Call and Response: The Riverside Anthology of the African American Literary Tradition [With CDROM] / Edition 1

Call and Response: The Riverside Anthology of the African American Literary Tradition [With CDROM] / Edition 1

by Patricia Liggins Hill, Horace Porter, Sondra J. O' Neale

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ISBN-10: 0618451714

ISBN-13: 9780618451715

Pub. Date: 10/28/2003

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company College Division

More than a decade in the making, Call and Response is a ground-breaking anthology of African American literature, unique in its placing equal emphasis on the written and the oral dimensions of the black aesthetic. It traces the centuries-long emergence of this distinct literary tradition from its earliest roots in African proverbs, folktales, and chants to


More than a decade in the making, Call and Response is a ground-breaking anthology of African American literature, unique in its placing equal emphasis on the written and the oral dimensions of the black aesthetic. It traces the centuries-long emergence of this distinct literary tradition from its earliest roots in African proverbs, folktales, and chants to its latest flowering in the works of such writers as Rita Dove, August Wilson, and Terry McMillan. Here, in 2,000 pages and 550 selections, is (in the words of Richard Wright) the "long black song" of African American life, sung in a great choir of voices, from the slaves of the 1600s to the rap artists, orators, novelists, and poets of today.

Among the works included are Frederick Douglass's Life ... and Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eyes--both presented complete and unabridged. Here too are hundreds of spirituals and work songs, jazz and blues lyrics, poems, plays, stories, and speeches. An audio CD, produced in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution, features many of the texts as spoken or sung by their creators.

Product Details

Houghton Mifflin Company College Division
Publication date:
Edition description:
Book and CD
Product dimensions:
7.73(w) x 9.29(h) x 2.28(d)

Table of Contents

  • I. "Go Down, Moses, Way Down in Egypt's Land"
    The Description of the Conditions of Slavery and Oppression: African American History and Culture, 1619 to 1808.
    Racial and Religious Oppression
    Call for Deliverance: The Oral Tradition
    Origins: African Survivals in Slave Folk Culture
    Proverbs: Slave Proverbs and Their African Parallels
    The Folk Cry
    The Shout
    Work Songs and Other Secular Music. African Prototype: An African Spinner's Song. Early Slave Work Songs: An Old Boat Song. Antiphonal Patterns of Worksongs: Harold Courlander's Table.
    Spirituals. Lengthy Epic Narratives. African Prototype: "Sunjata." Spirituals as Lengthy Epic Narratives: "Go Down, Moses." Praise Poems. African Prototypes: Griot's Praisesong from "Sunjata." Mandean People's Praisesong from "Sundiata." Hunter's Praisesong from "Kambili." Oriki-Yoruba Praise Poetry: "Oriki Obatala." Spirituals as Praise Poems: "God is a God." from "Didn't My Lord Deliver Daniel." "Joshua Fit de Battle of Jericho."
    Sermons and Prayers. African Prototypes: Sermons in Epic Narratives: Griot's Sermon from "Kambili." African Prototypes: Prayers in Epic Narratives: Sologon's Prayer from "Sundiata." African Prototypes: Hymns in Epic Narratives: "Niama" from "Sundiata." Spirituals as Sermons and Prayers: from "Humble Yo'self de Bell Done Ring." "Keep Me from Sinking Down."
    LyricalPoetry: African Prototypes: Griot's Chant from the "Mwindo Epic." Warrior's Chant from "Kambili." Spirituals as Lyrical Poetry: "Were You There When They Crucified My Lord?" "Motherless Child." "I Been 'Buked and I Been Scorned."
    Improvisations: Theme and Variation, Call and Response, Performance Styles, Rhythms and Melodic Structures: African Antiphonal Patterns: An Old Borno Song. Antiphonal Patterns in the Spirituals: "Lay Dis Body Down." African Melodic Structures: Duple and Triple Rhythms. Examples XII-1 and XII-2 (J. H. Nketia's Tables). Melodic Structures in the Spirituals: An Example of Duple Rhythms and the Penatonic Scale. "Jesus on de Water-Side." An Example of a Syncopated Melody with Hand Clapping and Foot Tapping: "Nobody Knows de Trouble I've Had."
    Folktales: African Folktales: Animal Trickster Tales. "The Elephant and the Tortoise" (Hottentot). "Why the Hare Runs Away" (Ewe). Slave Folktales: Animal Trickster Tales. "Rabbit Teaches Bear a Song." "T'appin" (Terrapin). "Tar Baby." Tales of the Flying Africans: Two Tales of The Flying Africans. Conjure Tales: Two Tales from Eatonville, Florida. Voodoo, Ghost and Haunt Tales: "Voodoo and Witches." "The Headless Hant."
    Response: Black Literary Declarations of Independence-Poetry, Slave Narratives, Letters, Essays, and Oratory
    Voices of Slave Poets
    Jupiter Hammon (1711-1806?): "An Evening Thought." "An Address to Miss Phillis Wheatley." "A Winter Piece" (a sermon). Lucy Terry (1730-1821): "Bars Fight." Phillis Wheatley (1753?-1784): "On Being Brought from Africa to America." "To the Right Honorable William, Earl of Dartmouth." "On the Death of General Wooster." "To the University of Cambridge, in New England" Philis's [sic] Reply to the Answer by the Gentleman of the Navy. "On the Death of the Rev. George Whitfield 1770." Letter to Abour Tanner, Boston, May 19th, 1772. An Extract of a letter from Phillis, a Negro girl of Mr. Wheatley's, of this town; to the Rev. Samson Occom, dated the 11th of February, 1774.
    Voices of Social Protest in Prose. The Confessional Narrative. The Life and Confession of Johnson Green
    The Slave Narrative. Briton Hammon (?-?): A Narrative of the Uncommon Sufferings and Surprising Deliverance of Briton Hammon, a Negro Man, 1760. Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797): from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, the African.
    Letters and Essays. Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806): Letter to Thomas Jefferson, 1791. Prince Hall (1735c.-1807): A Charge Delivered to the African Lodge, June 24, 1797. Lemuel B. Haynes (1753-1833): "Liberty Further Extended" (unpublished essay). "The Battle of Lexington" (unpublished poem).
    Voices of Orators
    The Sermon. Absalom Jones (1746-1818): "A Thanksgiving Sermon Preached January 1, 1808." John Marrant (1755-1790?): "A Sermon Preached on the 29th Day of June 1789." Richard Allen (1760-1831): "An Address To Those Who Keep Slaves and Approve the Practice" (1793).
  • II. "Tell Ole Pharaoh, Let My People Go."
    The Explanations of the Desire for Freedom: African American History and Culture, 1808-1865.
    Repression and Racial Response
    Southern Folk Call for Resistance
    Folk Poetry
    Slave Songs of Rebellion, the Underground Railroad andEmancipation
    Spirituals: "You Got a Right." "There's a Better Day a Coming." "Oh Mary, Don't You Weep." "Steal Away." "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot." "Hail Mary." "Many Thousands Gone." "Hail Mary." "Wade in Nuh Watuh Childun." "Follow the Drinking Gou'd." "There's a Meeting Here Tonight." "Master's in the Field." "Michael Row the Boat Ashore." "Before I'd Be a Slave" (or "Oh Freedom").
    Secular Songs: "Juba." "Raise a Ruckus Tonight." "We Raise de Wheat." "One Time Upon Dis Ribber." "Shuck Dat Corn Before You Eat." "Round de Corn, Sally."
    Folktales: John and Old Marster Tales. "Massa and the Bear." "John Steals a Pig and a Sheep."
    Northern Literary Response: Rights for Blacks, Rights for Women
    Major Abolitionist Voices. David Walker (1785-1883): from the Appeal, 1829. Sojourner Truth (1797-9?-1883): Speech at Akron Convention in Reminiscences by Frances D. Gage of Sojourner Truth for May 28-29, 1851. Speech at New York City Convention. Address to the First Annual Meeting of the American Equal Rights Association. Henry Highland Garnet (1815-1882): "An Address to the Slaves of the United States of America, 1843." Frederick Douglass (1817-1895): The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass an American Slave (1845). "The Rights of Women," The North Star, July 28,1848 (essay). "What to the American Slave is your Fourth of July?" An Address Delivered in Rochester, New York on 5 July, 1852. Alexander Crummell (1819-1898): "Hope for Africa" (sermon). "The Black Woman of the South: Her Neglect and Her Needs" (speech). Frances Watkins Harper (1824-1911): "The Slave Auction." "The Slave Mother." "Bury Me in a Free Land." "Songs for the People." "A Double Standard." The Aunt Chloe poems from Sketches of Southern Life. "Learning to Read." "Aunt Chloe's Politics." "Liberty for Slaves" (1857 address). "The Two Offers," 1859 (short story). "Women's Political Future" (address). from Iola LeRoy. Northern Experience. Diverging Paths.
    Abolitionist Orator-Poets. George Moses Horton (1797-1883): "A Slave's Complaint." "On Liberty and Slavery." "On Hearing of the Intention of a Gentleman to Purchase the Poet's Freedom." James M. Whitfield (1823-1878): "America" from America and Other Poems. "Prayer of the Oppressed." James Madison Bell (1826-1902): "The Day and the War." "Emancipation in the District of Columbia, April 16, 1862."
    Abolitionist Orators. Theodore S. Wright (1797-1847): "The Progess of the Antislavery Cause." Maria Stewart (1803-1879): from Religion and the Pure Principles of Morality (essay). Lecture, Delivered at the Franklin Hall, Boston, 21 September 1832. "An Address, Delivered at the African Masonic Hall, Boston, 27 February 1833." "Farewell Address," 1833. Sarah Parker Remond (1826-1894): "The Negro in the United States of America." London, 1862.
    Voices of Social Protest in Prose
    The Confessional Narrative. Nat Turner (1800-1831): The Confessions of Nat Turner.
    The Fugitive Slave Narrative. Harriet Jacobs (1813-1897): from Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Preface. Chapter I: Child-hood. Chapter II: The New Master and Mistress. Chapter VI: The Jealous Mistress. Chn]." Claude McKay (1889-1948): "The Tropics in New York." "If We Must Die." "Baptism." "Tiger." "America." "Harlem Shadows." "The Harlem Dancer." "The White House." "St. Isaac's Church, Petrograd." Langston Hughes (1902-1967): "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." "Dream Variations (1810-1898): Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens, Threatened with Disfranchisement, to the People of Pennsylvania, 1837. Martin R. Delany (1812-1885): from The Condition, Elevation and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, Politically Considered 1852. Charlotte Forten Grimke (1837-1914): "Thursday, May 25, 1854 to Sunday, December 17, 1854" from The Journal of Charlotte Forten. "Interesting Letter from Miss Charlotte Forten," November 7, 1862. Elizabeth Keckley (?-1907): "Washington in 1862-63" from Behind the Scenes.
    The Women's Narrative: Jarena Lee (1783?-): from Religious Experience and Journal of Mrs. Jarena Lee.
    The Novel. The Beginning of the Neo-slave Narrative: William Wells Brown (1815-1884): from Clotelle; a Tale of the Southern States. Ch. II: The Negro Sale. Ch. X: The Quadroon's Home. Ch.XI: To Day a Mistress, Tomorrow a Slave. Ch. XXV: The Flight. Harriet Wilson (1828- 1863): from Our Nig: Or Sketches from the Life of a Free Black. Ch. IV: A Friend for Nig. Ch. X: Perplexities-Another Death. Ch.X: The Winding Up of the Matter
  • III. "No More Shall They in Bondage Toil"
    The Description of the Manner of Escape from Slavery and the Considerations of Whether the New Freedom is the Ideal Freedom: African American History and Culture, 1865 -1915.
    Reconstruction and Post-Reconstruction
    Folk Call for the Ideal Freedom
    Folk Poetry
    Spirituals: "Free at Las'." "Singin' Wid a Sword in Ma Han.'" "Deep River." "Go Tell It On de Mountain." "When The Saints Go Marching In." "Git on Board, Little Chillen." "Mighty Rocky Road."
    Work, B-a-a-d Man and Prison Songs: "Casey Jones." "John Henry." "Railroad Bill." "Stagolee." "John Harty." "Po Laz'us."
    Rural Blues: "The Joe Turner's Blues." "Gwine down Dat Lonesome Road." "Baby Seals Blues" (Artie Blake). "St. Louis Blues" (W. C. Handy).
    Ragtime: "I Meet Dat Coon Tonight."
    The Folk Sermon: John J. Jasper, "De Sun Do Move." Anonymous, "Dry Bones."
    Memories of Slavery: "Swapping Dreams." "Lias' Revelation." "Big Sixteen."
    Preacher Tales: "The Three Preachers." "The Wrong Man in the Coffin." "The Preacher and His Farmer Brother."
    Response: The Written Tradition
    Voices of the Folk Tradition: Charles W. Chesnutt (1858-1932): "The Goophered Grapevine" (short story). "The Wife of His Youth" (short story). Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906): "An Antebellum Sermon." "When Malindy Sings." "A Negro Love Song." "The Party." "Frederick Douglass." "Sympathy." "We Wear the Mask." "The Poet." "A Spiritual." Alice Moore Dunbar-Nelson (1875-1935): "Sister Josepha" (short story). Fenton Johnson (1888-1958): "A Negro Peddler's Song." "Aunt Jane Allen." "The Banjo Player." "Tired." "The Scarlet Woman."
    Oratorical Voices of Reconstruction, Race and Women's Rights: Blanche K. Bruce (1841-1898): "Speech to the U. S. Senate on Mississippi Elections, Delivered March 3, 1876." Robert Brown Elliott (1842-1884): from "The Civil Rights Bill" (delivered in the U.S. Congress, January 6,1874). Lucy Craft Laney (1854-1933): "The Burden of the Educated Colored Woman." Anna Julia Cooper (1858-1964): "The Higher Education of Women." from A Voice from the South, 1892. Remarks before the 1893 World's Congress of Representative Women on the Staus of the Black Woman in the United States. Fannie Barrier Williams (1855-1944): "The Intellectual Progress of the Colored Woman of the United States Since Emancipation Proclamation."
    Voices of ReformAutobiography: Booker T. Washington (1856-1915): Up From Slavery. Ch. I: A Slave Among Slaves. Ch. III: The Struggle for an Education. Ch. VII: Early Days at Tuskegee. Ch VIII: Teaching School in a Stable and a Hen House. Ch XIV: The Atlanta Exposition Address.Women's Narrative: Julia A. J. Foote (1823-1900): A Brand Plucked from the Fire. Ch. XVIII: My Call to Preach the Gospel. Ch. XIX: Public Effort. Ch. XX: Women in the Gospel. Frances Jackson Coppin (1837-1913): from Reminiscences of School Life.The Novel or Neo-Slave Narrative: Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins (1859-1930): from Contending Forces. Preface. Ch VI: Ma Smith's Lodging-House-. Concluded. Ch VIII: The Sewing Circle.Voices of Activism: Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862- 1931): from Southern Horrors: Lynch Law In All Its Phases. William Edward Burghart Du Bois (1868-1963): from The Souls of Black Folk. Ch. I: Of Our Spiritual Strivings. Ch. III: Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others. Ch. XIV: Of the Sorrow Songs. "The Litany of Atlanta" (poem). "The Song of the Smoke" (poem). "The Negro in Literature and Art," (essay). "The Immediate Program of the American Negro" (essay).
  • IV. "Bound No'th Blues"
    "Play the Blues for Me": African American History and Culture, 1915-1945.
    Renaissance and Reformation
    "What Happens to a Dream Deferred?"'
    "Lift Every Voice and Sing" (Negro National Anthem by James Weldon Johnson)
    Folk Call for Political and Social Change
    Folk Poetry
    Classic Blues Lyrics: "Harlem Blues" (WC Handy). from "That Thing Called Love" (Mamie Smith). from "Taint Nobody's Business If I Do" (Bessie Smith). from "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out" (Bessie Smith). from "Sissy Blues" (Gertrude "Ma" Rainey). from "Wild Women Don't Get the Blues" (Ida Cox). from "God Bless the Child" (Billie Holliday). from "Fast Life Blues" (Bumble Bee Slim). from "Coal Woman Blues" (Black Boy Shine).
    Rural Blues Lyrics of the 30s and 40s: "Dry Spell Blues" (Eddie "Son" House). "Hard Time Blues" (Charlie Spand). from "Honey I'm All Out and Down" (Huddie "Leadbelly" Ledbetter). "Hollering the Blues" "Big Bill" Broonzy. "Cross Road Blues" (Robert Johnson).
    Gospel Songs: "Take My Hand, Precious Lord, " (Thomas Dorsey). "When I Touch His Garment" (Langston Hughes & J. Huntley). "If I Can Just Make It In" (Kenneth Morris).
    Development of Jazz Techniques in Performance. Rhythm, Melody and Harmony: Illustration: Hilda Roach's Table. Improvisation: "(What Did I Do To Be So) Black and Blue" (jazz musical improvisations by Fats Waller and Louis Armstrong). Swing or Big Band Jazz of the early 30s: "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Aint Got That Swing" (Duke Ellington).
    Boogie Woogie: "Pine Top's Boogie Woogie" (Clarence "Pine Top" Smith). "Dream Boogie" (poem by Langston Hughes).
    B-a-a-d Man and Prison Songs: "Garvey." "Champ Joe Louis." "This Mornin', This Evenin' So Soon." "Slim Greer" (poem by Sterling Brown).
    Toasts: "Shine and the Sinking of the Titanic" (a traditional version). "Titanic" (version of "Shine" by Huddy "Leadbelly" Ledbetter). "The Signifying Monkey" (traditional version). "Stack O' Lee Blues" (version by Mississsippi John Hurt).
    Folk Sermons: "The Creation" from God's Trombones (poem by James Weldon Johnson). "Go Down Death: A Funeral Sermon" (poem by James Weldon Johnson). "Preachin' the Blues" (a mock sermon by Bessie Smith).
    Folktales (collected by Zora Neale Hurston): "High John De Conquer." "Daddy Mention."
    Call for Political and Social Change: Marcus Garvey (1887-1940): "Speech on Disarmament Conference Delivered at Liberty Hall, New York, November 6, 1921." Walter White (1893-1955): "I Investigate Lynchings" (essay).
    Call for Critical DebateAn Address, Delivered at the African Masonic Hall, Boston, 27 February 1833." "Farewell Address," 1833. Sarah Parker Remond (1826- 1894): "The Negro in the United States of America." London, 1862.
    Voices of Social Protest in Prose
    The Confessional Narrative. Nat Turner (1800-1831): The Confessions of Nat Turner.
    The Fugitive Slave Narrative. Harriet Jacobs (1813-1897): s." "Sunday Morning Prophecy." "The Weary Blues." "Jazzonia." "Life is Fine." "Daybreak in Alabama." "Bound No'th Blues." "Madam's Past History." "Ballad of the Landlord." "Harlem." "I, Too." "Feet Live Their Own Life" (short prose). "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (essay). Gwendolyn B. Bennett (1902-1981): "Heritage." "To a Dark Girl." "Nocturne." "To Usward." "Street Lamps in Early Spring." "Hatred." "Fantasy." "Secret."
    Countee Cullen (1903-1946): "Heritage." "Scottsboro, Too, Is Worth Its Song." "Colored Blues Singer." "The Litany of the Dark People." "Yet Do I Marvel." "A Song of Praise." "Not Sacco and Vanzetti." Helene Johnson (1907- ): "My Race." "Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem." " Bottled." "Trees at Night." "The Road." "Magalu." "Summer Matures." "Fulfillment."
    Fiction: Nella Larsen (1891-1964): Ch. I from Quicksand. from Passing. Ch.I. Ch.II. Jean Toomer (1894-1967): from Cane. "Karintha." "Song of the Son." "Fern." "Portrait in Georgia. "Seventh Street." "Box Seat." from "Kabnis." Rudolph Fisher (1897-1934): "Miss Cynthie" (short story). Eric Walrond (1898-1966): "The Wharf Rats" (short story).
    Response: Voices of the Reformation
    Poetry: Sterling A. Brown (1901-1989):"When de Saints Go Ma'chin' Home." "Southern Road." "Ma Rainey." "Memphis Blues." "Old Lem." "Strong Men." Frank Marshall Davis (1905-1987): "Jazz Band." "Robert Whitmore." "Arthur Ridgewood, M.D." "Giles Johnson, Ph.D."
    Fiction: Richard Wright (1908-1960): "Long Black Song" (short story). Ann Petry (1908-): "Like a Winding Sheet" (short story). Chester Himes (1909-1984): "Marihuana and a Pistol" (short story).
  • V. "Win the War Blues"
    "Play the Blues for Me": African American History and Culture, 1945-1960
    "Does it Dry up Like a Raisin in the Sun?"
    Folk Call for Victory at Home and Abroad
    Folk Poetry
    Urban Blues Lyrics: "Win the War Blues" (Sonny Boy Williamson)." "Hitler Blues" (The Florida Kid). "Eisenhower Blues" (performed by Chubby Checker). "Good Golly, Miss Molly" (performed by Little Richard). "A Change is Gonna Come" (words and music by Sam Cooke).
    Bop and Cool Jazz: Illustrations of Bop Composition and Structure. "Parker's Mood" (by Charlie "Yardbird" Parker). from "Donna Lee" (by Charlie Parker; performed by Miles Davis). "Flatted Fifths" (poem by Langston Hughes).
    B-a-a-d Woman Folk Ballads (poems by Margaret Walker): "Molly Means." "Kissie Lee."
    Folk Sermon: "The Prodigal Son" (version by Rev. C. L. Franklin).
    Call for Critical Debate: Hugh M. Gloster, "Race and the Negro Writer" (1950). Nick Aaron Ford, "A Blueprint for Negro Authors" (1950). Ann Petry, "The Novel as Social Criticism" (1950).
    Response: Voices of Modernism and the Folk Tradition
    Poetry: Melvin B. Tolson (1900-1966): "Dark Symphony." "Lambda" from Harlem Gallery. Robert Hayden (1913-1980): "Homage to the Empress of the Blues." "Middle Passage." "Runagate Runagate." "Frederick Douglass." "Elegies for Paradise Valley." "A Letter from Phillis Wheatley." Dudley Randall (1914- ): "Booker T. and W.E.B." "Legacy: My South." "Ancestors." Owen Dodson (1914-1983): "Sorrow is the Only Faithful One." "Yardbird's Skull (For Charlie Parker)." "Guitar." Margaret Danner (1915-1988): "Far from Africa: Four Poems." "The Rhetoric of Langston Hughes." "The Slave and the Iron Lace." "Passive Resistance." Margaret Walker (1915- ): "For My People." "Lineage." "The Ballad of the Free." "Prophets for a New Day." "The Crystal Palace" "A Patchwork Quilt." Gwendolyn Brooks (1917- ): "a song in the front yard." "the preacher: ruminates behind the sermon." "the mother." "Negro Hero." "the children of the poor." "The Last Quatrain of the Ballad of Emmett Till." "The Chicago Defender Sends a Man to Little Rock." "We Real Cool." "The Wall." "The Life of Lincoln West." Naomi Long Madgett (1923- ): "Midway." "The Old Women." "New Day." "Monday Morning Blues." "A Litany for Afro-Americans."
    Drama: Alice Childress (1920- ): Florence (one act play). Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965): A Raisin in the Sun (play).
    Fiction: Dorothy West (1907- ): "The Richer, The Poorer" (short story). Ralph Ellison (1914-1994): "Juneteenth" (short story). "Prologue" to Invisible Man. John Oliver Killens (1916-1987): "The Stick Up" (short story). James Baldwin (1924- 1987): "Sonny's Blues" (short story). "Everybody's Protest Novel" (essay). Paule Marshall (1929- ): "Barbados" (short story). "Praisesong for the Widow" from Praisesong for the Widow (novel excerpt).
  • VI. "Cross Road Blues"
    "No Other Music 'Ll Ease My Misery": African American History and Culture, 1960 to the Present
    Revolution and New Renaissance
    ".....Or Does It Explode?"Folk Call for Social Revolution and Political Strategy
    Folk Poetry
    Urban Blues Lyrics: "The Thrill is Gone" (B.B. King). "I Pity the Fool" (Bobby "Blue" Bland). "Back Door Man" (Howlin' Wolf). "Am I Blue?" (Ray Charles). "Big Boss Man" (Jimmy Reed).
    Rhythm and Blues Lyrics: "Respect"(by Otis Redding; interpreted by Aretha Franklin). from "Say It Loud, I'm Black and I'm Proud" (James Brown). from "Keep on Pushing" (sung by the Impressions). "What's Going On?" (by Marvin Gaye, A. Cleveland, and R. Benson).
    Spirituals and Gospels Adapted for the Liberation Movement: "Ain't Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Around." "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize."
    "This Little Light of Mine." "We Shall Not Be Moved."
    Avant-garde Jazz: Characteristics of African and Asian Scales in John Coltrane's Compositions.
    Rap Lyrics: from "The Revolution Will Not be Televised" (Gil Scott Heron). from "Rapper's Delight" (The Sugar Hill Gang). from "The Message" (grandmaster flash and the furious five). from "Paid in Full" (Eric B. and Rakim). "Don't Believe the Hype" (Public Enemy). "Fight the Power" (Public Enemy). from "Freedom of Speech" (Ice T). from "Ladies First"" (Queen Latifah and monie love). "Just a Friendly Game of Baseball" (Main Source). Rap from Philadelphia Fire (poem by John Wideman).
    Toasts: "Signifyin' Monkey" (version by Oscar Brown Jr.).
    Folk Sermon: "Ezekiel and the Vision of Dry Bones" (version by Rev. Carl J. Anderson).
    Contemporary Folktales (collected by Daryl C. Dance): "In the Beginning." "How Blacks Got to America." "He Remembered." "Don't Call My Name." "The Only Two I Can Trust." "I'm Gon' Get in the Drawer." "Outsmarting Whitey."
    Call for Political and Social Strategy
    Malcolm X (1925-1965): "Speech to African Summit Conference, Cairo, Egypt." Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968): "I Have A Dream" (speech). Stokely Carmichael (1941-): "Black Power" (speech). Jesse Jackson (1941-): Address: Democratic National Convention San Francisco, July 17, 1984. Angela Davis (1944-): from "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves" (essay).
    Call for Critical Debate
    Larry Neal (1937-1981): "The Black Arts Movement" (essay). Joyce Ann Joyce (1949): "The Black Canon: Reconstructing Black American Literary Criticism" (essay). Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (1950): "What's Love Got to Do With It?: Critical Theory, Integrity, and the Black Idiom" (essay).
    Response: Voices of the New Black Renaissance
    Voices of the Black Arts Movement
    The New Black Poets
    Etheridge Knight (1931-1991): "The Idea of Ancestry." "The Violent Space (or when your sister sleeps around for money)." "Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane." "He Sees Through Stone." "A Poem for Myself (or Blues for a Mississippi Black Boy)." "Ilu, the Talking Drum." "The Bones of My Father."
    Sonia Sanchez (1934-): "small comment." "the final solution." "right on:white america." "Masks." "now poem. for us." "Blues." "Woman." "under a soprano sky."
    Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) (1934-): "Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note." "Black Art." "SOS." "Black People: This is Our Destiny." "A Poem for Black Hearts." "Ka'Ba." "leroy." "An Agony. As Now." "A Poem Some People Will Have to Understand." "Three Movements and a Coda." "Numbers, Letters." "Wise 1." Dutchman (play).
    Jayne Cortez (1936-): "In the Morning." "Orisha." "So Many Feathers." "Grinding Vibrato." "Rape."
    Lucille Clifton (1936-): "miss rosie." "for deLawd." "my mama moved among the days." "good times." "the lost baby poem." "homage to my hips." "what the mirror said." "the making of poems."
    Haki R. Madhubuti (Don L. Lee) (1942-): "Don't Cry, Scream." "Two Poems (from "Sketches from a Black- Nappy-Headed Poet)." "We Walk the Way of the New World." "Assassination." "But He Was Cool (or: he even stopped for green lights)." "My Brothers." "White on Black Crime."
    Carolyn M. Rodgers (1943-): "Me, In Kulu Se & Karma." "Poem for Some Black Women." "5 Winos." "U Name This One." "It Is Deep."
    Nikki Giovanni (1943): "For Saundra." "Revolutionary Music." "Nikki-Rosa." "Ego Tripping." "The Women Gather."
    The New Breed
    Albert Murray (1916-): "Train Whistle Guitar" (short story).
    Mari Evans (1923-): "I Am A Black Woman." "into blackness softly." "Speak the Truth to the People." "Black jam for dr. negro." "Conceptually."
    Maya Angelou (1928-): "Still I Rise." "Woman Me." "My Arkansas." "On Diverse Deviations." from I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Chapter 23. Kristin Hunter (1931-): "Forget-Me-Not" (short story).
    Tom Dent (1932-): "For Walter Washington." "For Lawrence Sly." "Magnolia Street."
    Ernest J. Gaines (1933-): "Three Men" (short story) from Bloodline.
    Henry Dumas (1934-1968): "Ark of Bones" from Ark of Bones (novel excerpt).
    Audre Lorde (1934-1992): "Coal." "Power." "Never Take Fire from a Woman." "Solstice." "The Woman Thing." "Stations." "Legacy-Hers."
    June Jordan (1936-): "All the World Moved." "The New Pieta: For the Mothers and Children of Detroit." "In Memoriam: Martin Luther King, Jr." "You Came with Shells." "Poem about My Rights."
    William Melvin Kelley (1937-): "Homesick Blues" (short story).
    Michael Harper (1938-): "Here Where Coltrane Is." "Come Back Blues." "Song: I Want a Witness." "To James Brown." "Effendi." "In Hayden's Collage." "Last Affair: Bessie's Blues Song."
    Ishmael Reed (1938-): "I am a Cowboy in the Boat of Ra." "Sermonette." "Beware: Do Not Read This Poem." "Why I Often Allude to Osiris." "Lincoln Swille" from Flight to Canada (novel excerpt).
    Al Young (1939-): "A Dance for Militant Dilettantes." "For Arl in Her Sixth Month." "There Is a Sadness." "The Old O.O. Blues."
    James Alan McPherson (1943-): "Solo Song: for Doc" (short story).
    Quincy Troupe (1943-): "Reflections on Growing Older." "It All Boils Down." "Snake-Back Solo." "For Malcolm Who Walks in the Eyes of Our Children."
    Women's Voices of Self-Definition
    Toni Morrison (Chloe Anthony Wofford) (1931-): Sula (novel).
    Toni Cade Bambara (1939-): "My Man, Bovanne" (short story).
    Alice Walker (1944-): "Everyday Use" (short story). "In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens" (essay).
    Sherley Anne Williams (1944-): "Any Woman's Blues." "The Empress Brand Trim: Ruby Reminisces." "The Peacock Poems: 2."
    Clenora Hudson Weems (1945): "Africana Womanism: An Historical, Global Perspective for Women of African Descent" (essay).
    Barbara Smith (1946-): "Toward a Black Feminist Criticism" (essay).
    Ntozake Shange (1948-): "somebody almost walked off wid alla my stuff" (choreo poem) from the play, for colored girls who have considered suicide/ when the rainbow is enuf.
    Gayl Jones (1949-): "Ravenna" (short story).
    Gloria Naylor (1950-): "Mama Day" from Mama Day (novel excerpt).
    bell hooks (1952): "Black Women: Shaping Feminist Theory" (essay).
    Terry McMillan (1956-): "Franklin" from Disappearing Acts (novel excerpt).
    Askia Muhammed Toure (1938-): "Osirian Rhapsody: A Myth." "Dawnsong."
    John Wideman (1941-): "newborn thrown in trash and dies" (short story).
    August Wilson (1945-): Joe Turner's Come and Gone (play).
    Yusef Komunyakaa (1947-): "Camouflaging the Chimera." "Hanoi Hannah." "Missing in Action." "Facing It."
    Charles Johnson (1948-): "The Sorcerer's Apprentice" (short story).
    Jamaica Kincaid (1949): "Columbus in Chains" from Annie John (autobiographical narrative).
    Melvin Dixon (1950-1992): "Vanishing Rooms" from Vanishing Rooms (novel excerpt).
    Anna Deavere Smith (1950): from Fires in the Mirror (play).
    Rita Dove (1952-): "Roast Possum." "Dusting." "Taking in Wash." "Under the Viaduct." "The Great Palaces of Versailles."
    Reginald McKnight (1956): "I Get on the Bus" from I Got on the Bus (novel excerpt).
    Charles I. Nero (1956): "Toward a Black Gay Aesthetic: Signifying in Contemporary Black Gay Lietrature" (essay).
    Kamaria Muntu (1959-): "Of Women and Spirit." "Lymphoma.
    Randall Kenan (1963-): "The Foundation of the Earth" (Short Story).

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