Carbon Dioxide as Chemical Feedstock / Edition 1

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Filling the need for an up-to-date handbook, this ready reference closely investigates the use of CO2 for ureas, enzymes, carbamates, and isocyanates, as well as its use as a solvent, in electrochemistry, biomass utilization and much more.
Edited by an internationally renowned and experienced researcher, this is a comprehensive source for every synthetic chemist in academia and industry.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783527324750
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/16/2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 414
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Michele Aresta is full Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at theUniversity of Bari and Honorary Professor of the TianjinUniversity. He is President of the Inorganic Chemistry Division ofItalian Chemical Society and Director of the "InteruniversityConsortium on Chemical Reactivity and Catalysis". His areas ofresearch are carbon dioxide utilisation in synthetic chemistry,catalysis, coordination and metallorganic chemistry. ProfessorAresta is author of more than 200 papers and editor of four books.He has received several awards, like the Award of the ItalianChemical Society and the Prize of the SociétéFrançaise de Chimie for Inorganic Chemistry.

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Table of Contents


List of Contributors.

1 Carbon Dioxide: Utilization Options to Reduce itsAccumulation in the Atmosphere (Michele Aresta).

1.1 Carbon Dioxide Emission.

1.2 The Accumulation of CO2 in the Atmosphere, andthe Effects that We Fear.

1.3 Technologies to Reduce CO2 Accumulation in theAtmosphere.

1.4 The Utilization of CO2.

1.5 Conditions for Using CO2.

1.6 CO2: Sources and Prices.

1.7 The Potential for CO2 Utilization, and theContent of This Book.

1.8 The Need for Research to Speed an Exploitation of theUtilization Option.


2 Utilization of Dense Carbon Dioxide as an Inert Solvent forChemical Syntheses (Alessandro Galia and GiuseppeFilardo).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Dense Carbon Dioxide as Solvent Medium for ChemicalProcesses.

2.3 Enzymatic Catalysis in Dense Carbon Dioxide.

2.4 Other Reactions in Dense Carbon Dioxide.

2.5 Polymer Synthesis in Supercritical CarbonDioxide.

2.6 Conclusions.



3 Autotrophic Carbon Fixation in Biology: Pathways, Rules,and Speculations (Ivan A. Berg, Daniel Kockelkorn, W. HugoRamos-Vera, Rafael Say, Jan Zarzycki, and Georg Fuchs).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 The Mechanisms of CO2 Fixation.

3.3 Rules to Explain the Diversity.

3.4 Evolutionary Aspects.

3.5 Chemical Aspects of CO2 Fixation.



4 Carbon Dioxide Coordination Chemistry and Reactivity ofCoordinated CO2 (Joëlle Mascetti).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Carbon Dioxide Bonding to Metals.

4.3 Synthesis and Structure of CO2Complexes.

4.4 Reactivity of CO2 Complexes.

4.5 CO2 Complexes as Reaction Intermediates inCO2 Utilization Processes.

4.6 Conclusions.



5 Main Group Element- and Transition Metal-PromotedCarboxylation of Organic Substrates (Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes,Aromatics, and Others) (Thomas Zevaco and EckhardDinjus).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Formation of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids: TheKolbe–Schmitt Synthesis.

5.3 Reactive Organometallic Derivatives in the Synthesis ofCarboxylic Acids.

5.4 Palladium (0)-Catalyzed Telomerization of Butadiene withCO2: Synthesis of δ-Lactone.


6 The Chemistry of N–CO2 Bonds: Synthesis ofCarbamic Acids and Their Derivatives, Isocyanates, and Ureas(Eugenio Quaranta and Michele Aresta).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Synthesis of Carbamic Acids and AlkylammoniumCarbamates.

6.3 Synthesis of Carbamate Esters.

6.4 Synthesis of Isocyanates.

6.5 Synthesis of Ureas.

6.6 Conclusions.


7 Synthesis of Linear and Cyclic Carbonates (DanielleBallivet-Tkatchenko and Angela Dibenedetto).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Acyclic Organic Carbonates.

7.3 Synthesis of Organic Cyclic Carbonates.

7.4 Transesterification Reactions.


8 Polymers from Carbon Dioxide: Polycarbonates,Polythiocarbonates, and Polyurethanes (Donald J.Darensbourg, Jeremy R. Andreatta, and Adriana I. Moncada).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Historical Perspective.

8.3 Metal Catalysts for the Copolymerization of Epoxides andCO2.

8.4 Metal Catalysts for the Copolymerization of Oxetanes andCO2.

8.5 Physical Methods for the Characterization of CopolymersProduced from Epoxides or Oxetane and Carbon Dioxide.

8.6 Copolymer Isolation and Catalyst Recycling.

8.7 Copolymerization of Carbon Disulfi de and Epoxides andEpisulfides.

8.8 Copolymers from Aziridines and Carbon Dioxide.

8.9 Concluding Remarks.



9 In-Situ Study of Carbon Deposition duringCO2 Reforming of Methane for Synthesis Gas Production,Using the Tapered Element Oscillation Microbalance (Wie Panand Chunshan Song).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Thermodynamic Analysis of Carbon Formation fromCH4 or CO.

9.3 Thermodynamic Analysis of Carbon Formation in CO2Reforming of Methane.

9.4 TEOM Measurement of Carbon Formation in CO2Reforming of Methane.

9.5 TPO Analysis of Carbon Formation in CO2Reforming.

9.6 TEM Analysis on Carbon Formed on Catalysts AfterCO2 Reforming of Methane.

9.7 Kinetic Study of Carbon Formation on PCH4 andPCO in CO2 Reforming.

9.8 H2O Effect on Carbon Formation in CO2Reforming.

9.9 Conclusions.



Appendix A9.1.

10 Utilization of Carbon Dioxide through Nonthermal PlasmaApproaches (Ji-Jun Zou and Chang-Jun Liu).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Nonthermal Plasma Phenomena.

10.3 CO and/or H2 Production fromCO2.

10.4 Hydrocarbons Synthesis from CO2.

10.5 Oxygenates Synthesis from CO2.

10.6 Combination of Plasma with Catalyst.

10.7 Summary.



11 Photochemical, Electrochemical, and PhotoelectrochemicalReduction of Carbon Dioxide (Emily Barton Cole and Andrew B.Bocarsly).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Homogeneous Photochemical Reduction.

11.3 Electrochemical Reduction.

11.4 Semiconductor Systems for Reduction.

11.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions.


12 Recent Scientific and Technological Developments inElectrochemical Carboxylation Based on Carbon Dioxide(Giuseppe Silvestri and Onofrio Scialdone).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Electrocarboxylation.

12.3 The Electroreduction of Carbon Dioxide in Protic Media(Water and Alcohols).



13 Indirect Utilization of Carbon Dioxide: Utilization ofTerrestrial and Aquatic Biomass (Michele Aresta and AngelaDibenedetto).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 The Natural Carbon Cycle.

13.3 The Utilization of Terrestrial Biomass.

13.4 The First-Generation Biofuels.

13.5 The New Generations of Biofuels.

13.6 Implementation of the Biorefinery Concept.

13.7 Concluding Remarks.


14 Fixation of Carbon Dioxide into Inorganic Carbonates: TheNatural and Artificial "Weathering of Silicates" (RonZevenhoven and Johan Fagerlund).

14.1 Introduction: Inorganic Carbonate Uses and NaturalResources.

14.2 Natural Fixation of CO2 inCarbonates.

14.3 Process Routes to Valuable Carbonate Products.

14.4 Mineral Carbonation for Carbon Capture and Storage(CCS).

14.5 Other Carbonate Production Processes andApplications.




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