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CARS 2001 - Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery: Proceedings of the 15th International Congress and Exhibition, Berlin, 27-30 June 2001, ICS 1230


New developments in computer assisted medical tools have improved medical workflow considerably. Advances in medical imaging, healthcare networking, surgical robotics and instrumentation and other imaging based technologies contribute towards a more flexible computer assisted medicine. With the advent of the electronic medical record (EMR) and suitable access management, collaboration between all healthcare parties, including the patient, also becomes possible.

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New developments in computer assisted medical tools have improved medical workflow considerably. Advances in medical imaging, healthcare networking, surgical robotics and instrumentation and other imaging based technologies contribute towards a more flexible computer assisted medicine. With the advent of the electronic medical record (EMR) and suitable access management, collaboration between all healthcare parties, including the patient, also becomes possible.

Progress in specific computer assisted techniques (e.g. digital imaging, computer aided diagnosis, image guided surgery, MEMS, etc.) combined with computer assisted integration tools (e.g. PACS, EMR, middleware, Internet, telemedicine, etc.) offers a valuable complement to or replacement for existing procedures in healthcare. Physicians are now employing PACS and telemedicine systems as enabling infrastructures for improving quality of and access to healthcare. Tools based on CAD and CAS facilitate completely new paths in patient care.

To reflect this development, the depth and spectrum of topics included in this year's CARS Proceedings have been expanded to include all aspects of modern IT in radiology and surgery. In addition to the traditional CARS topics, special emphasis is also been given to endoluminal surgery, cardiovascular imaging, the electronic medical record and bio-intelligence.

CARS 2001 is the first volume to be published simultaneously in print and on the web. Buyers of the book will have access to this web edition of CARS 2001 proceedings at no additional charge.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780444508669
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Publication date: 6/26/2001
  • Series: International Congress Series, #1230
  • Pages: 1266

Table of Contents

List of committee members.

Program committee.



Fifth annual conference of the international Society for computer aided surgery - ISCAS.

Modeling and processing.

A method for automated extraction of stomach fold regions from abdominal X-ray CT Image and its application to virtualized stomachoscopy (S. Watanabe et al.). A volume-based process model for computer assisted surgery (S. Däuber et al.). Enhanced CAS in head and neck-surgery: evaluation of intraoperative data modality iMRI and sonography (G. Strauss et al.). A new modal representation of liver deformation for non-rigid registration in image-guided surgery (Y. Masutani, F. Kimura). XVL for medicine: the web-based medical 3Dapplications (D. Tanaka et al.).

Surgical simulation.

3D surgery trainer with force feedback in minimally invasive surgery (U. Meier et al.). Minimal invasive abdominal surgery based on ultrasound vision, possible? (E. Sjolie et al.). Computer assisted osteotomy design for autografts in craniofacial reconstructive surgery (Z. Kröl et al.). Realistic modeling of elasto-mechanical properties of soft tissue and its evaluation (M. Teschner, S. Girod, B. Girod). 3-D spinal canal reconstruction - virtual reality and postsurgical reality (Z. Novák, P. Krupa, J. Chrastina). A system for facial reconstruction using distraction and symmetry considerations (O. Burgert et al.). Simulation and planning of minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery (T. Berlage et al.). Towards a virtual environment for biomechanical simulation (P. Zerfass, E. Keeve). Surgical simulator for diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy (K. Montgomery et al.). Airflow simulation inside a model of the human nasal cavity in a virtual reality based rhinological operation planning system (Th.van Reimersdahl et al.).

Surgical navigation.

Image guidance and functional evaluation in epilepsy surgery and lesional surgery (G. Wurm et al.). Clinical benefit of image guidance in neurosurgery (K. Holl, W. Wies, G. Wum). Design of a neurosurgical procedure model for multimodal image-guided surgery (P. Jannin et al.). Stereoscopic augmented reality system for computer assisted surgery (M. Liévin, E. Keeve). Expected versus observed error in a computer-aided navigation system for spine surgery (H. Holz et al.). Three dimensional digital ultrasound imaging system for surgical navigation (I. Sakuma et al.). A simple method of cranial tracking for conscious patients and its application to computer assisted endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia (Y. Sato et al.).

ISCAS/SMIT - Surgical robotics and instrumentation.

Robot assisted insertion of craniofacial implants - clinical experience (M. Klein et al.). Robotics in scull base surgery (B. Plinkert, P.K. Plinkert). Development of HUMAN system with three micromanipulators for minimally invasive neurosurgery (K. Kan et al.). A new wide-angle view endoscopic robot using wedge prisms (E. Kobayashi et al.). Calibration of a head-mounted operating microscope for augmented reality visualization in CAS (W. Birkfellner et al.). Feasibility of robot assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy (J.P. Ruurda, I.A.M.J. Broeders). A laparoscope positioning system with the surgeon's face image-based human machine interface (A. Nishikawa et al.). CT-directed robotic biopsy testbed: User interface and coordinate transformations (K. Cleary et al.).

Image guided therapy.

JULIUS - An extendable application framework for medical visualization and surgical planning (B. van Raymon-Lipinski et al.). An ultrasonic volumetric scanner for image-guided surgery (J. Johnson et al.). Osteoid osteoma: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (R. Cioni et al.). White paper: Challenges and opportunities in computer-assisted interventions (L. Clarke et al.).

Surgical education and training.

Virtual reality surgical training and assessment system (C. Paloc et al.). A simulator for training airway management in advanced trauma life support (L. Thurfjell et al.). Resection of skull bone supported by navigation and robotics (M. Wehmöller et al.). The use of individual surgical templates in computer assisted surgery (H. Eufinger et al.).


Intraoperative low-field MR imaging in neurosurgery - experience in 300 patients (Ch. Nimsky et al.). Computerized lateral endoscopic approach to spinal pathologies (H. Abbasi et al.). Digital microscope with augmented reality for neurosurgery (H. Varvaro et al.). Image fusion of ultrasound and MRI as an aid for assessing anatomical shifts and improving overview and interpretation in ultrasound guided neurosurgery (F. Lindseth et al.). Evaluation of automatic multimodality fusion technique of PET and MRI/CT images for computer assisted brain tumor surgery (S.B. Sobottka et al.). Surface reconstruction of the surgical field from stereoscopic microscope views in neurosurgery (O.J. Fleig et al.). Microscopic-manipulator system for minimally invasive neurosurgery - preliminary study for clinical application - (K. Hongo et al.). Intraoperative detection of malignant gliomas using 5-Aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin fluorescence, open MRI and real-time navigation system (T. Maruyama et al.). Functional neuronavigation and intraoperative MR-imaging in brain tumor surgery (Ch. Trantakis et al.).

Computer assisted orthopaedic surgery.

Total knee arthroplasty: coordinate system definition and planning based on 3-D ultrasound image volumes (H.M. Overhoff et al.). Influence of bone milling parameters on the temperature rise, milling forces and surface flatness in view of robot-assisted total knee arthroplasty (K. Denis et al.). Computer-based periaxial rotation measurement for aligning fractured femur fragments (O. Ron et al.). Accuracy of computer-assisted cup placement in total hip arthroplasty (B.M. Jolles, P. Genoud, P. Hoffmeyer). Effects of CT threshold value to make a surface bone model on accuracy of shape-based registration in a CT-based navigation system for hip surgery (N. Sugano et al.). An orthopaedic atlas for the 3D operation planning and the virtual construction of endoprostheses in computer assisted orthopaedic surgery (H. Handels et al.). Design of a web-based medical database for computer assisted orthopedic surgery (T. Wu et al.).

Fifteenth international congress and exhibition on computer assisted radiology - CAR.

Image processing.

Gradient - based registration of 3D MR and 2D X-ray images (D. Tomaževič B. Likar, F. Pernuš). Advanced ultrasonic tissue-typing and imaging based on radio-frequency spectrum analysis and neural-network classification for guidance of therapy and biopsy procedures (E.J. Feleppa et al.). A fully automated method for segmentation and thickness determination of hip joint cartilages from 3D MR data (Y. Sato et al.). Segmentation of a vascular necrosis of the femoral head from 3D MR images (R.A. Zoroofi et al.). Reduction of motion artifacts in three-dimensional CT-DSA using constrained adaptive multilevel free-form registration (T. Rohlfing, C.R. Maurer, Jr., J. Beier). Representing and sharing numeric and symbolic knowledge of brain cortex anatomy using web technology (B. Gibaud, O. Dameron, X. Morandi). Architecture for integration of probabilistic knowledge with digital image libraries (C.E. Kahn, Jr.) Navigation and interaction in medical knowledge spaces using topic maps (J. Beie, T. Tesche). Fast computation of isosurface contour spectra for volume visualization (R. Wiemker , V. Pekar). Web based 3D quantitative measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysms (A. Giachetti et al.). MRI based volumetry of intra- and extracerebral liquor spaces (H.K. Hahn et al.). A method for 3D flow determination based on X-ray rotational angiography (M. Graß et al.). Rendering and interaction in co-operative 3-D image analysis (K. Toennies, M. Hinz, R. Pohle). Feasibility of monitoring bone remodeling around loaded percutaneous tibial implants in guinea pigs by in vivo microfocus computed tomography (μCT) (S.V.N. Jaecques et al.). C-arm based computed tomography - A comparative study (S. Wirth et al.). Value of blood pool contrast agents in magnetic resonance venography (MRV) of the lower extremities and pelvis (M. Aschauer et al.).

Virtual reality.

Visualization of three-dimensional stomach shapes for virtual observation (Y. Mekada et al.). An improved method for generating virtual stretched view of stomach based on shape deformation (K. Mori et al.). A method for specifying unobserved regions in virtual endoscopy system (K. Mori et al.). The role of CT virtual endoscopy for evaluation of the airway (H-J. Lee et al.). Efficacy of automatic path tracking in virtual colonoscopy (R. Truyen et al.). Three-dimensional volume rendered CT for preparation and evaluation of endovascular treatment of popliteal aneurysms (P.M.A. van Ooijen et al.). A virtual reality training system for pediatric sonography (W. Arkhurst et al.). Medical imaging beyond the human genome project (A. Hengerer, T. Mertelmeier, D. Wagenaar).

Computer assisted radiation therapy.

CT based virtual simulation for external beam radiation therapy (G. Karangelis, N. Zamboglou). Computer-controlled, image-guided, new conformal radiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer - results of AcMAR (accelerated multiple-arc radiotherapy) study in Kitani Redcross General Hospital (T. Arimoto et al.). Inverse radiotherapy treatment planning for intensity-modulated beams using the linear programming method (M. Hilbig et al.).

Digital radiography.

Image characteristics of digital panoramic radiography - potential for computer aided diagnosis of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (T.T. Farman et al.). Long bone panoramas from fluoroscopic X-ray images (Z. Yaniv, L. Joskowicz). Visualization of microcalcifications in full field digital mammography using a wavelet algorithm (F. Diekmann et al.). Image quality and X-ray dose for translation reconstruction overview imaging of the spine, colon and legs (B. Verdonck et al.). Stereoscopic digital mammography: improving detection and diagnosis of breast cancer (D.J. Getty, R.M. Picketts, C.J. D'Orsi).

Third international workshop on computer aided diagnosis - CAD.

CAD for mammography.

An automated classification scheme for mammograms based on amount and distribution of fibroglandular breast tissue density (T. Matsubara et al.). Interactive segmentation of masses in digitized mammograms: observer variability and discriminative applications (E. Ristori et al.). An automated detection method of mammographic masses existing around thick-mammary-gland and near chest-wall regions (Y. Hatanaka et al.). Contrast correction method for detecting microcalcifications on mammograms by using step-wedge index (T. Hara et al.). An integrated approach to computer assisted diagnosis in digital mammography (P. Heinlein et al.). Second look (TM) microcalcification detection and classification (B. Allen et al.).

CAD for breast and chest.

Experiments with radiologists and a fully automated method for characterization of microcalcification clusters (W.J.H. Veldkamp, N. Karssemeijer, J.H.C.L. Hendriks). Incorporating radiological knowledge in a CAD system (P. Taylor, E. Alberdi, R. Lee). Time study of computer aided diagnosis - preliminary results on temporal subtraction (K. Hidaka et al.). Recognition of lung nodules from X-ray CT images using 3D MRF models (H. Takizawa et al.). CAD system to support comparative reading for lung cancer based on helical CT images (M. Kubo et al.).

Special session on 3D CAD for CT chest.

Current status and future direction of computer aided diagnosis in chest CT (M.L. Giger, S.G. Armato III). A CAD system for lung cancer based on CT image (N. Niki, Y. Kawata, M. Kubo). An interactive system for CT lung nodule identification and examination (C.L. Novac et al.). A CAD system for lung cancer screening test by X-ray CT (S. Yamamoto et al.). Optimal thresholding for 3D segmentation of pulmonary nodules in high resolution CT (R. Wiemker, A. Zwartkruis). Extraction of tumor region keeping boundary shape information from a chest X-ray CT images and benign/malignant discrimination (Y. Hirano et al.).

Special session on 3D CAD for CT colonography.

Fully automatic extraction of the colon centerline and its impact on a virtual colonoscopy system (I. Bitter, A. Kaufman, M. Wax). An integrated system for computer aided diagnosis in CT colonograhy: work-in-progress (R.M. Summers et al.). Computer aided detection of polyps in CT colonography: evaluation of volumetric features in differentiating polyps from false positives (J. Nappi et al.).

7th international congress on computed maxillofacial imaging - CMI.

Technological advances in computed maxillofacial imaging.

Interactive simulation of teeth cleaning (T. Gockel et al.). The virtual articulator - concept and development of VR-tools to analyse the dysfunction of dental occlusion (B. Korda?, Ch. Gärtner). Tuned-aperture computed tomographyTM accuracy in tomosynthetic assessment for dental procedures (A.G. Farman et al.). DentoCATTM - a novel design of a cone beam CT scanner for dentomaxillofacial imaging: introduction and preliminary results (P. Sukovic et al.). A study on three-dimensional image processing method for 3DX multi image micro CT (S. Befu, H. Tsunashima, Y. Arai). Practical model "3DX" of limited cone-beam X-ray CT for dental use (Y. Arai et al.).

Treatment strategies using computed maxillofacial imaging.

A Markov process in clinical dentistry: the prosthodontic cycle (H. Umar). Frameless intraoperative navigation and referencing in maxillofacial surgery - advances and limitations (M. Schneider et al.). Iso-surface volume rendering for implant surgery (S. van Foreest-Timp). Computer guided insertion of dental implants - a clinical evaluation (J. Brief et al.). Accuracy of an image guided system for oral implantology (O. Schermeier et al.). Computer and robot based operation theatre of the future in cranio facial surgery (H. Worn, J. Mühling).

19th international EuroPACS meeting.

PACS technologies.

Fault-tolerant PACS server design and evaluation (B.J. Liu et al.). PACS: a prerequisite for image fusion in nuclear medicine (T. Kauppinen et al.). A new image compression method using noise bit removal (T-J. Chen, K-S. Chuang). DVD-storage technology for PACS: report on two years of experience (F. Verhelle et al.). Users' behavior and performance of general-purpose color CRT monitors of PACS in the wards (H. Kondoh, H. Nishitani, T. Washiashi).

DICOM and interfacing.

Integrated use of the DICOM fields information within HIS-RIS: an added value by PACS in hospital wide patient management (R. Van den Broeck et al.). DICOM structured reporting - a prototype implementation (J. Riesmeier et al.). Linking a web based electronic patient record with a DICOM PACS (J. Reponen et al.). Practical aspects of HIS/PACS integration with emphasis on radiological workflow (M. Feron et al.). Tight integration of a commercial PACS viewer as a component within a multimedia clinical viewing station (E. Bellon et al.). DICOM and XML: Union makes strength (O. Baujard et al.).

PACS and image distribution issues.

Experience using an ASP model to expand a state-initiated telemedicine program (K.M. McNeill, G. Barker, J. McElroy). X-ray angio cineloop processing and tele-distribution (J. Punys et al.). Methodology development for quantitative optimization of security enhancement in medical information system - case study in RIS and multi-institutional radiotherapy database - (K. Haneda et al.). Mobile teleradiology: All images everywhere (U. Engelmann et al.). The use of a PACS in an electronic publication (R. Sigal et al.).


The SAXTELEMED model programme - requirements and goals from the standpoint of the Ministry of Health of Saxony (R. Wedekind, R. Röster). Technology basis supporting regional cooperation of hospitals and medical centers (H. Heuser et al.). Introduction of the health professional card (HPC) into the SAXTELEMED-project (A. Schurig, H. Heuser, R. Wedekind). Point-to-point versus web-based telepathology in intraoperative diagnostics (G. Haroske et al.).

Electronic medical record.

Reengineering image distribution to requesting physician for a digital environment (M. Osteaux). An XML based meta-language for dynamical generation of clinical documents within hospital information systems (J. Beier et al.). Incremental EHR introduction considering the situation in health care and the current standards under development (I. Schramm, V. Weber). The PREPaRe system - patient oriented access to the "personal electronic medical record" (S. Märkle et al.).

2001 international symposium on cardiovascular imaging - CVI.

Cardiovascular image analysis: past, presence and future (M. Sonka).

Invasive coronary imaging.

Determination of optimal angiographic viewing angles for QCA (J. Christiaens et al.). Automatic border detection in intra vascular ultrasound images for quantitative measurements of the vessel, lumen and stent parameters (J. Dijkstra et al.). Visualization of human coronary arteries with quantification results from 3-D and 4-D computational hemodynamics based upon virtual endoscopy (A. Wahle et al.). Intraveneous coronary angiography with synchroton radiation (W.-R. Dix et al.).


Tracking of active contours in echocardiographic sequences using motion features (O. Ziermann, T. Klein, D. Meyer-Ebrecht). Active appearance-motion models for fully automated endocardial contour detection in time sequences of echocardiograms (H.G. Bosch et al.). Echo analyzer - a system for three-dimensional echocardiographic visualization and quantification (I. Wolf et al.).

Non-invasive left ventricular function by MRI and quantification in MRA.

New methods and algorithms for the accurate, real-time, motion analysis of the left ventricle with MRI tagging (C.F. Allouche et al.). Time continuous segmentation of cardiac MR images using active appearance motion models (B.P.F. Lelieveldt et al.). Towards automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images (M. Breeuwer et al.). 3D quantification and visualization of MRA (J.A. Schaap et al.). Clinical validation of quantitative carotid MRA (R. Guzmann et al.). Simulated vascular reconstruction in a virtual operating theatre (R.G. Belleman, P.M.A. Sloot).

Quantification of cardiac determinants.

Morphometric and structural analysis of vasculature in volumetric images (G. Prause, D. Sel, H. Peitgen).

What is new in MRI and CT of ischemic heart disease? A NASCI tutorial.

Four-D blood flow patterns in the thoracic aorta in patients with CAD compared to age-matched normal subjects (H. Bogren, M.H. Buonocore). Virtual endoscopy for cardio vascular exploration (D. Bartz et al.).

NASCI session: Assessment of ventricular volumes by various imaging modalities.

Problems in quantitative evaluations of biplane X-ray angiocardiograms (D.G.W. Onnasch, F.-K. Schmiel, H.-H. Kramer).

13th international conference of the society for medical innovation and technology - SMIT.

Endoluminal surgery.

Endoluminal gastroplasty for the treatment of GERD (P. Swain).

Ergonomics and motion analysis in surgery.

Computer aided planning of trocar placement and robot settings in robot assisted surgery (A. Austad, O.J. Elle, J.S. Røtnes).

Curved and steerable instruments.

Advanced phantoms for training in minimally invasive surgery (H. Raestrup et al.).

Education, training and planning in surgery.

Realism in surgical simulators with free-form geometric modeling (J.S. Rotnes et al.). TeleMEDiana - telesurgery & telemedicine via satellite networks (S. Dobrosavljevic, R. Welter). VR models for surgical training with realistic biophysical properties (J. Gross, Buess).

Advances in surgical instrumentation.

The shadow telescope versus 3-D video system - evaluation in standardised tasks (W. Kunert et al.).

Symposium: Optical diagnostics and in-situ tissue analysis.

Optical coherence microscopy for columnar and squamous epithelium discrimination: potenital and clinical applicability (M. George et al.).

Instrument tracking and positioning.

Optimised real time catheter tracking on a conventional MR scanner (M. Bock et al.).

Advances in microtherapy and diagnostic procedure.

Radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation of metastatic liver tumours (P. Rossi et al.). MR-compatible endoscopy and tracking for image guided surgery (P. Gross et al.). Percutaneous sclerosis of giant cavernous hepatic hemangioma: preliminary report of two cases (F.M. Danza et al.).

MRI/CT angiography and intervention.

A prototype of an expandable active MRI stent (aMRIs) (Th. Bertsch et al.). Wireless application of an intravascular resonator for within the vena cava for (MRI) (G. Schaefers et al.).

Instrument guiding systems.

Comparison of task performance of robotic camera holders EndoAssist and Aesop (P. Ballester et al.).

Advances in Surgical Techniques.

Physiological hiatoplasty for hiatal hernia: "C"-shaped mesh (F. Panaro et al.). Intestinal motility monitoring in patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (A.V. Maloshtan, A.M. Tischenko, R.M. Smachylo).

Poster session.

15th international congress and exhibition on computer assisted radiology - CAR.

5th annual conference of the international society for computer aided surgery - ISCAS.

19th international EuroPACS meeting.

7th international congress on computed maxillofacial imaging - CMI.

3rd international workshop on computeraided diagnosis - CAD.

13th international conference of the society for medical innovation and technology - SMIT.

Index of authors.

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