Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century / Edition 4

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Organized around the National Career Development Association’s competencies and the American Counseling Association ’s Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice, this top-selling text presents theories, assessments, planning tools, resources, and technologies relevant to modern career development. With four chapters devoted to career development in educational settings, this book analyzes the aspects of career development interventions for the elementary, middle and high school, higher ed, and community audiences. Also provided are strategies for implementing career counseling techniques and creating and designing career development programs.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132658591
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/15/2012
  • Series: Interventions that Work Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 544
  • Sales rank: 72,623
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey has enjoyed a distinguished career, including positions as high school counselor, director of guidance, university professor and career counselor, developer of DISCOVER® and Executive Director of ACT’s Educational Technology Center. She is currently Executive Vice-President of Development for Kuder, Inc., and in that role designs and develops content for Web-based career planning systems. She is the author or co-author of many journal articles and several books. She is a past-president of the National Career Development Association and a recipient of its Eminent Career Award.

Spencer G. Niles is professor and department head of Counselor Education in the Counseling Psychology and Rehabilitation Services Department at Pennsylvania State University.

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Career Development Interventions

The Meaning of Work Across Time
Linking Work with Worth
Providing Systematic Career Development Interventions
Definition of Terms
Career Development
Career Development Interventions
Career Counseling
Career Education

Career Development Programs
Important Events in the History of Career Development Interventions

Frank Parsons
Future Trends in Career Development Interventions

View Career Decisions as Values-Based Decisions

Move Beyond Objective Assessment
Move to Counseling-Based Career Assistance

Move to a Stronger Emphasis on Multicultural Career Development Theories and Interventions
Move to Focusing on Multiple Life Roles

CHAPTER 2: Understanding and Applying Theories of Career Development
Career Development Theories
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory
Life Span
Life Space
Applying Super’s Theory
Contextual Factors Influencing Life-Role Salience
Evaluating Super’s Theory
Linda Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation
Stage One: Orientation to Size and Power
Stage Two: Orientation to Sex Roles
Stage Three: Orientation to Social Valuation
Stage Four: Orientation to the Internal, Unique Self
Applying Gottfredson’s Theory to Practice
Evaluating Gottfredson’s Theory
John Holland’s Theory of Types and Person-Environment Interactions
The Realistic Type
The Investigative Type
The Artistic Type
The Social Type
The Enterprising Type
The Conventional Type
Vocational Identity
Applying Holland’s Theory
Evaluating Holland’s Theory
John Krumboltz’s Learning Theory of Career Counseling
The Learning Theory of Career Counseling
Applying LTCC
Evaluating Career Development Interventions
Evaluating LTCC

CHAPTER 3: Understanding and Applying Recent Theories of Career Development
Recent Theories
Lent, Brown, and Hackett’s Social Cognitive Career Theory
Applying SCCT
Evaluating SCCT
The Cognitive Information Processing Approach
Applying the CIP Approach
Evaluating CIP
Brown’s Values-Based, Holistic Model of Career and Life-Role Choices and Sat-isfaction
Applying the Values-Based Approach
Evaluating the Values-Based Approach
Hansen’s Integrative Life Planning
Applying ILP
Evaluating ILP
Postmodern Approaches
Creating Narratives
Contextualizing Career Development
Constructivist Career Counseling

CHAPTER 4: Providing Culturally Competent Career Development Interventions
Traditional Assumptions of Career Theories in the United States
Universal Versus Culture-Specific Models
Identity Development Models
Racial Identity Models
Gender Identity Models
Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Identity Models
Persons with Disabilities

CHAPTER 5: Assessment and Career Planning
The Relationship of Assessment to the Career Planning Process
Step 1: Become Aware of the Need to Make Career Decisions
Step 2: Learn About or Reevaluate Vocational Self-Concept
Step 3: Identify Occupational Alternatives
Step 4: Obtain Information About Identified Alternatives
Step 5: Make Tentative Choices from Among Available Occupations
Step 6: Make Educational Choices
Step 7: Implement a Vocational Choice
Purposes of Assessment
Learning More about the Needs of the Student or Client
Learning More about Clients and Helping Them Learn More about Them-selves
Determining the Change or Progress of an Individual or Group
Responsibilities and Competencies of the Counselor
Possess a General Knowledge about Assessment
Have Detailed Knowledge about the Instruments Used
Evaluate the Instrument for Usefulness with Diverse Populations
Prepare Students or Clients Adequately
Administer Instruments Properly
Interpret Instruments Properly
Follow Through with Clients
Informal Assessments
Formal Assessments
Types of Formal Assessments
Ways in Which Assessment Instruments May Be Administered
Types of Reports
Selection of Instruments

CHAPTER 6: Career Information and Resources
The Counselor’s Role in Providing Data
Barriers and Decision Styles
Career Information and Diversity
The Client’s Role in Receiving Data
Types of Data Needed by Clients
Programs of Study
Financial Aid
Other Methods of Collecting Data
Organizing Occupations
The Holland System
The World-of-Work Map
The Guide to Occupational Exploration Clusters
O*Net Classification System
U.S. Department of Education (now called the States’) Career Clusters

The Career Center
Helping Clients Turn Data Into Information

CHAPTER 7: Using Technology to Support Career Counseling and Planning
Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems
Computer Capabilities
Adding High Touch to High Tech
The Internet as the Deliverer of Computer-Assisted Systems
Types of Computer-Assisted Systems
Assessment Systems

Career Information Systems
Career Planning Systems
Choosing a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System
The Counselor and the Computer
Session 1: Encounter and Exploration Stage
Session 2: Working Stage
Session 3: Action Stage
Issues Related to Cybercounseling

CHAPTER 8: Career Counseling Strategies and Techniques for the 21st Century
Expanding the Limited View of Career Counseling
Career Counseling in the 21st Century
Designing Career Counseling Strategies for the 21st Century
Providing Counseling-Based Career Assistance
Providing Support in Career Counseling
A Framework for Career Counseling
The Beginning or Initial Phase of Career Counseling
The Middle or Working Phase of Career Counseling
The Ending or Termination Phase of Career Counseling
Career Counseling Groups
Career Counseling Professional Designations and Related Service Providers

CHAPTER 9: Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Career Development Programs and Services
Steps for Designing and Implementing a Career Development Program
Step 1: Define the Target Population and Its Characteristics
Step 2: Determine the Needs of the Target Population
Step 3: Write Measurable Objectives to Meet Needs
Step 4: Determine How to Deliver the Career Planning Services
Step 5: Determine the Content of the Program
Step 6: Determine the Cost of the Program
Step 7: Begin to Promote and Explain Your Services
Step 8: Start Promoting and Delivering the Full-Blown Program of Ser-vices
Step 9: Evaluate the Program
Planning Evaluation
Types of Data Collected

Benchmarks for Evaluation
Methods of Evaluation
Using the Results of Evaluation
Roadblocks to Evaluation
Step 10: Revise the Program as Needed
Some Sample Programs
Example 1: A Middle School
Example 2: A High School
Example 3: A University
Example 4: A Corporation
Example 5: A Community Agency

CHAPTER 10: Career Development Interventions in the Elementary Schools
Overview of Career Development Interventions in the Schools
Systematic and Coordinated Planning for Career Development Programs in the Schools
Career Development in the Elementary Schools
Goals of Career Development Interventions at the Elementary School Level
Career Development Interventions in the Elementary Schools
Parental Involvement

CHAPTER 11: Career Development Interventions in Middle and High Schools
Middle/Junior High School
Career Development Goals for Middle/Junior High School Students
Career Development Interventions in Middle/Junior High Schools
High School
Career Development Goals for High School Students
Career Development Interventions in High Schools

CHAPTER 12: Career Development Interventions in Higher Education
The Career Needs of Higher Education Students
The Evolution of Career Development Interventions in Higher Education
Career Development Competencies in Adulthood
Education and Occupational Exploration
Career Planning
Models, Services, and Standards for Career Development Interventions in Higher Education
Managing Career Services in Higher Education

CHAPTER 13: Career Development Interventions in Community Settings
Training, Certification, and Licensure
Case Management
Similarities and Differences in Community-Based Settings
Settings for Community-Based Career Counselors
Private Practice
The World Wide Web: Cybercounseling
Mental Health Centers
Substance Abuse Centers
Rehabilitation Settings
Corrections and Probation
Military Settings
Job Service Offices and One-Stop Centers
Corporations and Other Organizations

CHAPTER 14: Ethical Issues in Career Development Interventions
Ethical Dilemmas Versus Moral Temptations
Using Principles to Resolve Ethical Decisions
The Role of Values in Defining Career Development Interventions
Using Ethical Codes
Progress on Ethical Challenges Facing Career Counselors
Are All Individual Career Interventions Governed by the Same Ethical Stan-dards?
Should Those Without Traditional Training and Credentials As Professional Counselors Provide Career Services?
How Should the Internet Be Used in Career Development Interventions?
The Ethical Standards of the NCDA
Section A: The Professional Relationship
Section B: Confidentiality, Privileged Communication, and Privacy
Section C: Professional Responsibility
Section D: Relationships with Other Professionals
Section E: Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation
Section F: Use of the Internet in Career Services
Section G: Supervision, Training, and Teaching
Section H: Research and Publication
Section I: Resolving Ethical Issues

APPENDIX A- American Counseling Association Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice

- National Career Development Association Ethical Standards
APPENDIX C Educational and Career Planning Portfolio
APPENDIX D Career Counseling Competencies of the National Career Development Association (NCDA)
APPENDIX E National Career Development Guidelines (NCDG) Framework

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We have taught career courses to students in numerous universities in the United States, as well as in Canada, Japan, Denmark, Portugal, England, and Spain, to mention just a few. Wherever students are interested in learning about career development theory and practice, we are eager to go! In each instance, however, we not only teach students about career development interventions but students also teach us. The idea for this book began in response to student requests (pleas) for a career development textbook that was readable, useful, and interesting. These are high, but reasonable, expectations. These expectations served as our guiding principles as we composed the chapters of this book.

To make the book more readable, most chapters include case studies. Our goal is to help readers connect chapter content with the lives of people represented in the cases. Although the cases are, for the most part, fictional, they reflect the career concerns of people with whom we have worked as career counselors in schools, in community settings, and in higher education. Thus, we are indebted to our clients, in addition to our students, for teaching us about the career development process. We seek to share these experiences with the readers of this book.

Another goal is to convey to our readers the deep respect and long-term commitment we have for career development theory and practice. We emphasize this goal in Chapter 1. As we note in the book, there are few things more personal than a career choice, and we were cognizant of this fact as we wrote each chapter. Making career decisions involves deciding how we will spend one of the most precious commodities we have—our timeon Earth. We realize that these decisions are often very difficult and overwhelming. Thus, we draw upon the work of our colleagues in the field to present readers with "state-of-the-art" career theory and practice. However, the current situation evolved from the past contributions of many leaders in the field. We acknowledge their important foundational contributions in Chapter 1.

Although we cover a wide variety of theoretical perspectives in the book (especially in Chapters 2 and 3), we emphasize that careers develop over time. A decision point in one's career development is just that, a point in time at which one makes decisions based on previous and current career development experiences. Although knowing how to help people at these important points in their career development is crucial, career practitioners can also intervene proactively in the lives of children, adolescents, and adults in ways that facilitate positive career development prior to career crises occurring. Being able to provide assistance in both instances is critical.

We are especially concerned that career development theory and practice be inclusive. Constructing culturally inclusive career development interventions should be standard practice within the field. Unfortunately, this has not been the case. In part because of their historical context, career theories and practices focused primarily on the career experiences of European-American middle-class males. Although we devote a chapter to diverse populations (Chapter 4), throughout the book we also address the need for inclusive career interventions. Our cases also tend to highlight the career experiences of clients from diverse backgrounds. We think both approaches (i.e., having a single chapter devoted to the topic and infusing diversity throughout the book) are needed to begin to more adequately address the career development needs of all people.

The need to provide clients with culturally sensitive career interventions provides an important foundation for discussing career counseling interventions in Chapter 5 and career assessment approaches in Chapter 6. We provide information pertaining to career counseling process and outcomes that reflects the most recent work within the field. We also provide career information, resources, and website references (Chapter 7 and 8) that represent important aspects of the career development process. We highlight the essential considerations in designing and implementing career development programs in Chapter 9. Finally, we highlight developmental approaches to providing career assistance in the schools, community settings, and higher education in Chapter 10 through Chapter 13.

Of course, the desire to engage in ethical practice is also a standard in the field. However, there are many challenges confronting career practitioners. Web-based services such as career counseling and career assessment, the possibility of dual relationships, and theories with deeply rooted value sets present challenges to practitioners as they engage in ethical practice. Thus, we address many of these current ethical challenges in Chapter 14. This is one of the few career development textbooks with a chapter devoted to ethical practice.

Finally, we emphasize the importance of engaging in the ongoing evaluation of career services. This is important for improving service delivery. However, when resources are limited, as they are in many situations, the need for both accountability and the ability to demonstrate effectiveness are great. We present readers with important topics related to the evaluation of career services in Chapter 15.

To make the book even more useful to readers, we use a framework developed by the National Career Development Association (NCDA). Specifically, we use the NCDA's (1997) career development competencies, to guide us in the identification of chapter topics. These competencies appear in the appendix at the end of the book. Please note that in the book's appendix we identify the chapters that are most relevant to each competency category.

The rationale for using the competencies is that if these competencies are deemed the requisite knowledge and skills for providing career development interventions, then we should help readers learn this information and develop these skills. Here again, we also hope that the case studies facilitate the learning process. The Companion Website for the book also contributes to knowledge and skill acquisition, and we hope that readers find this resource to be a valuable tool. The Companion Website will be updated periodically, so we encourage readers to return to it at regular intervals for up-to-date information and web links.

We hope that we have accomplished the goals that motivated us to write the book. We also hope that we have fulfilled our students' expectations. In teaching our career courses, we consider it high praise when students tell us that they have a new respect and appreciation for career development interventions as a result of the class experience. This is what we hope occurs with this book. We invite readers to send us their feedback via the book's Companion Website. We are committed to improving the book in any way that we can. Your comments will guide us in the revisions that we make. Finally, we wish you the best of luck as you embark on a very exciting adventure within the counseling profession.

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