Carbon Fibers and Their Composites

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Overview

Most literature pertaining to carbon fibers is of a theoretical nature. Carbon Fibers and their Composites offers a comprehensive look at the specific manufacturing of carbon fibers and graphite fibers into the growing surge of diverse applications that include flameproof materials, protective coatings, biomedical and prosthetics applications, textiles, batteries and fuel cells, automotive applications, construction, and even musical instruments.

This useful guide provides a hands-on approach to the fabrication of carbon fibers. The book begins with a blueprint of the international history and development of carbon fiber, clearly defined terminology for all forms of solid carbon products, and the properties for elemental carbon and its allotropic forms. It then elaborates upon precursor materials, relevant surface treatment, and sizing for each carbon fiber type available in the world market. Several chapters also examine the types of matrices, their properties, and fracture mechanics of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, carbon, glass, metal, and ceramics matrices.

Carbon Fibers and their Composites reveals straightforward guidelines for the day-to-day operations of a carbon fiber plant, such as safety testing, quality control, design of equipment, packaging, air flow/dust control, maintenance, and environmental policies. Based on over 30 years of experience in the field, the author offers insight and possible solutions to the problems associated with production and testing of carbon fibers and their related composites. He details the use of analytical chemistry techniques, instrumentation requirements, and statistics to evaluate the results.

Carbon Fibers and their Composites offers an excellent clarification of how carbon fibers yield reinforced composites, their physical and chemical characteristics, the diverse manufacturing techniques for each type, and the advantages they offer to a variety of applications.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780824709839
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 5/28/2005
  • Series: Materials Engineering Series
  • Pages: 1200
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 2.50 (d)

Table of Contents

PREFACE
Introduction
Recommended terminology for the Description of carbon as a Solid
A Bibliography of Books on Carbon Fibers and Their Composites
Acknowledgements
STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON ATOM
Introduction – The Element Carbon, Its Isotopes and Allotropes
Structure of Carbon
THE FORMS OF CARBON
The Allotropes of Carbon
The Carbon Phase Diagram
Diamond
Graphite
Pyrolytic Carbon and Pyrolytic Graphite
Glass-like Carbon
Carbon Fibers
Graphite Whiskers
Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers (VGCF) and Catalytic Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CCVD) Filaments
Other Forms of Carbon
New Forms of Carbon
Summary of Allotropic Forms of Carbon
HISTORY AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON FIBERS
The Early Inventors
Work in the USA
Work in Japan
Work in the UK with PAN Precursors
Early UK Prepreggers
PRECURSORS FOR CARBON FIBER MANUFACTURE
Introduction
PAN Precursors
Cellulosic Precursors
Pitch Precursors
Other Precursors
CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A PAN PRECURSOR
Introduction
Carbon Fiber Manufacturers
World Supply of PAN-based Carbon Fiber
Manufacturing Costs of PAN-based Carbon Fiber
Choice of Precursor
Desirable Attributes of a PAN-based Precursor Polymer and its Subsequent Production
Types of PAN–based Carbon Fiber
A Carbon Fiber Production Line
CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A CELLULOSIC BASED PRECURSOR
Introduction
Current Production
Mechanisms for the Pyrolysis and Carbonization Stages of PAN Carbon Fibers
CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A PITCH BASED PRECURSOR
Introduction
Choice of Melt Spun Precursor
The Manufacturing Process
The Structural Ordering and Morphology of Mesophase Pitch Fibers
PRODUCTION OF VAPOR GROWN CARBON FIBERS (VGCF)
Introduction
Preparation of VGCF
Growth Process
Mode of Tensile Failure
Mechanical Properties
SURFACE TREATMENT AND SIZING OF CARBON FIBERS
Introduction
Oxidative Processes
Plasma
Non-oxidative Surface Treatment – Whiskerization
Effect of Surface treatment Upon the Fiber Properties
Coupling Agents
Sizing Carbon Fiber
GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT FOR CARBON FIBER PLANT
Introduction
Precursor Handling
Drive Systems
Ovens for Oxidation
Removal of Effluent Gases Evolved in the Oxidation Process
Application of an Antistatic Finish
Plaiter Table
LT Carbonization Furnace
LT Furnace Exhaust Removal
HT Carbonization Furnace
Typical Calculations for the Design of an HT Furnace
Sodium Removal
HM Heat Treatment Furnace
Surface Treatment
Sizing
Drying
On-Line Collection
Off-line Winding
Packaging
Exhaust System
Dust Extraction
Application of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
OPERATION OF CARBON FIBER PLANT AND SAFETY ASPECTS
Introduction
Serendipity
Maintenance
Protecting Electrical Equipment
Air Flow Measurement
Collimation and Spreading of Oxidized and Carbonized Fiber
Splicing Small Tows
Drive Systems and Rotating Rollers
Precursor Creel
Oxidation Plant
Pyrolysis Plant
Low Temperature Carbonization Furnace
High Temperature Carbonization Furnace
High Modulus Furnace
Surface Treatment
Sizing
Winding
Dealing with Emissions
Treatment of Cyanide Effluent
Protecting the Environment
Safety Committee
COSH-H Requirements
Toxicology of Carbon Fibers
The Risks of Carbon Fiber Composites in a Fire
TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE OF CARBON FIBERS
Introduction
Optical Microscope
Scanning Electron Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope
X-Ray Diffraction
Auger Electron Spectroscopy
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectroscopy
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Raman Spectroscopy
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy
Atomic Foce Microscopy or Scanning Force Microscopy
POLYMER MATRICES FOR CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES
Selected Thermoset resins
Selected Thermoplastic Resins
Improving the Bond with Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastics
CARBON FIBER CARBON MATRIX COMPOSITES
Introduction
Selection of Materials for Carbon-Carbon Processing
Methods of Processing Carbon-Carbon Matrix Materials
Some Thoughts of Carbon-Carbon Processng
Provision for Providing Oxidation Protection
CARBON FIBER REINFORCED CERAMIC MATRICES
Introduction
Cement, Concrete, and Gypsum Matrices
Glass Matrices
Ceramic Matrices
CARBON FIBERS IN METAL MATRICES
Introduction
Metal Matrix Composites
Carbon Fiber for Reinforcement of Metal Matrices
Coating Processes to Improve Wettability
Metal Matrices
Techniques for Fabricating Carbon Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites
TESTING PAN PRECURSOR, VIRGIN CARBON FIBERS, CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Introduction
PAN Precursor testing
Testing Oxidized PAN Fiber (OPF) and Virgin Carbon Fiber
Carbon Fiber Tow Testing
Carbon Fiber Yarn and Fabric Testing
Matrix Testing
Carbon Fiber Prepreg Testing
Carbon Fiber Composite Testing
Testing Carbon Fiber Filled Thermoplastics
Instrumental Analysis
Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)
Supplement
STATISTICS AND STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)
Frequency Distribution
Location of Data
Measures of Dispersion
Standard Error
Sample Correlation Coefficient
Linear Regression
Normal Distribution
Weibull Distribution
Variation
Control Chart Methods
Statistical Process Control Charts
Capability Index
Failure Mode Effect Analysis
QUALITY CONTROL
In-house testing
Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards
The ISO 9000 Family of Standards and Quality Systems
Quality Gurus
Quality Circles
Total Quality Management
Quality Costing
PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBERS
The Role of Carbon Fibers
Types of Carbon Fibers Available on the World Market
Tensile Properties
Factors Affecting Composite Strength
The Importance of Critical Aspect Ratio
Elastic Constants
Flexural Properties
Effect of surface treatment and Sizing on Composite Properties
Compressional Properties
Thermal Properties
Thermal Expansion of Carbon Fibers
Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fibers
Creep Properties
Impact Strength and Fracture Toughness
Fatigued Properties
Electrical Properties
Chemical Resistance
Friction and Wear
Hybrid Composites
Some Selected Properties of Composites
MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES FOR CARBON FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES IN THERMOSET AND THERMOPLASTIC MATRICES
Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and Architecture
Core Materials
Manufacturing Processes for Carbon Fibers in Thermoset Matrices
Carbon Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrices
Hybrid Composites
DESIGN
Design Considerations
Micromechanics
Selection of Materials
Elastic Behavior of Multidirectional Laminates
Choice of Composite Manufacturing Method
Bonding and Joining
Fabrication
Testing and Inspection
Smart Devices
Design Cases
THE USES OF CARBON FIBERS
Uses of Oxidized PAN Fiber (OPF)
Uses of Virgin Carbon Fiber
Electrical Applications
Thermal Insulation
Packing Materials and Gaskets
Carbon Fibers in Thermoset Matrices
Carbon Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrices
Carbon Fibers in Carbon-Carbon Applications
Carbon Fibers in Cement and Concrete
Carbon Fibers in Glass Matrices
Carbon Fibers in Ceramic Matrices
Carbon Fibers in Metal Matrices
Other End Uses for Carbon Fibers
LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
The Future
The Production Process
Carbon Fiber
Composite Manufacturing Techniqes
Quality Management Standartds
Recycling
Innovative Developments
Conclusions
Appendices

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