Calixtus II, 1119-1124: A Pope Born to Rule

Overview

Calixtus II (1119-1124) transformed the orientation of the papacy by signing the Concordat of Worms with the emperor, Henry V, in 1122, resolving the conflict over imperial investiture of bishops. As the tough-minded archbishop of Vienne, he had opposed the emperor and anyone else who stood in his way. As pope, he aggressively promoted the authority of the papacy, but suffered defeat in South Italy. To gain Henry V’s support, he jettisoned his life-long opposition, and compromised over investitures. Students of ...

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Overview

Calixtus II (1119-1124) transformed the orientation of the papacy by signing the Concordat of Worms with the emperor, Henry V, in 1122, resolving the conflict over imperial investiture of bishops. As the tough-minded archbishop of Vienne, he had opposed the emperor and anyone else who stood in his way. As pope, he aggressively promoted the authority of the papacy, but suffered defeat in South Italy. To gain Henry V’s support, he jettisoned his life-long opposition, and compromised over investitures. Students of the medieval papacy will find that this new interpretation of a pivotal pope challenges many of the conventional conceptions.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Mary Stroll, Ph.D. (1975) in History, the University of California, San Diego, is a Visiting Scholar at UCSD. She has published three books with Brill, the last of which was The Medieval Abbey of Farfa (1998).

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xiii
Preface xv
Abbreviations xvii
List of Maps and Illustrations xix
Part I Guy of Vienne
Introduction: Guy of Vienne 3
Background 6
Archbishop of Vienne 12
Chapter 1 Guy as Archbishop: The Velvet Glove 15
Sermorens 15
The Abbey of St. Barnard in Romans 23
Forged Letters 27
Chapter 2 Acting on a Larger Stage 34
St. John's and St. Stephen's 34
The Council of Vienne of 1112 and Other Events 46
Gregory VIII, Burdinus 52
Chapter 3 Election as Pope 58
After the Election 65
The Roman Response 69
Toulouse and Thereafter 72
Part II England
Chapter 4 England and the German Alliance 77
Henry I (1100-1135) 78
English-Imperial Alliance 81
1111: The English Connection 85
Chapter 5 York Versus Canterbury 93
History of the Dispute 95
The Council of Reims 104
'Rome' in France 107
Chapter 6 Papal/Anglo-Norman Negotiations 115
Gisors: Anglo-Norman/French Issues 117
Gisors: The Primacy Dispute 120
Thurstan's Travels with Calixtus 123
Chapter 7 The Victory of Calixtus and Thurstan 127
Ralph's Letter 127
The Denouement 132
Thurstan Departs 136
Thurstan Assumes His See 141
The Mystery of the Interdict 143
Chapter 8 Thurstan in York 146
Petrus Pierleoni, Legate a Latere 146
Thurstan 151
William of Corbeil 152
Chapter 9 England: A Qualified Success 160
Thurstan and William in Rome 160
John of Crema 164
Conclusion 174
Part III Germany
Chapter 10 The Empire 179
Traditions 179
Calixtus and the Empire 183
Chapter 11 Guy's Family and Henry V 190
Clementia 193
Stephen 199
Rainald, Count of Bar and Mousson 207
Chapter 12 The Lay and Ecclesiastical Princes 210
Adalbert of Mainz 210
Negotiations 221
Part IV Spain and France
Chapter 13 Raymond, Alfonso and Diego 229
Introduction 229
Santiago de Compostela 233
The Death of Raymond 238
Chapter 14 Calixtus and Spain 242
Toulouse 245
Reims and Cluny 247
Diego as Archbishop and Legate 250
Chapter 15 The Denouement in Spain 255
Conflict Between Urraca and Diego 258
Competition Between Diego and Bernard of Toledo 260
Chapter 16 France: The Perspective of Geoffrey of Vendome 268
Geoffrey and Sermorens 271
Positions on Ecclesiastical Reform 274
Letter to Gualterius 280
Undated Contacts 284
Conclusion 285
Part V Italy
Chapter 17 Entry into Italy 289
Arrival in Rome 292
Rome as a City 297
Chapter 18 Corsica 301
The Treaty with Genoa 306
The Lateran Council 309
Chapter 19 Italy and the Normans 313
The Normans and the Patrimonium 314
The First Trip to the South 318
Troia, Bari and Back to Rome 324
Rome 326
Chapter 20 Burdinus, Farfa, and a Revisit to France with Abelard 329
Burdinus 329
Between Expeditions: The Campagna and Farfa 333
Abelard 337
Chapter 21 The Second Expedition to the South 341
Tres Tabernae 345
Return to Rome 351
Part VI The Concordat of Worms
Chapter 22 The Background 357
The Letter 357
The Evolution of the Conflict 359
Negotiations, 1119 367
Chapter 23 1119: Negotiations Fail 371
Reims and Mouzon 371
Interpretation of the Negotiations 378
Chapter 24 The Concordat of Worms 383
The German Side 383
The Papal Side 387
The Charters 390
Interpretation and Reaction to the Concordat 394
The Regalia Sancti Petri 398
Chapter 25 The First Lateran Council 401
The Aftermath of Worms 401
The Council 403
Other Affairs 409
Frescos in the Lateran Palace 416
Part VII Summing Up
Chapter 26 Cluny and Montecassino 425
Cluny 425
Montecassino 431
Conclusion 440
Chapter 27 New Ventures 441
Crusade and Reunification 441
Rome and the Patrimonium 447
Santa Maria in Cosmedin 452
S. Grisogono 456
Chapter 28 The Final Years 459
Cardinals and Legates 460
Notable Events 464
The Final Year 468
Rome at the Death of Calixtus 471
Chapter 29 Conclusion 474
Bibliography 487
Index 513
Index of Persons 513
Index of Places 529
Subject Index 535
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