Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology / Edition 2

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This book highlights studies addressing significant anthropological issues in the Americas from the perspective of environmental archaeology. The book uses case studies to resolve questions related to human behavior in the past rather than to demonstrate the application of methods. Each chapter is an original or revised work by an internationally-recognized scientist. This second edition is based on the 1996 book of the same title. The editors have invited back a number of contributors from the first edition to revise and update their chapter. New studies are included in order to cover recent developments in the field or additional pertinent topics.

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Table of Contents

Preface.- Acknowledgments.- List of Figures.- List of Tables.- 1 Introduction to Environmental Archaeology.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 What is Environmental .- Archaeology?.- Humanity, History, or Science?.- The Scientific Method and Why it .- Matters.- Method or Theory?.- Artifact or Ecofact?.- Summary.- 1.3 History and Theory in Environmental Archaeology.- History.- Theory.- 1.4 Ecological Concepts.- 1.5 The Disciplines of Environmental Archaeology.- 1.6 The Goals of Environmental Archaeology.- Environmental History: Climate, Landscapes, and Biogeography.- Human/environmental Relationships.- The Evolution of Human Social Institutions.- Improvements in Methodology.- 1.7 Goals of this Book.- 2 Factors Affecting the Composition of an Assemblage (New Chapter).- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Taphonomy.- 2.3 Archaeological Transformational Processes.- 2.4 Cultural Transformations.- Types of Sites.- Cultural Transformations.- Summary.- 2.5 Systemic Context Transformations.- Abiotic Transformations.- Soil Chemistry.- Climate.- Mechanical Damage (alluvial, coastal, fluvial, aeolian).- Aerobic Environments.- Biotic Transformations.- Summary.- 2.6 Ethnoarchaeology and Experimental Archaeology.- 2.7 Summary.- 3 Research Designs and Field Methods (New Chapter).- 3.1 Introduction.- The Role of the Environmental Archaeologist in Field Work.- 3.2 Research Designs.- 3.3 The Importance of Context.- What is a site?.- On-site and off-site testing.- Features and Zones.- Column Samples.- Continguous/Block Excavations.- Random, Stratified Units.- 3.4 Recovery Techniques.- In situ Recovery.- Point Samples.- Screening.- Flotation.- 3.5 Field Sampling.- 3.6 Special Finds.- Burials.- Coprolites and Dung Residue.- Hearths.- 3.7 Record-keeping.- 3.8 Anticipating Radiocarbon Dating and Other Studies.- 3.9 The Ethics of Archaeology.- Cultural Patrimony.- Curating Samples.- 3.10 Summary.- 4 Classification and Nomenclature (New Chapter).- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Folk Taxonomy.- 4.3 Linnaean Taxonomy.- 4.4 The Importance of Comparative Collections.- 4.5 Summary.- 5 Sediments and Soils (Update).- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Taxonomy and Morphology of Soils and Sediments.- 5.3 Field Considerations.- 5.4 Laboratory Procedures for Sediments.- 5.5 Laboratory Procedures for Soils.- 5.6 Applications and Case Studies.- Petrofabric Analysis.- Grain Surface Textures.- Micromorphology.- Environments of Deposition.- Sediment Accumulation and Distribution: Rates and Problems.- Barrow Construction and Soil Interpretation.- Soils as Landscape Remnants.- Phosphate and Manganese in Archaeological Soils.- 5.7 Summary.- 6 Seeds, Fruits, Nuts, and Tubers (Update).- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Taxonomy and Morphology.- 6.3 Field Considerations.- 6.4 Laboratory Procedures.- 6.5 Evidence for Domestication.- 6.6 Applications and Case Studies.- Carbonized Material at Ur.- Seeds and Fruit from Burials.- Coprolites as Evidence of Diet.- The Problem of Mummy Wheat.- The Origins of British Brewing.- The Interpretation of Crops.- Impressions.- 6.7 Summary.- 7 Wood and Charcoal (Update).- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Taxonomy and Morphology.- 7.3 Field Considerations.- 7.4 Laboratory Procedures.- 7.5 Dendrochronology and Radiocarbon Dating.- 7.6 Applications and Case Studies.- Charcoal as Paleoenvironmental Evidence.- Charcoal and Plaster Impressions from Myrtos.- Wood Remains from York.- Trackways in the Somerset Levels.- The Organization of Roman Military Timber Supply.- 7.7 Summary.- 8 Pollen (Update).- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Taxonomy and Morphology.- 8.3 Field Considerations.- 8.4 Laboratory Procedures.- 8.5 Pollen in Special Contexts.- Mineral Soils.- Coprolites.- Stomach Contents.- 8.6 Applications and Case Studies.- Fodder.- Landscape Change.- Climate Change.- Caves and Coprolites.- The Elm Decline.- 8.7 Summary.- 9 Phytoliths, Starch Grains, and Spores (Reorganized from other Chapters).- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Taxonomy and Morphology.- 9.3 Field Considerations.- 9.4 Phytoliths.- 9.5 Starch Grains.- 9.6 Spores of Ferns and Mosses.- 9.7 Applications and Case Studies.- 9.8 Summary.- 10 Micro-organisms (Update).- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Taxonomy and Morphology.- 10.3 Field Considerations.- 10.4 Algae (Diatoms).- 10.5 Fungi.- 10.6 Bacteria and Viruses.- 10.7 Protozoa (Amoeba, Foraminifera, Radiolaria).- 10.8 Applications and Case Studies.- Parasitic Infections.- Environmental Evidence.- 10.9 Summary.- 11 Arthropods: spiders and mites, fleas, chironomids, lice, beetles, rickettsiae, ostracods, nematode worms, crabs, shrimp, (Update).- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Taxonomy and Morphology of Arthropods.- 11.3 Field Considerations.- 11.4 Laboratory Procedures.- 11.5 Applications and Case Studies.- Parasitism.- Forensic Entomology.- Influence of Climate on Insect Distributions.- Habitat Changes in the Interpretation of Assemblages.- Influence of Artificial Habitats on Insect Distributions.- Effect of Local Ecology on Distributions.- Insects as a Source of Climatic Information.- The Detection of Ancient Habitats.- The Background Fauna.- Palaeoecological Reconstruction and Climate Change.- The Identification of Building Use and Food Infestations.- Insects as Human Food.- Insects as Corroborative Data.- Coffin Faunas.- 11.6 Summary.- 12 Echinoderms and Molluscs (Update).- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Taxonomy and Morphology.- 12.3 Field Considerations.- 12.4 Laboratory Procedures.- 12.5 Terrestrial Molluscs.- 12.6 Marine Molluscs.- 12.7 Applications and Case Studies.- Vegetation Cover and Change.- The Comparative Use of Pollen and Snail Analysis.- Early Fields.- Molluscs as a Food Source.- Molluscs as a Source of Environmental Information.- 12.8 Summary.- 13 Vertebrate Bones and Teeth (Substantially Revise).- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Taxonomy and Morphology.- 13.3 Field Considerations.- 13.4 Laboratory Procedures.- 13.5 Sample Analysis.- 13.6 Evidence for Domestication.- 13.7 Human Biology as a Special Case.- 13.8 Applications and Case Studies.- Dog Bones.- Animal Paleopathology.- Sheep and Goats.- Small Animals.- Ritual Use.- Coastal Economy at Galatea Bay, New Zealand.- Marine Mammals: Whales as an Economic Factor in Europe.- Lovelock Cave, Nevada.- Exeter: Birds from an Urban Context.- 13.9 Summary.- 14 Other Vertebrate Tissues (New Chapter).- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Definitions and Morphology.- 14.3 Field Considerations.- 14.4 Otoliths.- 14.5 Keratinized Structures: Scales, Horn, Hair, Feathers.- 14.6 Skin.- 14.7 Egg Shell.- 14.8 Blood Residue.- 14.9 Applications and Case Studies.- 14.10 Summary.- 15 Stable Isotopes, Trace Elements, Ancient Genetics, and Enzymes (New Chapter).- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Definitions and Morphology.- 15.3 Field Considerations.- 15.4 Stable Isotopes (Carbon, Nitrogen, Strontium, Oxygen).- 15.5 Trace Elements (Strontium, Barium, Iron, Zinc, Lead).- 15.6 Ancient Genetics.- 15.7 Enzymes.- 15.8 Applications and Case Studies.- 15.9 Summary.- 16 Conclusion (New Chapter).- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Environmental History.- 16.3 Domestication.- 16.4 Human Economies and Other Social Institutions.- 16.5 Nature Conservation and Heritage Management.- 16.6 Archiving Samples and Data.- 16.7 Future Directions.- 16.8 Conclusions.- Appendix 1: Scientific Names and English Vernacular Equivalents.- Appendix 2: Glossary of Technical Terms.- Bibliography.- Index.-

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