CAMEL: Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network / Edition 1

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CAMEL (Customized Application for the Mobile network Enhanced Logic) is a standard for Intelligent Networks for mobile communications networks. It is currently deployed in all regions of the world, enabling mobile network operators to offer fast and efficient services to their subscribers. This book is an in-depth and dedicated reference on CAMEL, taking the reader through the history and development of Intelligent Networks, and the essential principles of CAMEL, to the future of the technology. The author provides guidance on the various standards and specifications, and explains not only how CAMEL works but also why it works this way. Practical hints on the installation of CAMEL in the network are given throughout the book.

This text will be an invaluable resource for intelligent network service logic designers, service network designers, network engineers, and GSM/UMTS network designers and implementers. Advanced students on courses such as 'Intelligent Networks', 'Value Added Services', and 'Service Networks' will also find it to be an excellent guide to the topic.

CAMEL: Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network: Offers a comprehensive guide to implementing CAMEL. Gives a complete picture, including the network entities & data flows involved. Describes and explains the four CAMEL phases and their aspects. Presents an overview of the Intelligent Networks essential to understanding CAMEL, such as-Finite State Machines, Trigger Detection Points, Event Detection Points and dialogue. Covers charging and accounting issues, and the impact of CAMEL on the charging system in the mobile network. Provides practical hints over and above those mentioned in the formalspecifications.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470016947
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 4/28/2006
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 428
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Rogier Noldus is Senior Specialist, Intelligent Networks, at Ericsson Telecommunications, Netherlands.  Within Ericsson, he is responsible for the development and implementation of the CAMEL technology.  Rogier has played a key role in the development of the CAMEL standard in ETSI and 3GPP.  He has chaired various conferences on CAMEL, has been speaker at various other international conferences, and represents Ericsson at the ETSI and 3GPP standardization organizations.
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Table of Contents

Foreword   Keijo Palviainen     xiii
Foreword   Gerry Christensen     xv
Preface     xvii
Introduction to GSM Networks     1
Signalling in GSM     3
GSM Mobility     3
Mobile Station     4
Identifiers in the GSM Network     4
International Mobile Subscriber Identity     4
Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Network Number (MSISDN Number)     5
International Mobile Equipment Identifier     6
Mobile Station Roaming Number     6
Basic Services     6
Tele Services     7
Bearer Services     7
Circuit Bearer Description     7
Supplementary Services     9
Introduction to Intelligent Networks     11
History of Intelligent Networks     11
Principles of Intelligent Networks     12
Service Switching Function     14
Service Control Function     15
Basic Call State Model     15
Dialogue Handling     17
DP Arming/Disarming Rules     17
Control vs Monitor Relationship     18
Evolution of the CAMEL Standard     19
Third-generation Partnership Project     19
CAMEL Standards and Specifications     21
Principles of CAMEL     22
Location Update Procedure     22
CAMEL Application Part     24
Abstract Syntax Notation     26
Application Context     28
Signalling for CAMEL     28
Message Transfer Part     29
Signalling Connection Control Part     29
Transaction Capabilities     32
Dynamic Load Sharing     34
Using Signalling Point Code for Addressing in HPLMN     35
CAMEL Phase 1     37
Architecture for CAMEL Phase 1     37
Functional Entities     37
Information Flows     42
Feature Description     45
Mobile-originated Calls     46
Mobile-terminated Calls     49
Mobile-forwarded Calls     55
Any-time Interrogation     62
Subscription Data     65
Originating CSI and Terminating CSI     66
Basic Call State Model     69
Originating Basic Call State Model     69
Terminating Basic Call State Model     70
Detection Points     70
Points in Call     72
BCSM State Transitions     73
gsmSSF Process     73
Tssf Timer     74
CAMEL Application Part     75
Initial DP     75
Request Report BCSM     76
Event Report BCSM     76
Continue     76
Connect     77
Release Call     78
Activity Test     79
Service Examples     79
Virtual Private Network     79
Pre-paid Route Home     80
Short Number Dialling with CLI Guarantee     82
CAMEL Phase 2     85
Introduction     85
Architecture     87
Functional Entities     87
Information Flows     89
Feature Description     92
On-line Charging Control     92
Call Forwarding Notifications     112
Follow-on Calls     117
User Interaction     123
Equal Access     139
Enhancement of Call Control     141
Supplementary Service Invocation Notification     144
Short Forwarded-to Numbers     146
Conditional Triggering     149
USSD control      154
Subscription Data     160
Originating CSI     161
Terminating CSI     161
Supplementary Service CSI     161
Translation Information Flag CSI     162
Unstructured Supplementary Service Data CSI     162
USSD Generic CSI     162
Basic Call State Model     162
Originating Basic Call State Model     162
Terminating Basic Call State Model     169
CAMEL Phase 2 Relationship     173
CAP v2 operations     173
Interaction with GSM Supplementary Services     174
Line Identification     174
Call Forwarding     176
Explicit Call Transfer     177
Call Waiting     178
Call Hold     178
Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers     179
Multi-party     179
Closed User Group     180
Call Barring     180
User-to-user Signalling     181
Call Deflection     181
Interaction with Network Services     182
Basic Optimal Routing     182
Immediate Service Termination     184
Operator-determined Barring     185
High-speed Circuit-switched Data     185
Multiple Subscriber Profile     186
CAMEL Phase 3     187
General Third-generation Networks     187
UMTS Network Architecture     187
2G Cell Planning vs 3G Cell Planning     188
Location Information     189
Split-MSC Architecture     194
CAMEL Phase 3 Features     196
Call Control     196
Subscribed Dialled Services     196
Serving Network-based Dialled Services     202
CAMEL Control of Mobile Terminated Calls in VMSC     203
CAMEL Service Invocation at Call Failure     206
Service Interaction Contml     207
Call Gapping     211
Support of Long Forwarded-to numbers     213
On-line Charging Enhancements     215
Multiple Subscriber Profile     219
Other Enhancements to CAP     223
CAMEL Control of GPRS     224
Network Architecture     224
Subscription Data     228
GPRS State Models     229
CAP v3 Operations for GPRS     247
On-line Charging for GPRS     247
Quality of Service     252
Routing Area Update      254
Network-initiated PDP Context Establishment     256
Secondary PDP Context     256
Impact on CDRs     257
Operator-determined Barring     259
GPRS Roaming Scenarios     259
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution     260
CAMEL Control of MO-SMS     260
Network Architecture     261
CAMEL Control of MO-SMS     263
Subscription Data     265
SMS State Model     265
Information Flows     266
Information Reporting and SMS Steering     267
Charging and Call Detail Records     269
Supplementary Services and Operator-determined Barring     270
Service Examples     271
International Roaming     271
Mobility Management     273
Description     273
Subscription Data     274
Information Flows     275
Service Examples     275
CAMEL Interaction with Location Services     277
Description     277
Active Location Retrieval     278
Subscription Data Control     280
Network Architecture     281
Any-time Subscription Interrogation     281
Any-time Modification     281
Notify Subscriber Data Change     283
Enhancement to USSD     283
Pre-paging     284
CAMEL Phase 4     285
General     285
Specifications Used for CAMEL Phase 4     285
Partial CAMEL Phase 4 Support     286
Call Control     289
Basic Call State Models     290
Call Party Handling     290
Network-initiated Call Establishment     305
Optimal Routing of Basic Mobile-to-mobile Calls     309
Alerting Detection Point     310
Mid-call Detection Point     312
Change of Position Detection Point     314
Flexible Warning Tone     316
Tone Injection     317
Enhancement to Call Forwarding Notification     318
Control of Video Telephony Calls     319
Control of SCUDIF Calls     321
Reporting IMEI and MS Classmark     323
GPRS Control     324
SMS Control     325
Mobile-originated SMS Control     325
Mobile-terminated SMS Control     326
Mobility Management     331
Subscription Data     332
Any-time Interrogation      334
ATI for CS Domain     334
ATI for PS Domain     335
Subscription Data Control     336
Mobile Number Portability     336
Call Routing     337
MNP SRF Query by gsmSCF     340
Non-standard MNP Solutions     341
Control of IP Multimedia Calls     342
Rationale of CAMEL Control of IMS     345
The IM-SSF     346
Registration     347
IMS Call Control     348
CAMEL Application Part for IMS Control     350
Supported Call Cases for IMS Control     353
Service Example     353
Charging and Accounting     355
Architecture     355
Call Detail Records     355
Overview of Call Detail Records     356
CAMEL-relaied Parameters in CDRs     358
Composite CDRs     359
Transfer Account Procedure Files     359
Inter-operator Accounting of CAMEL Calls     361
Clearing House     365
CAMEL Invocation Fee     366
Correlation of Call Detail Records     366
Call Reference Number     367
MF Calls     368
SCP-initiated Calls      369
Global Call Reference     369
Call Party Handling CDRs     370
3GPP Rel-6 and Beyond     371
General     371
Capability Negotiation     372
Enhancements to 3GPP Rel-6     373
Enhanced Dialled Service     373
Handover Notification Criteria     375
Enhancement to SCUDIF Control     376
Reporting User-to-user Information     376
Enhancement to User Interaction     378
Enhancements to 3GPP Rel-7     379
Trunk-originated Triggering     379
Appendix     383
Overview of CAP Operations     383
Overview of MAP Operations     384
Overview of ISUP Messages     386
Overview of CAMEL Subscription Information     386
References     389
Abbreviations     395
Index     401
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