U.S. advantage but instead is being used advantageously by insurgents. Because insurgency and counterinsurgency involve a battle for the allegiance of a population between a government and an armed opposition movement, the key to exploiting information power is to connect with and learn from the population itself, increasing the effectiveness of both the local government and the U.S. military and civilian services engaged in supporting it. Utilizing mostly available networking technology, the United States could achieve early, affordable, and substantial gains in the effectiveness of counterinsurgency by more open, integrated, and inclusive information networking with the population, local authorities, and coalition partners. The most basic information link with the population would be an information technology (IT)-enhanced, fraud-resistant registry-census. The most promising link would come from utilizing local cell phone networks, which are proliferating even among poor countries. Access to data routinely collected by such networks can form the basis for security services such as enhanced-911 and forensics. The cell phones of a well-wired citizenry can be made tantamount to sensor fields in settled areas. They can link indigenous forces with each other and with U.S. forces without interoperability problems; they can also track the responses of such forces to emergencies. Going further, outfitting weaponry with video cameras would bolster surveillance, provide lessons learned, and guard against operator misconduct. Establishing a national Wiki can help citizens describe their neighborhoods to familiarize U.S. forces with them and can promote accountable service delivery. All such information can improve counterinsurgency operations by making U.S. forces and agencies far better informed than they are at present. The authors argue that todayƂ's military and intelligence networks-being closed, compartmentalized, controlled by information providers instead of users, and limited to U.S. war fighters-hamper counterinsurgency and deprive the United States of what ought to be a strategic advantage. In contrast, based on a review of 160 requirements for counterinsurgency, the authors call for current networks to be replaced by an integrated counterinsurgency operating network (ICON) linking U.S. and indigenous operators, based on principles of inclusiveness, integration, and user preeminence. Utilizing the proposed ways of gathering information from the population, ICON would improve the timeliness, reliability, and relevance of information, while focusing security restrictions on truly sensitive information. The complexity and sensitivity of counterinsurgency call for vastly better use of IT than has been seen in Iraq and Afghanistan. Here is a practical plan for just that.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780833042880
  • Publisher: RAND Corporation
  • Publication date: 9/28/2007
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 194
  • File size: 4 MB

Table of Contents

Preface     iii
Figures     ix
Tables     xi
Summary     xiii
Acknowledgments     xxxi
Abbreviations     xxxiii
Introduction     1
Why Information Superiority Matters in Counterinsurgency     2
Getting to Information Superiority in Counterinsurgency     7
Overview     9
The Influence of User Requirements     11
When the Population Is the Terrain     12
Security Operations     13
Situational Awareness     14
Winning Allegiance     15
Military Operations During Counterinsurgency     16
The Registry-Census     21
Categorizing the Information     23
Personal and Social Information     23
Systematic Incidents and Reportage Data     25
Buildings Data: The National CAD Model     27
Getting the Information     29
Information Reliability and Timeliness     31
Toward a National Identification System?     32
Registration     33
Acquiring Identities at Checkpoints     36
Acquiring Identities Without Checkpoints     37
Conclusions     40
A Well-Wired Country     43
Systems Concept     44
Encourage Cell Phone Use     45
Shape the Cell Phone Environment     46
Associate Cell Phones with Registered Users     48
Geolocate Cell Phones Periodically and as Needed     50
Using the System's Capabilities     51
Government Services     51
Eyes on the Street     52
Actionable Intelligence     52
Other Uses     54
The Cell Phone Network as the Primary Counterinsurgency Communications System     55
Issues     57
Secret Surveillance?     58
Insurgent Responses     59
Lost or Stolen SIMs     62
Spoofing GPS Signals     65
Commercial Considerations     65
Follow-On Phases     68
Avoiding a Permanent Police State     70
A Note of Caution     76
Conclusions and Implementation     77
Embedded Video     79
Basic Concept and Technical Issues     81
Evasion Techniques     83
Uses     84
Guidelines     85
Video Made Public     86
Conclusions     87
A National Wiki     89
Our Town     91
An Oral Wiki     95
Attribution     98
Language Translation     99
Accuracy and Deception     100
A National Wiki as a Feedback Mechanism for Government Services     102
Conclusions     104
The Principles of ICON     105
Emphasize User Primacy, Inclusiveness, and Integration     107
Build ICON to Go Native     113
Audit, Audit, Audit     117
Abnormal Usage     118
Taggants     118
Honeypots     119
Surveillance     119
Tune ICON to the Level of Insurgency     120
Post Before Process     124
Establish a Standard Deck and Populate It from the National Wiki     126
Rank Information by Reliability and Relevance     127
Results and a Caveat     129
Implications and Implementation     131
Summary     133
Census and National ID Cards     134
Cell Phones     134
Embedded Video     135
National Wiki     135
ICON     135
Governance, Accountability, and Public Expression      136
Adapting Information Capabilities to the Scope and Locus of the Insurgency     139
Implementation     141
Research and Development Needs     143
Conclusion     143
Disaggregated Information Requirements     145
Bibliography     157
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