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Sources of illustrations.
List of abbreviations.
1 Overview of the cardiovascular system.
Anatomy and histology.
2 Gross anatomy and histology of the heart.
3 Vascular anatomy.
4 Vascular histology and smooth muscle cell ultrastructure.
Blood and body fluids.
5 Constituents of blood.
6 Erythropoiesis, haemoglobin and anaemia.
7 Haemostasis and thrombosis.
8 Blood groups and transfusions.
9 Membrane potential, ion channels and pumps.
10 Electrophysiology of cardiac muscle and the origin of the heart beat.
11 Excitation–contraction coupling in cardiac muscle cells.
12 Electrical conduction system in the heart.
13 Vascular smooth muscle excitation–contraction coupling.
Form and function.
14 Cardiac cycle.
15 Control of cardiac output and Starling’s law of the heart.
17 Blood pressure and flow in the arteries and arterioles.
18 The microcirculation and lymphatic system.
19 Fluid filtration in the microcirculation.
20 The venous system.
21 Local control of blood flow.
22 Regulation of the vasculature by the endothelium.
23 The coronary, skeletal muscle, cutaneous and cerebral circulations.
24 The pulmonary and fetal circulations.
Integration and regulation.
25 Cardiovascular reflexes.
26 Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system.
27 The control of blood volume.
28 Cardiovascular effects of exercise.
29 Shock and haemorrhage.
History, examination and investigations.
30 History and examination of the cardiovascular system.
31 Cardiovascular investigations.
32 The electrocardiogram.
Pathology and therapeutics.
33 Risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
34 Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and Ca2+-channel blockers.
37 Treatment of hypertension.
38 Mechanisms of primary hypertension.
39 Stable and variant angina.
40 Pharmacological management of stable and variant angina.
41 Unstable angina and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.
43 Pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction.
44 Clinical aspects of acute myocardial infarction (STEMI).
45 Thrombosis, anticoagulants and thrombolytics.
46 Chronic heart failure.
47 Treatment of chronic heart failure.
48 Mechanisms of arrhythmia.
49 Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias.
50 Ventricular tachyarrhythmias and non-pharmacological treatment of arrhythmias.
51 Pharmacological treatment of arrhythmias.
52 Diseases of the aortic valve.
53 Diseases of the mitral valve.
54 Congenital heart disease.
Self-assessment case studies.
Case studies and questions.