Calcium in Muscle Contraction: Cellular and Molecular Physiology

Overview

Recent years have witnessed an explosion of knowledge lea-
ding to a molecular understanding of the mechanisms of ac-
tion of calcium on excitation and contraction coupling and its role in the regulation of contractility. This book highlights the most recent progress as well as providing a historial perspective of the field. It presents a concise and comprehensive overview of...
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Overview

Recent years have witnessed an explosion of knowledge lea-
ding to a molecular understanding of the mechanisms of ac-
tion of calcium on excitation and contraction coupling and its role in the regulation of contractility. This book highlights the most recent progress as well as providing a historial perspective of the field. It presents a concise and comprehensive overview of our current knowledge regar-
ding calcium channels and regulatory proteins as well as in-
tracellular calcium handling and the mechanisms underlying the activation of contractile proteins. It also describes how these basic mechanisms have been adapted in various types of muscle, especially in cardiac and smooth muscle.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642775628
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: 2nd ed. 1992. Softcover reprint of the original 2nd ed. 1992
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 354

Table of Contents

1. Muscle Excitation and Contraction.- 1.1 Muscle Excitation.- 1.2 Electromechanical Coupling.- 1.2.1 The Role of Membrane Depolarization.- 1.2.2 The Importance of Calcium.- 1.3 The Contractile Process.- 1.3.1 Characteristics of Activation.- 1.3.2 The “Contractile” ATPase.- 1.3.3 Actin-Myosin Interaction in Muscle Contraction.- 1.3.4 The Cessation of Contraction: Relaxation.- 2. The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: Storage and Release of Calcium.- 2.1 Inward Spread of Excitation in the Transverse System (T-System).- 2.1.1 Local-Activation Experiments.- 2.1.2 Structure of the Transverse System.- 2.1.3 Conduction of Excitation in T-Tubules.- 2.2 Calcium Release from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR).- 2.2.1 Calcium Storage and Release Sites.- 2.2.2 Structure of T-SR Junction.- 2.2.3 Coupling of T-System and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 2.2.4 Calcium Release from “Skinned Fibres”.- 2.3 Calcium Reuptake by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 2.3.1 Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in Fast and Slow Muscle.- 2.3.2 Fragmented Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 2.3.3 Mechanism of Calcium Transport.- 2.3.4 Regulation of Calcium Uptake.- 2.3.5 Supplementary Calcium-Sequestering Mechanisms.- 2.3.6 Molecular Structure and Function of Calcium Pumps.- 3. The Dependence of Muscle Contraction and Relaxation on the Intracellular Concentration of Free Calcium Ions.- 3.1 Crustacean Muscle.- 3.1.1 Microinjection Experiments.- 3.1.2 Determination of Ca2+ Concentration in Resting and Contracting Muscle with Calcium Electrodes.- 3.1.3 Calcium Transients Determined by Aequorin.- 3.1.4 Calcium Transients: Comparative Aspects.- 3.1.5 Graded Activation.- 3.1.6 Ca2+ and Contraction of Skinned Fibres.- 3.1.7 Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Crustacean Muscle.- 3.2 Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle.- 3.2.1 Amphibian Tonic Fibres.- 3.2.2 Relation of Membrane Potential and Calcium Release in Twitch Fibres.- 3.2.3 Twitch Contraction.- 3.2.4 Twitch Superposition and Tetanus.- 3.2.5 Quantitative Estimation of Intracellular Calcium Ion Concentration During Twitch and Tetanus.- 3.2.6 Control of Force in Intact Twitch Muscle.- 3.2.7 Intracellular Free Calcium and Heat of Activation.- 3.2.8 Coordination of Metabolism and Contraction by the Intracellular Free Calcium Ion Concentration.- 3.2.9 Calcium Homeostasis: Physiology and Pathophysiology.- 4. Calcium Binding and Regulatory Proteins.- 4.1 Structure and Function of Troponin.- 4.1.1 The Subunits of Troponin.- 4.1.2 Troponin-C is the Intracellular Calcium Receptor.- 4.1.3 The Calcium Signal Alters Thin-Filament Protein Interactions.- 4.2 Alterations of Thin Filaments Trigger Contraction.- 4.2.1 Calcium-Dependent Regulation of Actomyosin-ATPase.- 4.2.2 Regulation of Muscle Force, Stiffness and Shortening Velocity.- 4.2.3 Relation of Muscle Force and Calcium Occupancy of Troponin.- 4.3 Ancillary Calcium-Binding Proteins: Calmodulin, Parvalbumin, and Myosin Light Chains.- 4.3.1 Is Parvalbumin a Soluble Relaxing Factor?.- 4.3.2 Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Activation of Myosin Light Chain Kinase.- 4.3.3 Role of Myosin Light Chains in Skeletal Muscle.- 5. Diversity of Fast and Slow Striated Muscle.- 5.1 Vertebrate Tonic Muscle Fibres.- 5.1.1 Amphibian Slow Muscles.- 5.1.2 Avian Tonic Fibres.- 5.1.3 Fish Muscle.- 5.2 Comparison of Mammalian Fast- and Slow-Twitch Fibres.- 5.2.1 Diversity and Plasticity of Fibre Types.- 5.2.2 Differences in Excitation-Contraction Coupling.- 5.2.3 Shortening Velocity and Myosin Isozymes.- 5.2.4 Fast and Slow Muscle: Calcium Cycling and Energetics.- 5.3 Diversity of Crustacean Muscles.- 5.3.1 The Cell Membrane.- 5.3.2 Diversity of Sarcomere Structure and ATPase Activity.- 5.3.3 Internal Membrane Systems.- 5.3.4 Comparison with Other Arthropod Muscles.- 5.4 Insect Flight Muscle.- 5.4.1 Non-Fibrillar Muscle.- 5.4.2 Fibrillar Muscle.- 5.4.3 The Myofibrillar Origin of Myogenic Oscillation: Skinned-Fibre Studies.- 5.4.4 Stretch Activation.- 5.5 Obliquely Striated Muscle of Annelids and Nematodes.- 5.6 Generalizations and Conclusions.- 6. Myosin-Linked Regulation of Molluscan Muscle.- 6.1 Calcium Regulation in the Striated Adductor of the Scallop.- 6.1.1 Recognition of Myosin-Linked Regulation.- 6.1.2 The Role of Myosin Light Chains.- 6.1.3 Light-Chain-Dependent Calcium Binding and Contraction: Cooperativity.- 6.1.4 Light-Chain Location and Movement.- 6.1.5 Mechanism of ATPase Activation by Calcium.- 6.1.6 Comparison of Myosin- and Actin-Linked Regulation.- 6.2 Catch Muscles.- 6.2.1 Structural Features of Catch Muscle.- 6.2.2 Phasic and Tonic Contraction of the Anterior Byssus Retractor Muscle of Mytilus (ABRM).- 6.2.3 Analysis of Catch Regulation in Skinned Fibres — Role of Calcium and cAMP.- 6.2.4 A Biochemical Catch Mechanism.- 6.2.5 Comparison of Catch and Latch in Smooth Muscle.- 6.3 Summary.- 7. The Vertebrate Heart: Modulation of Calcium Control.- 7.1 Calcium-Transport Mechanisms.- 7.1.1 Calcium Sequestration by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and the Role of Mihondria.- 7.1.2 Calcium Movements Across the Cell Membrane.- 7.2 Calcium Movements as the Link Between Excitation and Contraction.- 7.2.1 Action Potential and Calcium Entry.- 7.2.2 Activation of Myocardial Myofilaments of Lower Vertebrates by Transmembrane Sarcolemmal Calcium Influx.- 7.2.3 Calcium Release from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum During Contraction of Mammalian Hearts.- 7.2.4 Delayed Effects of Excitation on Contraction.- 7.3 Myoplasmic Free Calcium, a Major Determinant of Contractility.- 7.3.1 The Dependence of Force and Intracellular Calcium Transients on Extracellular Calcium Concentration.- 7.3.2 Toxins and Drugs Influencing Force and Intracellular Free Calcium.- 7.3.3 How Noradrenaline Increases Contractility.- 7.4 Alteration of Contractility by Changes in Calcium Responsiveness of Myofilaments.- 7.4.1 Calcium Desensitization of Myofilaments by Cyclic Nucleotides.- 7.4.2 Hypoxic Insufficiency.- 7.4.3 Frank-Starling Mechanism.- 7.4.4 Positive Inotropic Drugs as Calcium Sensitizers.- 7.4.5 Ischemia, Necrosis and Stunned Myocardium.- 8. Vertebrate Smooth Muscle.- 8.1 Contractile Mechanism.- 8.1.1 Organization of the Contractile Structure.- 8.1.2 The Crossbridge Cycle.- 8.1.3 The Proteins Associated with Contraction.- 8.2 Calcium Activation of the Contractile Apparatus.- 8.2.1 Calmodulin and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase Activate Muscle Contraction.- 8.2.2 Myosin Phosphatase.- 8.2.3 A Futile Cycle of Myosin Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation May Regulate Smooth Muscle Contraction.- 8.2.4 Alternative Mechanisms of Smooth Muscle Activation.- 8.2.5 Phosphorylation-Contraction Coupling in Actomyosin Systems and Intact Smooth Muscle.- 8.2.6 Regulation of Contraction in Skinned Fibres.- 8.3 Regulation of the Intracellular Calcium Ion Concentration.- 8.3.1 Intracellular Free Calcium.- 8.3.2 The Relative Importance of Membrane Depolarization for Activation.- 8.3.3 Calcium Channels and Calcium Influx.- 8.3.4 Calcium Release from Intracellular Stores and Phosphoinositide Metabolism.- 8.3.5 Calcium Reuptake by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and Calcium Extrusion Through the Cell Membrane.- 8.4 Modulation of Calcium Activation by Cyclic Nucleotides and G-Proteins.- 8.4.1 Mediation of Beta-Adrenergic Relaxation of Vascular Smooth Muscle by cAMP.- 8.4.2 The Mechanisms of cAMP-Mediated Relaxation.- 8.4.3 Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP)-Mediated Relaxation.- 8.4.4 Calcium Sensitization of Myofilaments Mediated by G-Proteins.- 9. Principles of Calcium Signalling in Muscle.- 9.1 Senders of Calcium Signals.- 9.2 Transmission of Calcium Signals.- 9.3 Diversity of Calcium-Signal Receivers.- 9.4 Contractile Responsiveness to Calcium.- 9.5 Feedback Signals and Servoloops.- 10. Molecular Level Approaches to Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Heart and Skeletal Muscle.- 10.1 Calcium Channels in T-System SR Coupling and Calcium Release.- 10.1.1 The Calcium Release Channel of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 10.1.2 The Calcium Channel of T-Tubules in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle.- 10.2 Control of the Contractile Mechanism by Intracellular Free Calcium.- 10.2.1 Molecular Properties and Role of Thin Filament Proteins.- 10.2.2 Contractile Activation: Crossbridges Called into Action.- 10.2.3 Molecular Aspects of Contractility in the Myocardium.- 10.3 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects.- References.
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