Cambridge Medieval History vol 5 - Contest of Empire and Papacyby J.B. Bury
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HE century and a half, roughly from 1050 to 1200, with which this volume is concerned, follows on a period when the disorganization and anarchy of the ninth century had barely been made good. Order had been to some extent restored; the desire for order and for peace was at any rate widespread. The opportunity for fruitful development, both in the sphere of ecclesiastical and of secular government, and also in those pursuits which especially needed peace for their prosecution, such as culture and commerce, had now arrived. We have to deal, then, with a period, on the one hand, of new movements and new ideas—the appearance of new monastic orders, a renaissance of thought and learning, the rise of towns and the expansion of commerce; on the other, of consolidation and centralization—the organization of the monarchical government of the Church, the development of monarchical institutions in the various countries of Europe, and, to give direction and solidity to the whole, the revived study of Civil and Canon Law. Finally, and most novel of all, we see Europe at once divided by the great conflict of Empire and Papacy and united by the Crusades in the holy war against the infidel. The former as well as the latter implies a conception of the unity of Western Christendom, a unity which found expression in the universal Church. For the Church alone was universal, European, international; and, as its institutions begin to take more definite form, the more deeply is this character impressed upon them.
The volume opens with a chapter on the Reform of the Church, which was not merely a prelude to, but also a principal cause of, the striking events that followed; for in the pursuit of the work of reform the Papacy both developed its own organization and was brought into conflict with the secular power. In the first half of the eleventh century, it had been entirely dominated by the secular interests of the local nobles. It had been rescued by the Emperor Henry III, and Pope Leo IX had immediately taken his natural place as leader of the reform movement. When he undertook personally, in France, Germany, and Italy, the promulgation and enforcement of the principles of reform, he made the universality of papal power a reality; the bishops might mutter, but the people adored. The Papacy was content to take a subordinate place while Henry III was alive; Henry IV's minority worked a complete change. The first great step was the Papal Election Decree of Nicholas II, and, though the attempt of the Roman nobles to recover their influence was perhaps the immediate cause, the Papacy took the opportunity to shake off imperial control as well. An opening for interference still remained in the case of a disputed election, as was clearly shown in the contest of Innocent II and Anastasius II, and especially in that of Alexander III and Victor IV. This gap was closed by the Third Lateran Council in 1179, which decreed that whoever obtained the votes of two-thirds of the cardinals should be declared Pope.
I. THE REFORM OF THE CHURCH
II. GREGORY VII AND THE FIRST CONTEST BETWEEN EMPIRE AND PAPACY.
III. GERMANY UNDER HENRY IV AND HENRY V
IV THE CONQUEST OF SOUTH ITALY AND SICILY BY THE NORMANS.
V. THE ITALIAN CITIES TILL c. 1200.
VI ISLAM IN SYRIA AND EGYPT, 750-1100.
VII THE FIRST CRUSADE.
VIII THE KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM, 1099-1291.
IX. THE EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES UPON WESTERN EUROPE.
X GERMANY, 1125-1152.
XI ITALY, 1125-1152.
XII FREDERICK BARBAROSSA AND GERMANY.
XIII. FREDERICK BARBAROSSA AND THE LOMBARD LEAGUE.
XIV THE EMPEROR HENRY VI
XV. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DUCHY OF NORMANDY AND THE NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND.
XVI. ENGLAND, 1087-1154.
XVII. ENGLAND: HENRY II.
XVIII. FRANCE: LOUIS VI AND LOUIS VII (1108-1180).
XIX. THE COMMUNAL MOVEMENT, ESPECIALLY IN FRANCE.
XX. THE MONASTIC ORDERS.
XXI. ROMAN AND CANON LAW IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
XXII. MEDIEVAL SCHOOLS TO c. 1300.
XXIII. PHILOSOPHY IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
- Paul Dalen
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Daughter of the Moon. I am unique. I know, I know, everyone is supposed to think all that "I am special" stuff. But my case is different. I AM different. First off, my family life is a bit...well.....complicated. You see, my mom os Artemis. I know, I know, that eternal maiden thing. But my brother and I are exceptions. I guess I should start with introducing myself. I am Luna Celestia del Verato. My twin brother is Sol Nicolas del Verato. Good thing about this? I get all of these sweet powers. Bad things? Well....a lot. Which I will get into later. For now, lets start my story. It all started a few weeks ago,before I even knew my identity. "Get up get up!" "Ugh mom......sleep..." I moaned, putting my pillow over my head. "Come on Luna, its the forst day of school! No time to be late!" My mom reminded me. I bolted awake and ran to the bathroom while my mom woke up my brother. I brushed my teeth and pulled a brush through my wavy/curly dark hair. Dark eyes stared back at me in the mirror. I ran back to my room and threw on my favorite jeans and shirt. I then thumped down the stairs. My mom was at the stove, flipping pancakes. "Here sweetie!" She smiled at me as she slid some on my plate. "Thanks mom." I said, mouth full. I stuffed the pancakes down my throat and grabbed my stuff. My brother came thumping doqn the stairs, dark hair still tousled. "Hey." I said to him. He nodded back at me and grinned, food in his mouth. We both rushed out the door, grabbing are books and giving our parents a peck on the cheek before running out the door. "Race ya!" I called to my brother, and we laughed as we sped towards the bus stop. I loved running almost as much as swimming. I felt so light, and free! I beat my brother there, as always. "Ha! Beat you!" I yelled at him as he reached the bus stop. "He half smiled, half frowned. "I'll get you next time!" He threatened jokingly. We entered the bus and picked our favorite seat- the third to front. I got window seat and gazed out the window. As we rose to school, I saw this odd creature in the shadows. Kind of like a weasel, with a long bald tail ad pointed snout, and spiky ears. Before I could mention it to Sol, he started talking. "Wonder what 7th grade is gonna be like." He stated. "Quite an adventure, Im sure." I murmered, as we pulled into to our school. "Yes indeed". End of chapter one, the next chalpter will be at the next book.
A fight for survival Narrated by dawnlight and goldenstar As i slept, i dreamed of the yesterdays terror. Goldenstar laying happily on the highledge, screams of terror, horrified squeals from the nursery, and, most frighteningly of all, the missing Goldenstar. She, along with her brother smokepaw and snowkit, had suddenly dissapeared. SMOKEPAW!!!!!!!!! I screamed exitedly. He had been missing for nearly two moons, and now he was here! Suddenly, a white flash appeared, followed by an orange, a gray, a brown and a black one. Cats! More of them! I immediatly regognized Snowkit, the white one. Together, Smokepaw, Snowkit and their friends pushed open the door and lighning and me opened our cages and ran. Screaming. I woke again to my own screaming. Shut up! Youll scare of all the prey from here to fourtrees! My best friend waterclaw said. Dawn patroll! Waterclaw, Dawnlight, sunstreak and Littlepaw. Yes! I could look for Goldenstars scent at last! Dogs! The black cat, shade, shouted. Lily, the bron cat, began to run. Ill destract them! You climb trees! We ran for the trees. I climbed to a high branch. Suddeny, a brown ball hurtled for my tree. Lily! Something was wrong. The dogs were to close. Lily wouldnt make the tree. I knew what i had to do. I leaped from the tree onto a dogs back. LILY! GO! Lily shot toward the trees and dissapeared… ~Chapter three by Spiritpaw
Delila pracjticly fkew down the stairs. She was a great artest, or artiest as her dad said. It was her 10th birthday. She was into beads the most. Red beads. Pink beads. Purple beads. Yellow beads. Blue beafs. Green beads. Grey beads. White beads. Even brown beads. "Mornin' dad. Mom. David." She said after giving her pairents a peck on the cheek. "Whats for breakfast dad?" Asked david. "Pancakes and bacon. Delila's faveret. Her dad stood up and began to cook. Ding dong open these closed doors! Sang the doorbell. "I will get it!" Said mom. She opened the door. "Come in justen!" Delila heard her mom say. A man whith a budhy mustache sat down in the guest chair. "Ahh delilus! I have not seen you for a blue moon!" Her half indian half latin uncle exiclaimed. "Justen why don't you have breakfast with us?" Dad said. Uncle justen's first name was't justen. It was arrowhead. They all ate breakfast then the doorbell rang agin. 5 of her freinds and 10 grownups stood at the door. A girk with dark brown eyes and pale yellow hair gave her a small present box. All the others gave her biger presents. Delila plopped down on the living room floor with the other girls. The grown ups sat in easychairs or on the couch. "Go ahead and open your presents dear." Said mom. I opened the longest present: a giant necklace set! Then i open a small recktangle one: wii zoo babys! Then a large sqare one: a real kitten! "A kitty!" I cried. Then i opened the smallest: a beityful pink bead! Last a pair of headphones. I petted my new kitten who began to purr. We all played games for 5 hours then we sat back down to name my kitten. "Cheese burger!" Said monica. "Gertrode!" Said emma. "Angel!" Said katie. "Snuffles!" Said jessie. "Carlie!" Said haily. "How about lucky?" I said their was a shout of agreyment. By creamkit. Rate it at rate result one. Thanxs!
I purred and then heard the call of a clan meeting. I ran outside and sat at the bottom of the High Log. Sunflower sat down beside me. Nightstar continued, Today, we have a new apprentice to name! Riverkit, please step forward! I stood up and looked at him. Riverkit, from now on you shall be known as Riverpaw! Your mentor shall be Foxface. Foxface, you are known for your stelth and bravery, i trust you'll pace on all you know to Riverpaw as you train! That is all! He jumped off the log as it started to pour. Thunder and lightning could be heard in the distance. The sound of splitting trees made my ears lay flat on my head. I whimpered thinking of the night my mother had died and i was thrown in the river. Soon, the crackling of a near by fire erupted through the forest. Every cat in Fogclan screamed. We all followed our leader away from the clan. I walked beside Sunflower, bu tyou could feel the heat of the flames right behind us. Soon, a tree that lay ahead was struck and it topled over. We yowled in fear as we searched for a way out. If we jumped off we would land in water, but the river had many forks throughout it. We looked at the roaring flames behind us and jumped in. Chapter five: i struggled to stay above water as i helped Sunflower. Many of the cats were already dead, and few were still alive. We had been going through the river for a day or two now, searching for dry land. The few of us still alive fought hunger and sleep. The forks in the river seperated many of the ones still alive. Even if we did live, we would be seperated. With the route i was on, there were five of us still alive. Another fork was coming up in the work. Suddenly, a hug ecurent pulled me over into it. No! I yowled as everyone else went the other way. Sunflower screeched, Riverpaw! I yowled, i will find you! I whimpered as i travled away from everyone else. Soon, the river i travled on was covered with a rock top and i could see nothing. Chapter six: i was still searching for a light at the end of the tunnle, but with no luck. I wasnt sure how long it had been or how long i had been in the river. I was now freezing cold, starving, and exaushted. I yawned and swallowed water, making me cough. I looked for and end but still saw nothing. A bit later i heard something strange. It sounded like water falling. I suddenly got very panicked as i knew what lay ahead... a waterfall. I tried to swim the other way but the current was too strong. Soon, i was lift from the water and into the air. I fell on something, but it wasnt water. I put my paw on it and found it to be a large peice of wood. I sighed thankfully and closed my eyes as i could finally sleep. Chapter seven: i opened my eyes and i was still in the dark tunnel. I look ahead and i see a small white dot. The end of the tunnel! I thought. This is it! I used my paws and tried to propel me forward. It still took a while for me to get to the end. The bright sunlight burned my eyes as i looked into the world again. I still saw no way for me to reach dry land. I continued to search still. The sun dipped below the world and the moon came out and my eyes started to close. I opened them one last time before i went to sleep and saw land. I jumped off and paddled over there and clawed my way onto it. I stood on wobbly legs and shakily walked away and laied down. I closed my eyes and slept soundly. Ran out of room. To be continued in next result...