Carrier Ethernet: Providing the Need for Speed

Carrier Ethernet: Providing the Need for Speed

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by Gilbert Held
     
 

Facilitating high data transfers over long distances at a reasonable cost, Carrier Ethernet is solidifying its fundamental position as the core of next-generation networks. Since it first dazzled the IT world 40 years ago with its ability to move data over local networks, Ethernet has dramatically evolved in both form and function. And now, Carrier Ethernet,

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Overview

Facilitating high data transfers over long distances at a reasonable cost, Carrier Ethernet is solidifying its fundamental position as the core of next-generation networks. Since it first dazzled the IT world 40 years ago with its ability to move data over local networks, Ethernet has dramatically evolved in both form and function. And now, Carrier Ethernet, flexing its multi-gigabit muscle, is rapidly emerging as the undisputed technology of choice.

As engaging as it is comprehensive, this volume—

  • Examines the differences between the so-called flavors of Ethernet
  • Provides refreshers on virtual LANs (VLANs), virtual private networks (VPNs), and Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Details Carrier advantages over other modalities with regard to network performance
  • Delves into Service Level Agreements, including ways to obtain a quality of service for the movement of voice and real-time video, as well as the creation of VLANs to facilitate the movement of data
  • Describes various services that can be enabled over an Ethernet infrastructure
  • All You Need to Know about this Carrier-Class System

    Ensuring seamless migration to Carrier Ethernet from existing technologies, as well as integration with emerging services, this text provides readers with the expert guidance needed to make full use of Ethernet technology, both now and into the future.

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    Product Details

    ISBN-13:
    9781420060393
    Publisher:
    Taylor & Francis
    Publication date:
    03/13/2008
    Pages:
    224
    Product dimensions:
    6.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.70(d)

    Table of Contents

    Introduction to Carrier Ethernet
    Defining Carrier Ethernet
    Overview
    Rationale
    Expanded Use of Ethernet LANs
    Frame Compatibility
    Low Cost
    High Network Access Speeds
    Mass Market for Technology
    Business Continuity
    Enabling Technologies
    Copper and Fiber Infrastructure
    ADSL
    ADSL2 and ADSL2+
    SHDSL
    VDSL
    VPNs
    Types of VPNs
    Protocols
    Service Provider Provisioned VPNs
    VLANs
    Broadcast Domain Reduction
    Facilitate Subnet Creation
    Reduce Hardware Requirements
    Traffic Control
    Types of VLANs
    MPLS
    Overview
    Architecture
    Operation
    Applications
    Interconnecting Distributed Offices
    Providing Real-Time Backup
    Voice, Video, and Data Support
    Challenges to Carrier Ethernet
    Total Cost of Operation
    Packet Overhead
    Management and Troubleshooting
    Reliability
    Security
    QoS
    Data Networking Concepts
    Transport Technologies
    LANs
    WANs
    Characteristics
    Wireless
    Data Protocols
    Ethernet
    Evolution
    IEEE Involvement
    Network Interfaces
    Network Equipment
    Network Interface Cards
    Hubs
    Operation
    Passive versus Intelligent
    Hubs
    Switches
    Operation
    Advantages
    Evolution
    Routers
    Operation
    Advantages
    Capabilities
    Firewall
    Placement
    Operation
    VPN Appliances
    Operation
    Advantages
    Combining Functions
    Network Facilities
    T1
    The DSO Time Slot
    T-Carrier Hierarchy
    Channelized versus Non-Channelized
    SONET
    Optical Carrier Levels
    Framing
    Utilization
    The Flavors of Ethernet
    Metcalfe’s Original Design
    Bus-Based Network Structure
    The DIX Standard
    DIX Version 2.0
    IEEE 802.3 Standardization
    Division of Effort
    Physical Layer Effort
    Network Layer Effort
    Data Link Layer
    IEEE Changes from DIX
    802.3 Frame Format
    Sub-Network Access Protocol
    The CSMA/CD Protocol
    Frame Size
    Early Ethernet
    The 10 Mbps Ethernet Family
    10BASE-5
    10BASE-2
    10BROAD-36
    10BASE-T
    Network Characteristics
    5-4-3 Rule
    FOIRL and 10BASE-F
    Fast Ethernet
    100BASE-T
    Layer Subdivision
    100BASE-TX
    Network Configuration
    Coding
    Repeaters
    100BASE-T4
    100BASE-T4 Repeater Hub
    100BASE-T2
    Auto-Negotiation
    LIT Pulses
    FLP Pulses
    Parallel Detection Function
    The Base Page
    The Next Page Function
    Extended Next Page Function
    Priorities
    Option Considerations
    Fiber
    100BASE-FX
    100BASE-SX
    100BASE-BX
    Gigabit Ethernet
    Fiber-Based Gigabit Ethernet
    1000BASE-SX
    1000BASE-LX
    Fiber Auto-Negotiation
    1000BASE-ZX and LH
    Copper-Based Gigabit Ethernet
    1000BASE-CX
    1000BASE-T
    Summary
    10 Gigabit Ethernet
    GbE versus 10 GbE
    Layers and Interfaces
    XGMII
    XAUI
    XGMII
    MAC
    PCS
    PMA
    PMD
    WAN Physical Layer
    10 GbE over Copper
    10GBASE-CX4
    10GBASE-T
    Ethernet in the First Mile
    Architectures
    Physical Layer Interfaces
    Applications
    Advantages
    Use of Dual Fibers
    Use of Single Fibers
    EPON
    MPCP
    Frame Formats
    Basic Ethernet
    The Ethernet II/DIX Frame
    Preamble Field
    Destination Address Field
    Source Address Field
    Type Field
    Data Field
    Frame Check Sequence Field
    The 802.3 Frame
    Length Field
    Preamble Field Modification
    Type/Length Field Values
    The 802.2 Header
    Subnetwork Access Protocol
    LLC Header Operation
    The SNAP Frame
    IPX over Ethernet
    Full Duplex and the Pause Frame
    Advantages
    Flow Control
    PAUSE Frame
    Overview
    Frame Fields
    VLAN Tagging
    The 802.1Q Standard
    Advantages
    Frame Format
    SNAP Frames
    Frame Determination
    Fast Ethernet
    4B5B Coding
    Delimiters
    Interframe Gap
    Gigabit Ethernet
    Carrier Extension
    Half-Duplex Use
    Frame Bursting
    Jumbo Frames
    Operation
    Length Rationale
    Advantages
    Problems and Solutions
    Performance
    Basic Ethernet
    SNAP Frames
    Gigabit Ethernet
    Frame Rates
    Mathematical Oddities
    Frame Rate Computations
    Gigabit Constraints
    LAN Switches
    Bridge Operations
    Transparent and Translating Bridges
    Plug-and-Play Operation
    Bridge Operation
    Intelligent Switching Hubs
    Basic Components
    Buffer Memory
    Delay Times
    Parallel Switching
    Switch Operations
    Switching Techniques
    Cross-Point Switching
    Operation
    Latency
    Store-and-Forward
    Filtering Capability
    Operation
    Delay Time
    Hybrid
    Switch Port Address Support
    Port-Based Switching
    Segment-Based Switching
    Applications
    Considering Port Capability
    Basic Switching
    Multi-Tier Networking
    Interconnecting Dispersed Offices
    Virtual LANs
    Characteristics
    Construction Basics
    Implicit versus Explicit Tagging
    Using Implicit Tagging
    Explicit Tagging
    The IEEE 802.1Q Standard
    Vendor Implementation
    Carrier Ethernet Services
    Overview
    The Metro Ethernet Forum
    Requirements for Use
    VLAN Tagging
    The 802.1P (Priority) Standard
    Latency Considerations
    Fiber Connectivity
    Transporting Ethernet in a Service Provider Network
    Operating over Other Transports
    Comparison to Other Layer 2 Protocols
    Ethernet Topologies
    Carrier Ethernet Service Types
    E-LINE
    E-LAN
    E-TREE
    Encapsulation Techniques
    VLAN Stacking
    Service Level Agreements and Quality of Service
    The Service Level Agreement
    Metrics
    Availability
    Latency
    Jitter
    MTTR
    Installation Time
    Bandwidth Provisioning
    Packet Loss
    Guaranteed Bandwidth
    SLA Problems
    OAM Overview
    OAM and Ethernet
    Ethernet OAMs
    Functions
    Testing
    Link-Layer OAM
    Service OAM
    Quality of Service Overview
    Soft versus Hard QoS
    Soft QoS
    Hard QoS
    QoS Actions
    Classification
    Policing
    Queuing
    Scheduling
    Cisco ML-Series Card

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