Cancer Disparities: Causes and Evidence-Based Solutions

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Cancer is not randomly distributed in the United States. Its incidence varies by race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and other geographic and demographic factors. This volume, co-published with the American Cancer Society, is the first to examine the biological, racial, and socioeconomic factors that influence cancer incidence and survival. In addition, it presents 15 previously unpublished, evidence-based interventions to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities.

The book explains the nature, scope, and causes of cancer disparities across different populations and then presents unique programs proven to reduce such inequalities in the areas of cancer prevention, screening and early detection, treatment, and survivorship. They represent a variety of cancers, populations, and communities across the U.S. Descriptions of each intervention include tests of effectiveness and are written in sufficient detail for readers to replicate them within their own communities.

Key Features:

• Offers an in-depth look at the latest research behind cancer disparities
• Written by highly respected and published cancer researchers
• Includes 15 never-before published, evidence-based interventions that readers can replicate
• Discusses breast, colorectal, cervical, and other pernicious cancers
• Includes interventions for African-American, Hispanic, Native American, and other populations

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780826108821
  • Publisher: Springer Publishing Company, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 10/25/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 580
  • Sales rank: 1,559,704
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Ronit Elk, Ph.D. is Director of Cancer Control and Prevention Research and Director of the Priority Program in Health Disparities of the Extramural Research Grants at the American Cancer Society. Born in Israel, she grew up in Israel, Turkey, India, Uganda, Kenya and South Africa. She received her Ph.D. in Cape Town, South African and shortly thereafter immigrated with her family to the United States. Prior to joining the American Cancer Society, Dr. Elk was an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at the UT Health Sciences Center in Houston. She was PI of 2 large NIH grants ($3M); and co-investigator or consultant on 12 additional NIH grants. She has served on several research panels of the NIH, and published over 40 scientific papers in peer reviewed journals. During her 10 year tenure with the American Cancer Society, she has spearheaded the Cancer Control and Prevention Research program and led the Targeted Program in Disparities Research, resulting in a dramatic increase in applications and funded grants in these programs. Dr. Elk is the author, with Dr. Monica Morrow, of Breast Cancer for Dummies . She is also the author of two children's books, A Surprise at Dancing Fields and It's The Elephant's Picnic.

Hope Landrine, Ph.D. is Director of the Center for Health Disparities Research and Professor of Psychology at East Carolina University. She received her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at the University of Rhode Island, postdoctoral training in Social Psychology at Stanford University, and postdoctoral training in Cancer Prevention and Control as a National Cancer Institute Fellow at the University of Southern California Medical School. Her research focuses on sociocultural and contextual factors in cancer and other chronic disease disparities among African-Americans. She has published numerous articles and books on this topic, and received 6 national awards for her research, including the American Psychological Association (APA) Dalmas Taylor Award for Lifetime, Distinguished Contributions to Research on Ethnic Minorities, and Fellow status in APA Divisions 35 (Women), 9 (Social Issues), 38 (Health), and 45 (Ethnic Minorities) for outstanding contributions to research. She is the former Director of Multicultural Health Behavior Research at the American Cancer Society, and continues to collaborate with American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute scholars on studies of Black-White cancer disparities. Her current grants focus on improving quality of care for Black women breast cancer patients in oncology practices, and on novel strategies for providing cancer education to low-income, rural, minority communities.

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Table of Contents

• Preface: American Cancer Society Strategies for Reducing Cancer Disparities.
Linda Blount MPH, National Vice President, Office of Health Disparities, American Cancer Society

• Introduction: Cancer Disparities: The Scope of the Problem and Possible Solutions.
Otis W. Brawley, MD, FACP, Chief Medical and Scientific Officer, American Cancer Society


1. The Biology of Cancer and its Relationship to Disparities in Cancer Occurrence and Outcomes.
Brooke Sylvester, BS, Olufunmilayo I. Olipade, MD and Margaret K. Offermann, MD, PhD

2. Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Cancer Incidence, Stage, Survival and Mortality in the U.S.
Jiemin Ma, Ph.D., M.H.S., Rebecca Siegel, M.P.H., and Ahmedin Jemal, D.V.M., Ph.D.

3. Disparities in Cancer Risk Factors and Cancer Screening in the U.S.
Vilma Cokkinides, Ph.D., J. Lee Westmaas, Ph.D., Priti Bandi, M.S., and Elizabeth Ward, Ph.D.
4. Disparities in Cancer Treatment: Untangling the Contributing Factors in Breast, Colorectal and Lung Cancer.
Ronit Elk, PhD, Arden Morris, MD, MPH, Pamela Ganschow, MD, Dawn Hershmann, MD,Tracy L. Onega, PhD, and Samuel Cykert, MD.

5. Racial, Ethnic and Socioeconomic Health Disparities among Cancer Survivors and Informal Caregivers.
Tenbroeck Smith, M.A., Kevin Stein, Ph.D., Youngmee Kim, Ph.D., Dexter Cooper, M.P.H., Katherine Virgo, Ph.D., M.B.A., Irma Corral, Ph.D., M.P.H., and Hope Landrine, Ph.D.

6. The Geography of Cancer and Cancer Risk Factors: Implications of Neighbourhood Disparities for Cancer Disparities.
Hope Landrine, Ph.D., Irma Corral, Ph.D., M.P.H., Yongping Hao, Ph.D., Chiekwei Kaw, M.S., Joy.L. King, B.A. and Julia C. Fondren, M.S.


PART A: Eliminating Disparities in Cancer Risk Factors

7. Five-a-Day and Fit-for-Life Badge Programs for Cancer Prevention in Boy Scouts.

Amy Shirong Lu, Ph.D., Janice Baranowski, M.P.H., R.D., Debbe Thompson, Ph.D., R.D., Karen Cullen, Dr. P.H., Tom Baranowski, Ph.D., Russ Jago, Ph.D. and Richard Buday, FAIA.

8. A Systematic Approach to Developing Contextually, Culturally and Gender-Sensitive Interventions for African American Men: The Example of Men 4 Health.
Derek M. Griffiths, Ph.D., Katie Gunger, M.P.H., M.S.W., and Julie O.Allen, M.P.H.

9. The North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project: Preventing Cancer in African American Beauty Salons.
Laura Linnan, Sc.D., CHES., Cherise B. Harrington, Ph.D., M.P.H., John M. Rose, M.A., Ph.D., Veronica Carlisle, M.P.H., and Morris Boswell, B.A.

10. Promoting healthy eating by strengthening family relations: Design and implementation of The Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud intervention.
Guadalupe X. Ayala, Ph.D., M.P.H., Leticia Ibarra, M.P.H., Elva Arredondo, Ph.D., Lucy Horton, M.Sc., M.P.H., Erika Hernandez, M.A., M.P.H., Humberto Parada, M.P.H., Donald Slymen, Ph.D., Cheryl Rock, Ph.D., Moshe Engelberg, Ph.D., M.P.H. and John P. Elder, Ph.D., M.P.H.

PART B: Eliminating Disparities in Cancer Screening

11. Racial Disparities in Breast and Cervical Cancer: Can Legislative Action Work?
E. Kathleen Adams, Ph.D. and Li-Nien Chien, Ph.D.

12. Messengers for Health: A community-based participatory research intervention in a Native American community.
Vanessa Watts Simonds, Sc.D., Suzanne Christopher, Ph.D., Beldine Crooked Arm Pease, B.S., Lois Jefferson, Carol Howe, Deb LaVeaux, M.S., Myra Lefthand, M.S.W., Rochelle Lodgepole, B.S., Alma McCormick, Larna Old Elk, Eleanor Pretty On Top, Colleen Simpson, B.S., Geneva Stewart, Maudine Stewart, and Chaplain Carol Whiteman

13. Tools for Improving Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates: Multimedia vs. Print in an Underserved Community.
Gregory Makoul, Ph.D., David Baker, M.D., M.P.H. and Denise Scholtens, Ph.D.

14. Partnering with Safety-net Primary Care Clinics: A Model to Enhance Screening in Low Income Populations: Principles, Challenges and Key Lessons.
Samantha Hendren, M.D., M.P.H., Sharon Humiston, M.D., M.P.H. and Kevin Fiscella, M.D., MPH

15. Esperanza Y Vida: Familias Saludables Empiezan Con Mujeres Saludables: Hope and Life: Health Families Begin with Healthy Women.
Deborah O. Erwin, Ph.D., Lina Jandorf, M.A., Linda D. Thélémaque, M.P.H., Michelle Treviño, M.P.H., Frances G. Saad-Harfouche, M.S.W., Anabella G. Castillo, M.P.H., Zoran Bursac, Ph.D., MPH., Jomary Colón, Leavonne Pulley, Ph.D., Elvira Aguirre Wendrell, B.A., Maria Hannigan, B.S., Elsa I. Mendez, and Carol Horowitz, M.D., M.P.H.

PART C: Eliminating Disparities in Cancer Treatment & Symptom Management

16. A Decision Support Intervention for Black Women Eligible for Adjuvant Systemic Therapy: Sisters Informing Sisters™ About Breast Cancer Treatment: An Intervention to Reduce Treatment Disparities.
Vanessa B. Sheppard, Ph.D., Sherrie Flunt Wallington, Ph.D., Karen Patricia Williams, Ph.D. and Wanda Lucas, M.B.A.

17. Prostate Cancer Patient Education Project (PCPEP): Prostate Cancer Symptom Management in Low-Literacy Men.
David M. Latini, Ph.D., Stacey Hart, Ph.D., Heather Honore Goltz, Ph.D., L.M.S.W., Stephen J. Lepore, Ph.D., and Leslie Schover, Ph.D.

18. Automated pain intervention for underserved African American and Latina Women with Breast Cancer.
Karen O. Anderson, Ph.D., M.P.H., Guadalupe R.Palos, R. PH., L.M.S.W., Araceli Garcia-Gonzalez, M.D., Ph.D., Tito R. Mendoza, Ph.D., Kai-Ping Liao, Ph.D., Karin M. Hahn, M.D., M.P.H., Arlene Nazario, M.D., Vicente Valero, M.D., Michael Fisch, M.D., M.P.H. and Richard Payne, M.D.

PART D: Eliminating Disparities in Quality of Life among Cancer Survivors
19. Psycho-educational and Spiritual Interventions for low income Cancer patients: Results of Randomized and Patient Preference Trials on Adherence and Quality of Life Outcomes.
Alyson B. Moadel, Ph.D., Melanie Harris, Ph.D., Evelyn Kolidas, B.A., Ruth Santizo, B.A., Kimala Harris, B.A. and Doru Paul, M.D.

20. Psycho-educational intervention among Underserved Cervical Cancer Survivors.
Kimlin Ashing-Giwa, Ph.D., Jung-won Lim, Ph.D, and Mayra, Serrano, B.A.

21. Sexual Minority Women with a History of Breast Cancer: Moving Towards Interventions.
Ulrike Boehmer, Ph.D. and Deborah Bowen


22. Paths for the Future: Using What We've Learned to Eliminate Cancer Disparities.
Bruce Rapkin, Ph.D.

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