Caryophyllales: Evolution and Systematics

Overview

The Caryophyllales are one of the few higher taxa of the flowering plants ofwhich the size and delimitation against other taxa is undisputed. However, their derivation from other taxa and the evolution of families within this order in unsettled.
"Systematics and Evolution of the Caryophyllales" reviews the important characters of this taxon emphasizing their contribution and influence towards a new proposal for both the putative origin of the ...
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Overview

The Caryophyllales are one of the few higher taxa of the flowering plants ofwhich the size and delimitation against other taxa is undisputed. However, their derivation from other taxa and the evolution of families within this order in unsettled.
"Systematics and Evolution of the Caryophyllales" reviews the important characters of this taxon emphasizing their contribution and influence towards a new proposal for both the putative origin of the order and the classification of its families. New results in molecular genetics,
phyhemistry, ultrastructure, and morphology are provided and discussed in relation to both the classical and molecular systematics of the order. In addition, characters like betalains and sieve-element plastids, which have played a major role in shaping the size of the order, and others like DNA-data or flower morphologythat can be useful to discuss the position of the Caryophyllales within higher plants are critically evaluated.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642782220
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 334
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.73 (d)

Table of Contents

Dedication to Arthur Cronquist.- 1 Nomenclatural and Taxonomic History.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Early History.- 1.3 Refinement of the Definition from Alexander Braun (1864) to the Present.- 1.4 Use of Characters Other Than Classical Morphology in Defining the Order.- 1.5 Inclusion or Exclusion of some Particular Families.- 1.6 Recent Developments.- 1.6.1 Families Now Generally Included in the Caryophyllales.- 1.6.2 Families Now Generally Excluded from the Caryophyllales, Although Sometimes Included by Past Authors.- 1.6.3 Summary of Our Present Knowledge of the Caryophyllales.- 1.6.4 Preferred Classification of Caryophyllales by Cronquist.- 1.6.5 Preferred Classification of Caryophyllales by Thorne.- 1.6.6 Relationships of the Caryophyllales.- References.- 2 Chromosome Numbers and Their Phyletic Interpretation.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Chromosome Numbers of Caryophyllales.- 2.3 Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- 3 Vascular Tissues.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Materials and Methods.- 3.3 Primary Vascular Systems.- 3.3.1 Procambial Differentiation in the Shoot.- 3.3.2 Sympodial Nature of Primary Shoot Vasculature.- 3.3.3 Differentiation Patterns of Bundles.- 3.3.3.1 Phytolacca dioica.- 3.3.3.2 Notable Variations in Other Centrosperms.- 3.3.4 Leaf Venation.- 3.4 Secondary Thickening.- 3.4.1 Occurrence of Normal and Anomalous Types.- 3.4.2 Nature of Anomalous Vascular Tissues.- 3.4.2.1 Bidirectionally-Dividing Supernumerary Cambium.- 3.4.2.2 Initiation and Progression of Vascular Cambia in Seedlings.- 3.4.2.3 Origin of Additional Supernumerary Cambia and Nature of Connections.- 3.4.3 Structure and Cell Types of Secondary Xylem.- 3.4.3.1 Portulacineae (Sensu Thorne 1983).- 3.4.3.2 Phytolaccaceous Alliance.- 3.4.3.3 Other Betalain-Containing Families.- 3.4.3.4 Anthocyanin-Containing Families.- 3.5 Extraxylary Sclerenchyma of Stems.- 3.6 Phylogenetic Analysis.- References.- 4 Epicutieular Wax Ultrastructure and Systematics.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Wax Ultrastructure of Caryophyllales.- 4.3 Relations Within the Order.- 4.4 Wax Ultrastructure and Position of the Order.- References.- 5 Sieve-Element Plastids: Their Significance for the Evolution and Systematics of the Order.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 The Sieve-Element Plastid Characters.- 5.2.1 Forms and Types of Sieve-Element Plastids.- 5.2.2 Sizes of Sieve-Element Plastids.- 5.3 The Distinctive Characters of Sieve-Element Plastids in the Caryophyllales.- 5.4 The Distribution of Forms and Sizes of Sieve-Element Plastids in the Higher Taxa of the Caryophyllales.- 5.5 The Sieve-Element Plastids of the Families Sometimes Included in or Most Often Allied to the Caryophyllales.- 5.6 The Putative Evolution of the Sieve-Element Plastids in the Caryophyllales.- 5.7 Relationships of the Order Caryophyllales.- 5.8 Addendum: On Phytoferritin in Plastids of Phloem Cells.- References.- 6 Flower Morphology and Ontogeny.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.1.1 Materials and Methods.- 6.1.2 What Groups Can Be Used as Homogeneous Units?.- 6.1.2.1 Commentary on Families.- 6.2 Results.- 6.2.1 Observations on some Individually Treated Genera.- 6.2.2 Ontogeny of the Flowers, Especially of the Androecium and Petals.- 6.2.2.1 Families with Centrifugally Originating Stamens.- 6.2.2.2 Comments on Families with Successively Originating Stamens.- 6.2.2.3 Flower Ontogeny of Gyrostemonaceae.- 6.2.3 Gynoecium.- 6.2.3.1 Types of Gynoecia.- 6.2.3.2 Ontogeny of Carpels.- 6.2.3.3 Stigmas, Styles, Pollen Tube Transmitting Tissue and “Free-Central Placenta”.- 6.3 Conclusions.- References.- 7 Pollen Morphology and Exine Ultrastructure.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Materials and Methods.- 7.3 Results.- 7.3.1 Caryophyllales Pollen Description.- 7.3.2 Tectum.- 7.3.3 Apertures.- 7.3.4 Exine Structure.- 7.3.5 Pollen Descriptions of the Caryophyllales Families.- 7.4 Discussion.- 7.4.1 Pollen Data and Molecular Results.- 7.5 Summary.- References.- 8 Phylogenetic Relationships Using Restriction Site Variation of the Chloroplast DNA Inverted Repeat.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Materials and Methods.- 8.3 Results and Discussion.- 8.3.1 rpl2 Intron Loss.- 8.3.2 Phylogenetic Analysis of Inverted Repeat Restriction Site Mutations.- 8.3.3 Nepenthes and the Caryophyllales.- 8.4 Conclusions.- References.- 9 Gene Sequence Data.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Materials and Methods.- 9.2.1 Materials.- 9.2.2 DNA Extractions, Cloning, Amplification, and Sequencing.- 9.2.3 Analysis of Data.- 9.3 Results and Discussion.- 9.3.1 General.- 9.3.2 Clade I: Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae.- 9.3.3 Clade II: Caryophyllaceae.- 9.3.4 Clade III: Basellaceae, Portulacaceae, Cactaceae, and Didiereaceae.- 9.3.5 Clade IV: Phytolaccaceae, Petiveriaceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Gisekia.- 9.4 Conclusions.- References.- 10 Chemical Review and Evolutionary Significance of the Betalains.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Biogenesis of Betalains.- 10.3 Evolutionary Significance of Betalains.- 10.4 Value of Chemotaxonomic Data in Studies of the Caryophyllales.- 10.5 Current and Future Studies.- References.- 11 Recent Advances in Betalain Analysis.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 General Procedures.- 11.3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.- 11.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.- 11.5 Mass Spectrometry.- References.- 12 Cladistic and Phenetic Studies.- 12.1 Summary.- 12.2 Introduction.- 12.3 Materials: Taxa.- 12.4 Materials: Characters.- 12.5 Methods.- 12.6 Results and Discussion.- 12.7 Conclusion.- Appendix A Characters, States, and Codings, with Notes on Literature Sources, Homology, Sampling, and Variability.- Appendix B Matrix of Coding Assignments.- References.- 13 Putative Origin and Relationships of the Order from the Viewpoint of Developmental Flower Morphology.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 The Fascicled Centrifugal Androecium as a Basis of Argumentation Concerning the Origin of the Caryophyllales.- 13.3 The Gynoecium as a Basis of Argumentation Concerning the Relationships of the Caryophyllales.- 13.4 Conclusion.- References.- 14 A Note on the Relationships of the Order Within the Angiosperms.- References.- 15 Lyallia kerguelensis Hook. f. and Its Artificial Propagation.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Taxonomic Description.- 15.3 Geographical Distribution and Ecology.- 15.4 Material Examined.- 15.5 Artificial Propagation.- References.- Genera Index.
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