CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide / Edition 2

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Overview

CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition, is a best of breed Cisco® exam study guide that focuses specifically on the objectives for the CCNA® ICND2 exam. This fully updated edition presents complete reviews and a more challenging and realistic exam preparation experience.

Senior instructor and best-selling author Wendell Odom shares preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills. The material is presented in a concise manner, focused on increasing your understanding of exam topics and preparing you for the numerous challenges the exams present.

CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition, presents you with an organized test preparation routine through the use of proven series elements and techniques. "Do I Know This Already?" quizzes open each chapter and allow you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section. Chapter-ending Exam Preparation Tasks sections help you drill on key concepts you must know thoroughly and help increase your speed in answering questions, a difficult hurdle many exam candidates face on the new exams. A Final Preparation chapter guides you through tools and resources to help you craft your final study plan. Special troubleshooting sections help you master the complex scenarios you will face on the exam.

The companion CD-ROM contains a powerful testing engine that allows you to focus on individual topic areas or take complete, timed exams. The assessment engine also tracks your performance and provides feedback on a chapter-by-chapter basis, presenting question-by-question remediation to the text. The bonus DVD contains more than 60 minutes of personal video mentoring from the author focused mainly on bringing difficult subnetting concepts to life.

Well-regarded for its level of detail, assessment features, and challenging practice questions, this book provides you with more detailed information and more realistic practice exercises than any other CCNA study guide, enabling you to succeed on the exam the first time.

The official study guide helps you master all the topics on the CCNA ICND2 exam, including
-Virtual LANs and Spanning Tree Protocol
-Static and connected routes
-VLSM and route summarization
-IP access control lists
-OSPF and EIGRP configuration
-Point-to-point WANs
-Frame Relay
-VPNs
-Network address translation
-IPv6
-Troubleshooting


Companion CD-ROM
The CD-ROM contains an electronic copy of the book and 200 practice questions for the ICND2 and full CCNA exams, including simulation and testlet questions, all available in study mode, test mode, and flash card format.

BONUS DVD
The DVD contains more than 60 minutes of personal instruction from the author!
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587201813
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 9/13/2007
  • Series: Exam Certification Guide
  • Edition description: Book with CD and DVD
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 744
  • Product dimensions: 7.80 (w) x 9.44 (h) x 1.95 (d)

Meet the Author

Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624, has been in the networking industry since 1981. He currently teaches QoS, MPLS, and CCNA courses for Skyline Advanced Technology Services (http://www.skyline-ats.com). Wendell also has worked as a network engineer, consultant, and systems engineer, and as an instructor and course developer. He is the author of all prior editions of CCNA Exam Certification Guide, as well as the Cisco QoS Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition, Computer Networking First-Step, CCIE Routing and Switching Official Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition, and CCNA Video Mentor, all from Cisco Press.

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Read an Excerpt

CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide, Second EditionCCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide, Second EditionIntroduction

Congratulations! If you're reading far enough to look at the introduction to this book, you've probably already decided to go for your Cisco certification. If you want to succeed as a technical person in the networking industry, you need to know Cisco. Cisco has a ridiculously high market share in the router and switch marketplace, with more than 80 percent market share in some markets. In many geographies and markets around the world, networking equals Cisco. If you want to be taken seriously as a network engineer, Cisco certification makes perfect sense.

Historically speaking, the first entry-level Cisco certification has been the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification, first offered in 1998. The first three versions of the CCNA certification (1998, 2000, and 2002) required that you pass a single exam to become certified. However, over time, the exam kept growing, both in the amount of material covered and in the difficulty level of the questions. So, for the fourth major revision of the exams, announced in 2003, Cisco continued with a single certification (CCNA), but offered two options for the exams to get certified: a single-exam option and a two-exam option. The two-exam option allowed people to study roughly half of the material, and take and pass one exam, before moving on to the next.

Cisco announced changes to the CCNA certification and exams in June 2007. This announcement includes many changes, most notably:

  • The exams collectively cover a broader range of topics.
  • The exams increase the focus on proving the test taker's skills (as compared with just testing knowledge).
  • Cisco created a new entry-level certification: the Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician (CCENT) certification.

For the current certifications, announced in June 2007, Cisco created the ICND1 (640-822) and ICND2 (640-816) exams, along with the CCNA (640-802) exam. To become CCNA certified, you can pass both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams, or just pass the CCNA exam. The CCNA exam simply covers all the topics on the ICND1 and ICND2 exams, giving you two options for gaining your CCNA certification. The two-exam path gives those people with less experience a chance to study for a smaller set of topics at a time, whereas the one-exam option provides a more cost-effective certification path for those who want to prepare for all the topics at once.

Although the two-exam option will be useful for some certification candidates, Cisco designed the ICND1 exam with a much more important goal in mind. The CCNA certification has grown to the point that it tested knowledge and skills beyond what an entry-level network technician would need to have. Cisco needed a certification that was more reflective of the skills required for entry-level networking jobs. So, Cisco designed its Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices 1 (ICND1) course, and the corresponding ICND1 640-822 exam, to include the knowledge and skills most needed by an entry-level technician in a small enterprise network. And to show that you have the skills required for those entry-level jobs, Cisco created a new certification, CCENT, which is attained by passing the ICND1 exam.

Figure I-1 shows the basic organization of the certifications and the exams used for getting your CCENT and CCNA certifications. (Note that no separate certification exists for passing the ICND2 exam.)

Figure I-1
Cisco Entry-Level Certifications and Exams

As you can see from the figure, while the CCENT certification is available by taking the ICND1 exam, you do not have to first be CCENT certified before getting your CCNA certification—you can choose to just take the CCNA exam and bypass the CCENT certification.

The ICND1 and ICND2 exams cover different sets of topics, with a minor amount of overlap. For example, ICND1 covers IP addressing and subnetting, while ICND2 covers a more complicated use of subnetting called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM), so ICND2 must then cover subnetting to some degree. The CCNA exam covers all the topics covered on both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams.

While the popularity of the CCENT certification cannot be seen until a few years have passed, certainly the Cisco CCNA certification enjoys a position as the most popular entry-level networking certification program. A CCNA certification proves that you have a firm foundation in the most important components of the Cisco product line—namely, routers and switches. It also proves that you have a broad knowledge of protocols and networking technologies.

Format of the CCNA Exams

The ICND1, ICND2, and CCNA exams all follow the same general format. When you get to the testing center and check in, the proctor will give you some general instructions and then take you into a quiet room with a PC. When you're at the PC, you have a few things to do before the timer starts on your exam. For example, you can take a sample quiz, just to get accustomed to the PC and to the testing engine. Anyone who has user-level skills in getting around a PC should have no problems with the testing environment. Additionally, Chapter 18, "Final Preparation," points to a Cisco website at which you can see a demo of the Cisco test engine.

When you start the exam, you are asked a series of questions. You answer a question and then move on to the next question. The exam engine does not let you go back and change your answer. Yes, that's true—when you move on to the next question, that's it for the earlier question.

The exam questions can be in one of the following formats:

  • Multiple-choice (MC)
  • Testlet
  • Drag-and-drop (DND)
  • Simulated lab (Sim)
  • Simlet

The first three types of questions are relatively common in many testing environments. The multiple-choice format simply requires that you point and click a circle beside the correct answer(s). Cisco traditionally tells you how many answers you need to choose, and the testing software prevents you from choosing too many answers. Testlets are questions with one general scenario, with multiple MC questions about the overall scenario. Drag-and-drop questions require you to click and hold the mouse button, move a button or icon to another area, and release the mouse button to place the object somewhere else—typically into a list. So, for some questions, to get the question correct, you might need to put a list of five things into the proper order.

The last two types both use a network simulator to ask questions. Interestingly, the two types allow Cisco to assess two very different skills. First, Sim questions generally describe a problem, and your task is to configure one or more routers and switches to fix the problem. The exam then grades the question based on the configuration you changed or added. Interestingly, Sim questions are the only questions that Cisco (to date) has openly confirmed that partial credit is given.

The Simlet questions might well be the most difficult style of question on the exams. Simlet questions also use a network simulator, but instead of answering the question by changing the configuration, the question includes one or more MC questions. The questions require that you use the simulator to examine the current behavior of a network, interpreting the output of any show commands that you can remember to answer the question. While Sim questions require you to troubleshoot problems related to a configuration, Simlets require you to both analyze working networks and networks with problems, correlating show command output with your knowledge of networking theory and configuration commands.

What's on the CCNA Exam(s)?

Ever since I was in grade school, whenever the teacher announced that we were having a test soon, someone would always ask, "What's on the test?" Even in college, people would try to get more information about what would be on the exams. At heart, the goal is to know what to study hard, what to study a little, and what not to study.

Cisco does want the public to know both the variety of topics, and an idea about the kinds of knowledge and skills required for each topic, for every Cisco certification exam. To that end, Cisco publishes a set of exam objectives for each exam. The objectives list the specific topics, like IP addressing, RIP, and VLANs. The objectives also imply the kinds of skills required for that topic. For example, one objective might start with "Describe..." and another might begin with "Describe, configure, and troubleshoot...." The second objective clearly states that you need a thorough and deep understanding of that topic. By listing the topics and skill level, Cisco helps us all prepare for its exams.

While the exam objectives are helpful, keep in mind that Cisco adds a disclaimer that the posted exam topics for all its certification exams are guidelines. Cisco makes the effort to keep the exam questions within the confines of the stated exam objectives, and I know from talking to those involved that every question is analyzed for whether it fits within the stated exam topics.

ICND1 Exam Topics

Table I-1 lists the exam topics for the ICND1 exam, with the ICND2 exam topics following in Table I-2. Although the posted exam topics are not numbered at Cisco.com, Cisco Press does number the exam topics for easier reference. The table also notes the book parts in which each exam topic is covered. Because the exam topics might change over time, double-check the exam topics as listed on Cisco.com (specifically, http://www.cisco.com/go/ccna). If Cisco does happen to add exam topics at a later date, note that Appendix C of this book describes how to go to http://www.ciscopress.com and download additional information about those newly added topics.

NOTE - The table includes gray highlights that will be explained in the upcoming section "CCNA Exam Topics."

Table I-1 ICND1 Exam Topics

Reference Number

ICND1 Book Part(s) Where Topic Is Covered

Exam Topic

Describe the operation of data networks

1

I

Describe the purpose and functions of various network devices

2

I

Select the components required to meet a given network specification

3

I, II, III

Use the OSI and TCP/IP models and their associated protocols to explain how data flows in a network

4

I

Describe common networking applications including web applications

5

I

Describe the purpose and basic operation of the protocols in the OSI and TCP models

6

I

Describe the impact of applications (Voice Over IP and Video Over IP) on a network

7

I–IV

Interpret network diagrams

8

I–IV

Determine the path between two hosts across a network

9

I, III, IV

Describe the components required for network and Internet communications

10

I–IV

Identify and correct common network problems at layers 1, 2, 3 and 7 using a layered model approach

11

II, III

Differentiate between LAN/WAN operation and features

Implement a small switched network

12

II

Select the appropriate media, cables, ports, and connectors to connect switches to other network devices and hosts

13

II

Explain the technology and media access control method for Ethernet technologies

14

II

Explain network segmentation and basic traffic management concepts

15

II

Explain the operation of Cisco switches and basic switching concepts

16

II

Perform, save and verify initial switch configuration tasks including remote access management

17

II

Verify network status and switch operation using basic utilities (including: ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, ipconfig), SHOW & DEBUG commands

18

II

Implement and verify basic security for a switch (port security, deactivate ports)

19

II

Identify, prescribe, and resolve common switched network media issues, configuration issues, autonegotiation, and switch hardware failures

Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP services to meet network requirements for a small branch office

20

I, III

Describe the need and role of addressing in a network

21

I, III

Create and apply an addressing scheme to a network

22

III

Assign and verify valid IP addresses to hosts, servers, and networking devices in a LAN environment

23

IV

Explain the basic uses and operation of NAT in a small network connecting to one ISP

24

I, III

Describe and verify DNS operation

25

III, IV

Describe the operation and benefits of using private and public IP addressing

26

III, IV

Enable NAT for a small network with a single ISP and connection using SDM and verify operation using CLI and ping

27

III

Configure, verify and troubleshoot DHCP and DNS operation on a router. (including: CLI/SDM)

28

III

Implement static and dynamic addressing services for hosts in a LAN environment

29

III

Identify and correct IP addressing issues

Implement a small routed network

30

I, III

Describe basic routing concepts (including: packet forwarding, router lookup process)

31

III

Describe the operation of Cisco routers (including: router bootup process, POST, router components)

32

I, III

Select the appropriate media, cables, ports, and connectors to connect routers to other network devices and hosts

33

III

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RIPv2

34

III

Access and utilize the router CLI to set basic parameters

35

III

Connect, configure, and verify operation status of a device interface

36

III

Verify device configuration and network connectivity using ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH or other utilities

37

III

Perform and verify routing configuration tasks for a static or default route given specific routing requirements

38

III

Manage IOS configuration files (including: save, edit, upgrade, restore)

39

III

Manage Cisco IOS

40

III

Implement password and physical security

41

III

Verify network status and router operation using basic utilities (including: ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, ipconfig), SHOW & DEBUG commands

Explain and select the appropriate administrative tasks required for a WLAN

42

II

Describe standards associated with wireless media (including: IEEE, WI-FI Alliance, ITU/FCC)

43

II

Identify and describe the purpose of the components in a small wireless network. (including: SSID, BSS, ESS)

44

II

Identify the basic parameters to configure on a wireless network to ensure that devices connect to the correct access point

45

II

Compare and contrast wireless security features and capabilities of WPA security (including: open, WEP, WPA-1/2)

46

II

Identify common issues with implementing wireless networks

Identify security threats to a network and describe general methods to mitigate those threats

47

I

Explain today's increasing network security threats and the need to implement a comprehensive security policy to mitigate the threats

48

I

Explain general methods to mitigate common security threats to network devices, hosts, and applications

49

I

Describe the functions of common security appliances and applications

50

I, II, III

Describe security recommended practices including initial steps to secure network devices

Implement and verify WAN links

51

IV

Describe different methods for connecting to a WAN

52

IV

Configure and verify a basic WAN serial connection

ICND2 Exam Topics

Table I-2 lists the exam topics for the ICND2 (640-816) exam, along with the book parts in CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide in which each topic is covered.

Table I-2 ICND2 Exam Topics

Reference Number

ICND2 Book Part(s) Where Topic Is Covered

Exam Topic

Configure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications

101

I

Describe enhanced switching technologies (including: VTP, RSTP, VLAN, PVSTP, 802.1q)

102

I

Describe how VLANs create logically separate networks and the need for routing between them

103

I

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VLANs

104

I

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot trunking on Cisco switches

105

II

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot interVLAN routing

106

I

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VTP

107

I

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RSTP operation

108

I

Interpret the output of various show and debug commands to verify the operational status of a Cisco switched network

109

I

Implement basic switch security (including: port security, unassigned ports, trunk access, etc.)

Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP Services to meet network requirements in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network

110

II

Calculate and apply a VLSM IP addressing design to a network

111

II

Determine the appropriate classless addressing scheme using VLSM and summarization to satisfy addressing requirements in a LAN/WAN environment

112

V

Describe the technological requirements for running IPv6 (including: protocols, dual stack, tunneling, etc)

113

V

Describe IPv6 addresses

114

II, III

Identify and correct common problems associated with IP addressing and host configurations

Configure and troubleshoot basic operation and routing on Cisco devices

115

III

Compare and contrast methods of routing and routing protocols

116

III

Configure, verify and troubleshoot OSPF

117

III

Configure, verify and troubleshoot EIGRP

118

II, III

Verify configuration and connectivity using ping, traceroute, and telnet or SSH

119

II, III

Troubleshoot routing implementation issues

120

II, III, IV

Verify router hardware and software operation using SHOW & DEBUG commands

121

II

Implement basic router security

Implement, verify, and troubleshoot NAT and ACLs in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network.

122

II

Describe the purpose and types of access control lists

123

II

Configure and apply access control lists based on network filtering requirements

124

II

Configure and apply an access control list to limit telnet and SSH access to the router

125

II

Verify and monitor ACLs in a network environment

126

II

Troubleshoot ACL implementation issues

127

V

Explain the basic operation of NAT

128

V

Configure Network Address Translation for given network requirements using CLI

129

V

Troubleshoot NAT implementation issues

Implement and verify WAN links

130

IV

Configure and verify Frame Relay on Cisco routers

131

IV

Troubleshoot WAN implementation issues

132

IV

Describe VPN technology (including: importance, benefits, role, impact, components)

133

IV

Configure and verify PPP connection between Cisco routers

CCNA Exam Topics

In the previous version of the exams, the CCNA exam covered a lot of what was in the ICND (640-811) exam, plus some coverage of topics in the INTRO (640-821) exam. The new CCNA exam (640-802) covers all the topics on both the ICND1 (640-822) and ICND2 (640-816) exams. One of the reasons for a more balanced coverage in the exams is that some of the topics that used to be in the second exam have been moved to the first exam.

The new CCNA (640-802) exam covers all topics in both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams. The official CCNA 640-802 exam topics, posted at http://www.cisco.com, include all the topics listed in Table I-2 for the ICND2 exam, plus most of the exam topics for the ICND1 exam listed in Table I-1. The only exam topics from these two tables that are not listed as CCNA exam topics are the topics highlighted in gray in Table I-1. However, note that the gray topics are still covered on the CCNA 640-802 exam. Those topics are just not listed in the CCNA exam topics because one of the ICND2 exam topics refers to the same concepts.

ICND1 and ICND2 Course Outlines

Another way to get some direction about the topics on the exams is to look at the course outlines for the related courses. Cisco offers two authorized CCNA-related courses: Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 1 (ICND1) and Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 2 (ICND2). Cisco authorizes Certified Learning Solutions Providers (CLSP) and Certified Learning Partners (CLP) to deliver these classes. These authorized companies can also create unique custom course books using this material, in some cases to teach classes geared toward passing the CCNA exam.

About the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide and CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide

As mentioned earlier, Cisco has separated the content covered by the CCNA exam into two parts: topics typically used by engineers who work in a small enterprise network (ICND1), with the additional topics commonly used by engineers in medium-sized enterprises being covered by the ICND2 exam. Likewise, the Cisco Press CCNA Exam Certification Guide series includes two books for CCNA—CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide and CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide. These two books cover the breadth of topics on each exam, typically to a little more depth than is required for the exams, just to ensure that the books prepare you for the more difficult exam questions.

The following sections list the variety of features in both this book and CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. Both books have the same basic features, so if you are reading both this book and the ICND1 book, you don't need to read the introduction to both books. Also, for those of you who are using both books to prepare for the CCNA 640-802 exam (rather than taking the two-exam option), the end of this introduction lists a suggested reading plan.

Objectives and Methods

The most important and somewhat obvious objective of this book is to help you pass the ICND2 exam or the CCNA exam. In fact, if the primary objective of this book were different, the book's title would be misleading! However, the methods used in this book to help you pass the exams are also designed to make you much more knowledgeable about how to do your job.

This book uses several key methodologies to help you discover the exam topics on which you need more review, to help you fully understand and remember those details, and to help you prove to yourself that you have retained your knowledge of those topics. So, this book does not try to help you pass the exams only by memorization, but by truly learning and understanding the topics. The CCNA certification is the foundation for many of the Cisco professional certifications, and it would be a disservice to you if this book did not help you truly learn the material. Therefore, this book helps you pass the CCNA exam by using the following methods:

  • Helping you discover which exam topics you have not mastered
  • Providing explanations and information to fill in your knowledge gaps
  • Supplying exercises that enhance your ability to recall and deduce the answers to test questions
  • Providing practice exercises on the topics and the testing process through test questions on the CD
Book Features

To help you customize your study time using these books, the core chapters have several features that help you make the best use of your time:

  • "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes: Each chapter begins with a quiz that helps you determine the amount of time you need to spend studying that chapter.
  • Foundation Topics: These are the core sections of each chapter. They explain the protocols, concepts, and configuration for the topics in that chapter.
  • Exam Preparation Tasks: At the end of the Foundation Topics section of each chapter, the Exam Preparation Tasks section lists a series of study activities that should be done at the end of the chapter. Each chapter includes the activities that make the most sense for studying the topics in that chapter. The activities include the following:

    — Key Topics Review: The Key Topics icon is shown next to the most important items in the Foundation Topics section of the chapter. The Key Topics Review activity lists the key topics from the chapter, and the page number. While the contents of the entire chapter could be on the exam, you should definitely know the information listed in each key topic, so these should be reviewed.

    — Complete Tables and Lists from Memory: To help you exercise your memory and memorize some lists of facts, many of the more important lists and tables from the chapter are included in Appendix J on the CD. This document lists only partial information, allowing you to complete the table or list. Appendix K lists the same tables and lists, completed, for easy comparison.

    — Definition of Key Terms: While the exams are unlikely to ask a question like "Define this term," the CCNA exams do require that you learn and know a lot of networking terminology. This section lists the most important terms from the chapter, asking you to write a short definition and compare your answer to the glossary at the end of the book.

    — Command Reference Tables: Some book chapters cover a large amount of configuration and EXEC commands. These tables list the commands introduced in the chapter, along with an explanation. For exam preparation, use them for reference, but also read the tables once when performing the Exam Preparation Tasks to make sure that you remember what all the commands do.

  • CD-based Practice Exam: The companion CD contains an exam engine (from Boson software, http://www.boson.com) that includes a large number of exam-realistic practice questions. You can take simulated ICND2 exams, as well as simulated CCNA exams, with the CD in this book. (You can take simulated ICND1 and CCNA exams with the CD in CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide.)
  • Subnetting Videos: The companion DVD contains a series of videos that show how to calculate various facts about IP addressing and subnetting, in particular using the shortcuts described in this book.
  • Subnetting Practice: CD Appendix D contains a large set of subnetting practice problems, with the answers and with explanations of how the answers were found. This is a great resource to get ready to do subnetting well and fast.
  • CD-based Practice Scenarios: CD Appendix F contains several networking scenarios for additional study. These scenarios describe various networks and requirements, taking you through conceptual design, configuration, and verification. These scenarios are useful for building your hands-on skills, even if you do not have lab gear.
  • Companion Website: The website http://www.ciscopress.com/title/1587201828 posts up-to-the-minute materials that further clarify complex exam topics. Check this site regularly for new and updated postings written by the author that provide further insight into the more troublesome topics on the exam.
How This Book Is Organized

This book contains 18 core chapters—Chapters 1 through 18, with Chapter 18 including some summary materials and suggestions for how to approach the exams. Each core chapter covers a subset of the topics on the ICND2 exam. The core chapters are organized into sections and cover the following topics:

  • Part I: LAN Switching

    — Chapter 1, "Virtual LANs": This chapter explains the concepts and configuration surrounding virtual LANs, including VLAN trunking and VLAN Trunking Protocol.

    — Chapter 2, "Spanning Tree Protocol": This chapter dives deeply into the concepts behind the original Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), as well as the newer Rapid STP (RSTP), including concepts, configuration, and troubleshooting.

    — Chapter 3, "Troubleshooting LAN Switching": This chapter explains some general ideas about how to troubleshoot networking problems, with most of the chapter focusing on the forwarding process used by LAN switches.

  • Part II: IP Routing

    — Chapter 4, "IP Routing: Static and Connected Routes": This chapter examines how routers add both static routes and connected routes to the routing table, while also reviewing the concepts behind how routers route, or forward, packets.

    — Chapter 5, "VLSM and Route Summarization": This chapter explains how IP routing and routing protocols can support the use of different subnet masks in a single classful network (VLSM), as well as the math concepts behind how routers can summarize multiple routes into one routing table entry.

    — Chapter 6, "IP Access Control Lists": This chapter examines how ACLs can filter packets so that a router will not forward the packet. The chapter examines the concepts and configuration for standard and extended ACLs, including named and numbered ACLs.

    — Chapter 7, "Troubleshooting IP Routing": This chapter shows a structured plan for how to isolate problems related to two hosts that should be able to send packets to each other, but cannot. The chapter also includes a variety of tips and tools for helping attack routing problems.

  • Part III: Routing Protocols Configuration and Troubleshooting

    — Chapter 8, "Routing Protocol Theory": This chapter explains the theory behind distance vector and link-state protocols.

    — Chapter 9, "OSPF": This chapter examines OSPF, including more detail about link-state theory as implemented by OSPF, and OSPF configuration.

    — Chapter 10, "EIGRP": This chapter examines EIGRP, including a description of the theory behind EIGRP, as well as EIGRP configuration and verification.

    — Chapter 11, "Troubleshooting Routing Protocols": This chapter explains some of the typical reasons why routing protocols fail to exchange routing information, showing specific examples of common problems with both OSPF and EIGRP.

  • Part IV: Wide-Area Networks

    — Chapter 12, "Point-to-Point WANs": This short chapter reviews the basics of WANs and examines PPP, including CHAP, in more detail.

    — Chapter 13, "Frame Relay Concepts": This chapter focuses on the terminology and theory behind the Frame Relay protocol, including the IP addressing options when using Frame Relay.

    — Chapter 14, "Frame Relay Configuration and Troubleshooting": This chapter shows a variety of configuration options for Frame Relay, including both point-to-point and multipoint subinterfaces. It also explains how to best use show commands to isolate the root cause of common Frame Relay problems.

    — Chapter 15, "Virtual Private Networks": This chapter examines the concepts and protocols used to create secure VPNs over the Internet. This chapter includes the basics of IPsec.

  • Part V: Scaling the IP Address Space

    — Chapter 16, "Network Address Translation": This chapter closely examines the concepts behind the depletion of the IPv4 address space, and how NAT, in particular the Port Address Translation (PAT) option, helps solve the problem. The chapter also shows how to configure NAT on routers using the IOS CLI.

    — Chapter 17, "IP Version 6": This chapter introduces the basics of IPv6, including the 128-bit address format, OSPF and EIGRP support for IPv6, and basic native IPv6 configuration. It also introduces the concept of IPv6 tunneling and migration strategies.

  • Part VI: Final Preparation

    — Chapter 18, "Final Preparation": This chapter suggests a plan for final preparation after you have finished the core parts of the book, in particular explaining the many study options available in the book.

  • Part VII: Appendixes (in Print)

    — Appendix A, "Answers to the 'Do I Know This Already?' Quizzes": Includes the answers to all the questions from Chapters 1 through 17.

    — Appendix B, "Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Table": Lists decimal values 0 through 255, along with the binary equivalents.

    — Appendix C, "ICND2 Exam Updates: Version 1.0": This appendix covers a variety of short topics that either clarify or expand upon topics covered earlier in the book. This appendix is updated from time to time and posted at http://www.ciscopress.com/ccna, with the most recent version available at the time of printing included here as Appendix C. (The first page of the appendix includes instructions on how to check whether a later version of Appendix C is available online.)

    — Glossary: The glossary contains definitions for all the terms listed in the "Definitions of Key Terms" section at the conclusion of Chapters 1–17.

  • Part VII: Appendixes (on CD)

    The following appendixes are available in PDF format on the CD that accompanies this book:

    — Appendix D, "Subnetting Practice": Although not covered in any of the chapters printed in this book, subnetting is easily the most important prerequisite assumed skill for the ICND2 exam. This appendix, as well as Appendixes E, H, and I, include materials from CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide for those of you that bought this book, but not the ICND1 book. In particular, this appendix includes a large number of subnetting practice problems, with the answers listed. The answers use both binary and decimal-shortcut processes described in the ICND1 book's Chapter 12; Appendix H of this book is a duplicate of ICND1's Chapter 12.

    — Appendix E, "Subnetting Reference Pages": This appendix summarizes the process to find the answer to several key subnetting questions, with the details on a single page. The goal is to give you a handy reference page to refer to when practicing subnetting.

    — Appendix F, "Additional Scenarios": One method to improve your troubleshooting and network analysis skills is to examine as many unique network scenarios as is possible, think about them, and then get some feedback as to whether you came to the right conclusions. This appendix provides several such scenarios.

    — Appendix G, "Video Scenario Reference": The DVD includes several subnetting videos that show how to use the processes covered in Appendix H (copied from ICND1's Chapter 12). This appendix contains copies of the key elements from those videos, which can be useful when watching the videos (so that you do not have to keep moving back and forth in the video).

    — Appendix H, "ICND1 Chapter 12: IP Addressing and Subnetting": This appendix is a duplicate of Chapter 12 from CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. This chapter explains IP addressing and subnetting, which is considered prerequisite knowledge for the ICND2 exam. Appendix H is included with this book for those of you who do not have a copy of CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide, but you need to review and learn more about subnetting.

    — Appendix I, "ICND1 Chapter 17: WAN Configuration": This appendix is a duplicate of Chapter 17 from CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. Chapter 12 of this book (ICND2), "Point-to-Point WANs," makes a suggestion to review a few prerequisite points as listed in this chapter. This chapter is included in this book for those of you who do not have a copy of CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide.

    — Appendix J, "Memory Tables": This appendix holds the key tables and lists from each chapter, with some of the content removed. You can print this appendix and, as a memory exercise, complete the tables and lists. The goal is to help you memorize facts that can be useful on the exams.

    — Appendix K, "Memory Tables Answer Key": This appendix contains the answer key for the exercises in Appendix J.

    — Appendix L, "ICND2 Open-Ended Questions": This appendix is a holdover from previous editions of this book. The older edition had some open-ended questions for the purpose of helping you study for the exam, but the newer features make these questions unnecessary. For convenience, the old questions are included here, unedited since the last edition.

How to Use This Book to Prepare for the ICND2 (640-816) Exam

This book was designed with two primary goals in mind: to help you study for the ICND2 exam and to help you study for the CCNA exam by using both this book and the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. Using this book to prepare for the ICND2 exam is straightforward—read each chapter in succession, and follow the study suggestions in Chapter 18, "Final Preparation."

For the core chapters of this book (Chapters 1–17), you do have some choices as to how much of the chapter you read. In some cases, you might already know most of or all the information covered in a given chapter. To help you decide how much time to spend on each chapter, the chapters begin with a "Do I Know This Already?" quiz. If you get all the quiz questions correct, or just miss one question, you might want to skip to the end of the chapter and the "Exam Preparation Tasks" section, and do those activities. Figure I-2 shows the overall plan.

Figure I-2
How to Approach Each Chapter of This Book

When you have completed Chapters 1–17, you can then use the guidance listed in Chapter 18 to detail the rest of the exam preparation tasks. That chapter includes the following suggestions:

  • Check http://www.ciscopress.com for the latest copy of Appendix C, which can include additional topics for study.
  • Practice subnetting using the tools available in the CD appendixes.
  • Repeat the tasks in all chapters' "Exam Preparation Tasks" chapter-ending sections.
  • Review the scenarios in CD Appendix F.
  • Review all the "Do I Know This Already?" questions.
  • Practice the exam using the exam engine.
How to Use These Books to Prepare for the CCNA 640-802 Exam

If you plan to get your CCNA certification using the one-exam option of taking the CCNA 640-802 exam, you can use this book along with CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. If you've not yet bought either book, you can generally get the pair cheaper by buying both books as a two-book set, called the CCNA Certification Library.

These two books were designed to be used together when studying for the CCNA exam. You have two options for the order in which to read the two books. The first and most obvious option is to read the ICND1 book, and then move on to this (ICND2) book. The other option is to read all of ICND1's coverage of one topic area, then read ICND2's coverage of the same topics, and then go back to ICND1 again. Figure I-3 outlines my suggested option for reading the two books.

Figure I-3
Reading Plan When Studying for CCNA Exam

Both reading-plan options have some benefits. Moving back and forth between books can help you to focus on one general topic at a time. However, note that some overlap exists between the two exams, so you find some overlap between the two books as well. From reader comments about the previous edition of these books, those readers who were new to networking tended to do better by completing all of the first book and then moving on to the second, while readers that had more experience and knowledge before starting the books tended to prefer to follow a reading plan like the one shown in Figure I-3.

Note that for final preparation, you can use the final chapter (Chapter 18) of this book, rather than the final preparation chapter (Chapter 18) of the ICND1 book.

In addition to the flow shown in Figure I-3, when studying for the CCNA exam (rather than for the ICND1 and ICND2 exams), you must master IP subnetting before moving on to the IP routing and routing protocol parts (Parts II and III) of this book. This book does not review subnetting or the underlying math in the printed text, assuming that you know how to find the answers. Those ICND2 chapters, particularly Chapter 5 ("VLSM and Route Summarization"), will be much easier to understand if you can easily do the related subnetting math.

For More Information

If you have any comments about the book, you can submit those through Ciscopress.com. Just go to the website, click the Contact Us link, and type in your message.

Cisco might make changes that affect the CCNA certification from time to time. You should always check http://www.cisco.com/go/ccna for the latest details.

The CCNA certification is arguably the most important Cisco certification, with the new CCENT certification possibly surpassing CCNA in the future. CCNA certainly is the most popular Cisco certification, is required for several other certifications, and is the first step in distinguishing yourself as someone who has proven knowledge of Cisco.

CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide is designed to help you attain CCNA certification. This is the CCNA ICND2 certification book from the only Cisco-authorized publisher. We at Cisco Press believe that this book certainly can help you achieve CCNA certification—but the real work is up to you! I trust that your time will be well spent.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Foreword

Introduction

Part I: LAN Switching

Chapter 1 Virtual LANs

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 5

Foundation Topics 9

Virtual LAN Concepts

Trunking with ISL and 802.1Q

ISL

IEEE 802.1Q

ISL and 802.1Q Compared

IP Subnets and VLANs

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)

Normal VTP Operation Using VTP Server and Client Modes

Three Requirements for VTP to Work Between Two Switches

Avoiding VTP by Using VTP Transparent Mode

Storing VLAN Configuration

VTP Versions

VTP Pruning

Summary of VTP Features

VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification

Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface

VLAN Configuration Example 1: Full VLAN Configuration

VLAN Configuration Example 2: Shorter VLAN Configuration

VLAN Trunking Configuration

Controlling Which VLANs Can Be Supported on a Trunk

Trunking to Cisco IP Phones

Securing VLANs and Trunking

VTP Configuration and Verification

Using VTP: Configuring Servers and Clients

Caveats When Moving Away from Default VTP Configuration

Avoiding VTP: Configuring Transparent Mode

Troubleshooting VTP

Determining Why VTP Is Not Currently Working

Problems When Connecting New Switches and Bringing Up Trunks

Avoiding VTP Problems Through Best Practices

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 2 Spanning Tree Protocol

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1d)

The Need for Spanning Tree

What IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree Does

How Spanning Tree Works

The STP Bridge ID and Hello BPDU

Electing the Root Switch

Choosing Each Switch's Root Port

Choosing the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment

Reacting to Changes in the Network

Optional STP Features

EtherChannel

PortFast

STP Security

Rapid STP (IEEE 802.1w)

RSTP Link and Edge Types

RSTP Port States

RSTP Port Roles

RSTP Convergence

Edge-Type Behavior and PortFast

Link-Type Shared

Link-Type Point-to-Point

An Example of Speedy RSTP Convergence

STP Configuration and Verification

Multiple Instances of STP

Configuration Options That Influence the Spanning Tree Topology

The Bridge ID and System ID Extension

Per-VLAN Port Costs

STP Configuration Option Summary

Verifying Default STP Operation

Configuring STP Port Costs and Switch Priority

Configuring PortFast and BPDU Guard

Configuring EtherChannel

Configuring RSTP

STP Troubleshooting

Determining the Root Switch

Determining the Root Port on Nonroot Switches

Determining the Designated Port on Each LAN Segment

STP Convergence

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 3 Troubleshooting LAN Switching

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Generalized Troubleshooting Methodologies

Analyzing and Predicting Normal Network Operation

Data Plane Analysis

Control Plane Analysis

Predicting Normal Operations: Summary of the Process

Problem Isolation

Root Cause Analysis

Real World Versus the Exams

Troubleshooting the LAN Switching Data Plane

An Overview of the Normal LAN Switch Forwarding Process

Step 1: Confirm the Network Diagrams Using CDP

Step 2: Isolate Interface Problems

Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States

The notconnect State and Cabling Pinouts

Interface Speed and Duplex Issues

Step 3: Isolate Filtering and Port Security Problems

Step 4: Isolate VLAN and Trunking Problems

Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs

Access VLANs Not Being Defined or Being Active

Identify Trunks and VLANs Forwarded on Those Trunks

Example: Troubleshooting the Data Plane

Step 1: Verify the Accuracy of the Diagram Using CDP

Step 2: Check for Interface Problems

Step 3: Check for Port Security Problems

Step 4: Check for VLAN and VLAN Trunk Problems

Predicting Normal Operation of the LAN Switching Data Plane

PC1 Broadcast in VLAN 1

Forwarding Path: Unicast from R1 to PC1

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Part II: IP Routing

Chapter 4 IP Routing: Static and Connected Routes

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

IP Routing and Addressing

IP Routing

IP Addressing and Subnetting

IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route

DNS, DHCP, ARP, and ICMP

Fragmentation and MTU

Routes to Directly Connected Subnets

Secondary IP Addressing

Supporting Connected Routes to Subnet Zero

ISL and 802.1Q Configuration on Routers

Static Routes

Configuring Static Routes

The Extended ping Command

Static Default Routes

Default Routes Using the ip route Command

Default Routes Using the ip default-network Command

Default Route Summary

Classful and Classless Routing

Summary of the Use of the Terms Classless and Classful

Classless and Classful Routing Compared

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 5 VLSM and Route Summarization

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

VLSM

Classless and Classful Routing Protocols

Overlapping VLSM Subnets

Designing a Subnetting Scheme Using VLSM

Adding a New Subnet to an Existing Design

VLSM Configuration

Manual Route Summarization

Route Summarization Concepts

Route Summarization Strategies

Sample "Best" Summary on Seville

Sample "Best" Summary on Yosemite

Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks

An Example of Autosummarization

Discontiguous Classful Networks

Autosummarization Support and Configuration

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Read Appendix F Scenarios

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 6 IP Access Control Lists

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Standard IP Access Control Lists

IP Standard ACL Concepts

Wildcard Masks

A Quicker Alternative for Interpreting Wildcard Masks

Standard IP Access List Configuration

Standard IP ACL: Example 1

Standard IP ACL: Example 2

Extended IP Access Control Lists

Extended IP ACL Concepts

Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers

Extended IP ACL Configuration

Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1

Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2

Advances in Managing ACL Configuration

Named IP Access Lists

Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers

Miscellaneous ACL Topics

Controlling Telnet and SSH Access with ACLs

ACL Implementation Considerations

Reflexive Access Lists

Dynamic ACLs

Time-Based ACLs

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Read the Appendix F Scenarios

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 7 Troubleshooting IP Routing

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

The ping and traceroute Commands

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

The ping Command and the ICMP Echo Request and Echo Reply

The Destination Unreachable ICMP Message

The Redirect ICMP Message

The ICMP Time Exceeded Message

The traceroute Command

Troubleshooting the Packet Forwarding Process

Isolating IP Routing Problems Related to Hosts

Isolating IP Routing Problems Related to Routers

Troubleshooting Scenario 1: Forward Route Problem

Troubleshooting Scenario 2: Reverse Route Problem

An Alternative Problem Isolation Process for Steps 3, 4, and 5

Troubleshooting Tools and Tips

Host Routing Tools and Perspectives

Host Troubleshooting Tips

LAN Switch IP Support

show ip route Reference

Interface Status

VLSM Issues

Recognizing When VLSM Is Used

Configuring Overlapping VLSM Subnets

Symptoms with Overlapping Subnets

VLSM Troubleshooting Summary

Discontiguous Networks and Autosummary

Access List Troubleshooting Tips

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Part III: Routing Protocols Configuration and Troubleshooting

Chapter 8 Routing Protocol Theory

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Dynamic Routing Protocol Overview

Routing Protocol Functions

Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols

Comparing IGPs

IGP Routing Protocol Algorithms

Metrics

IGP Comparisons: Summary

Administrative Distance

Distance Vector Routing Protocol Features

The Concept of a Distance and a Vector

Distance Vector Operation in a Stable Network

Distance Vector Loop Prevention

Route Poisoning

Problem: Counting to Infinity over a Single Link

Split Horizon

Poison Reverse and Triggered Updates

Problem: Counting to Infinity in a Redundant Network

The Holddown Process and Holddown Timer

Distance Vector Summary

Link-State Routing Protocol Features

Building the Same LSDB on Every Router

Applying Dijkstra SPF Math to Find the Best Routes

Convergence with Link-State Protocols

Summary and Comparisons to Distance Vector Protocols

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 9 OSPF

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

OSPF Protocols and Operation

OSPF Neighbors

Identifying OSPF Routers with a Router ID

Meeting Neighbors by Saying Hello

Potential Problems in Becoming a Neighbor

Neighbor States

OSPF Topology Database Exchange

Overview of the OSPF Database Exchange Process

Choosing a Designated Router

Database Exchange

Maintaining the LSDB While Being Fully Adjacent

Summary of Neighbor States

Building the IP Routing Table

Scaling OSPF Through Hierarchical Design

OSPF Areas

OSPF Area Design Advantages

OSPF Configuration

OSPF Single-Area Configuration

OSPF Configuration with Multiple Areas

Configuring the OSPF Router ID

OSPF Hello and Dead Timers

OSPF Metrics (Cost)

OSPF Authentication

OSPF Load Balancing

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 10 EIGRP

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

EIGRP Concepts and Operation

EIGRP Neighbors

Exchanging EIGRP Topology Information

Calculating the Best Routes for the Routing Table

Feasible Distance and Reported Distance

Caveats with Bandwidth on Serial Links

EIGRP Convergence

EIGRP Successors and Feasible Successors

The Query and Reply Process

EIGRP Summary and Comparisons with OSPF

EIGRP Configuration and Verification

Basic EIGRP Configuration

EIGRP Metrics, Successors, and Feasible Successors

Creating and Viewing a Feasible Successor Route

Convergence Using the Feasible Successor Route

EIGRP Authentication

EIGRP Maximum Paths and Variance

Tuning the EIGRP Metric Calculation

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 11 Troubleshooting Routing Protocols

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Perspectives on Troubleshooting Routing Protocol Problems

Interfaces Enabled with a Routing Protocol

EIGRP Interface Troubleshooting Example

OSPF Interface Troubleshooting Example

Neighbor Relationships

EIGRP Neighbor Requirements

OSPF Neighbor Requirements

OSPF Neighbor Example 1

OSPF Neighbor Example 2

The MTU Matching Requirement

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Part IV: Wide-Area Networks

Chapter 12 Point-to-Point WANs

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

PPP Concepts

The PPP Protocol Field

PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP)

Looped Link Detection

Enhanced Error Detection

PPP Multilink

PPP Authentication

PPP Configuration

Basic PPP Configuration

CHAP Configuration and Verification

PAP Configuration

Troubleshooting Serial Links

Troubleshooting Layer 1 Problems

Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems

Keepalive Failure

PAP and CHAP Authentication Failure

Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 13 Frame Relay Concepts

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Frame Relay Overview

Frame Relay Standards

Virtual Circuits

LMI and Encapsulation Types

Frame Relay Addressing

Frame Relay Local Addressing

Frame Relay Global Addressing

Network Layer Concerns with Frame Relay

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Per VC

Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: Hybrid Approach

Layer 3 Broadcast Handling

Controlling Speed and Discards in the Frame Relay Cloud

FECN and BECN

The Discard Eligibility (DE) Bit

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Chapter 14 Frame Relay Configuration and Troubleshooting

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Frame Relay Configuration and Verification

Planning a Frame Relay Configuration

A Fully Meshed Network with One IP Subnet

Configuring the Encapsulation and LMI

Frame Relay Address Mapping

Inverse ARP

Static Frame Relay Mapping

A Partially Meshed Network with One IP Subnet Per VC

Assigning a DLCI to a Particular Subinterface

Comments About Global and Local Addressing

Frame Relay Verification

A Partially Meshed Network with Some Fully Meshed Parts

Frame Relay Troubleshooting

A Suggested Frame Relay Troubleshooting Process

Layer 1 Issues on the Access Link (Step 1)

Layer 2 Issues on the Access Link (Step 2)

PVC Problems and Status (Step 3)

Find the Connected Subnet and Outgoing Interface (Steps 3a and 3b)

Find the PVCs Assigned to That Interface (Step 3c)

Determine Which PVC Is Used to Reach a Particular Neighbor (Step 3d)

PVC Status

Subinterface Status

Frame Relay Mapping Issues (Step 4)

End-to-End Encapsulation (Step 5)

Mismatched Subnet Numbers (Step 6)

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Read the Appendix F Scenarios

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 15 Virtual Private Networks

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

VPN Fundamentals

IPsec VPNs

IPsec Encryption

IPsec Key Exchange

IPsec Authentication and Message Integrity

The ESP and AH Security Protocols

IPsec Implementation Considerations

SSL VPNs

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Part V: Scaling the IP Address Space

Chapter 16 Network Address Translation

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Perspectives on IPv4 Address Scalability

CIDR

Route Aggregation for Shorter Routing Tables

IPv4 Address Conservation

Private Addressing

Network Address Translation Concepts

Static NAT

Dynamic NAT

Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation (PAT)

Translating Overlapping Addresses

NAT Configuration and Troubleshooting

Static NAT Configuration

Dynamic NAT Configuration

NAT Overload (PAT) Configuration

NAT Troubleshooting

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Chapter 17 IP Version 6

"Do I Know This Already?" Quiz

Foundation Topics

Global Unicast Addressing, Routing, and Subnetting

Global Route Aggregation for Efficient Routing

Conventions for Representing IPv6 Addresses

Conventions for Writing IPv6 Prefixes

Global Unicast Prefix Assignment Example

Subnetting Global Unicast IPv6 Addresses Inside an Enterprise

Prefix Terminology

IPv6 Protocols and Addressing

DHCP for IPv6

IPv6 Host Address Assignment

The IPv6 Interface ID and EUI-64 Format

Static IPv6 Address Configuration

Stateless Autoconfiguration and Router Advertisements

IPv6 Address Configuration Summary

Discovering the Default Router with NDP

Learning the IP Address(es) of DNS Servers

IPv6 Addresses

Unicast IPv6 Addresses

Multicast and Other Special IPv6 Addresses

Summary of IP Protocols and Addressing

Configuring IPv6 Routing and Routing Protocols

IPv6 Routing Protocols

IPv6 Configuration

IPv6 Transition Options

IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stacks

Tunneling

Translating Between IPv4 and IPv6 with NAT-PT

Transition Summary

Exam Preparation Tasks

Review All the Key Topics

Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory

Definitions of Key Terms

Command Reference to Check Your Memory

Part VI: Final Preparation

Chapter 18 Final Preparation

Tools for Final Preparation

Exam Engine and Questions on the CD

Install the Software from the CD

Activate and Download the Practice Exam

Activating Other Exams

The Cisco CCNA Prep Center

Subnetting Videos, Reference Pages, and Practice Problems

Scenarios

Study Plan

Recall the Facts

Practice Subnetting

Build Troubleshooting Skills Using Scenarios

Use the Exam Engine

Choosing Study or Simulation Mode

Choosing the Right Exam Option

Summary

Part VII: Appendixes

Appendix A Answers to the "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Appendix B Decimal to Binary Conversion Table

Appendix C ICND2 Exam Updates: Version 1.0

Glossary

Index

Part VIII: CD-Only

Appendix D Subnetting Practice

Appendix E Subnetting Reference Pages

Appendix F Additional Scenarios

Appendix G Video Scenario Reference

Appendix H ICND1 Chapter 12: IP Addressing and Subnetting

Appendix I ICND1 Chapter 17: WAN Configuration

Appendix J Memory Tables

Appendix K Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix L ICND2 Open-Ended Questions

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Preface

CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide, Second Edition

Introduction

Congratulations! If you're reading far enough to look at the introduction to this book, you've probably already decided to go for your Cisco certification. If you want to succeed as a technical person in the networking industry, you need to know Cisco. Cisco has a ridiculously high market share in the router and switch marketplace, with more than 80 percent market share in some markets. In many geographies and markets around the world, networking equals Cisco. If you want to be taken seriously as a network engineer, Cisco certification makes perfect sense.

Historically speaking, the first entry-level Cisco certification has been the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification, first offered in 1998. The first three versions of the CCNA certification (1998, 2000, and 2002) required that you pass a single exam to become certified. However, over time, the exam kept growing, both in the amount of material covered and in the difficulty level of the questions. So, for the fourth major revision of the exams, announced in 2003, Cisco continued with a single certification (CCNA), but offered two options for the exams to get certified: a single-exam option and a two-exam option. The two-exam option allowed people to study roughly half of the material, and take and pass one exam, before moving on to the next.

Cisco announced changes to the CCNA certification and exams in June 2007. This announcement includes many changes, most notably:

  • The exams collectively cover a broader range of topics.
  • The exams increase the focus on proving the test taker's skills (as compared with just testing knowledge).
  • Cisco created a new entry-level certification: the Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician (CCENT) certification.

For the current certifications, announced in June 2007, Cisco created the ICND1 (640-822) and ICND2 (640-816) exams, along with the CCNA (640-802) exam. To become CCNA certified, you can pass both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams, or just pass the CCNA exam. The CCNA exam simply covers all the topics on the ICND1 and ICND2 exams, giving you two options for gaining your CCNA certification. The two-exam path gives those people with less experience a chance to study for a smaller set of topics at a time, whereas the one-exam option provides a more cost-effective certification path for those who want to prepare for all the topics at once.

Although the two-exam option will be useful for some certification candidates, Cisco designed the ICND1 exam with a much more important goal in mind. The CCNA certification has grown to the point that it tested knowledge and skills beyond what an entry-level network technician would need to have. Cisco needed a certification that was more reflective of the skills required for entry-level networking jobs. So, Cisco designed its Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices 1 (ICND1) course, and the corresponding ICND1 640-822 exam, to include the knowledge and skills most needed by an entry-level technician in a small enterprise network. And to show that you have the skills required for those entry-level jobs, Cisco created a new certification, CCENT, which is attained by passing the ICND1 exam.

Figure I-1 shows the basic organization of the certifications and the exams used for getting your CCENT and CCNA certifications. (Note that no separate certification exists for passing the ICND2 exam.)

Figure I-1
Cisco Entry-Level Certifications and Exams

As you can see from the figure, while the CCENT certification is available by taking the ICND1 exam, you do not have to first be CCENT certified before getting your CCNA certification—you can choose to just take the CCNA exam and bypass the CCENT certification.

The ICND1 and ICND2 exams cover different sets of topics, with a minor amount of overlap. For example, ICND1 covers IP addressing and subnetting, while ICND2 covers a more complicated use of subnetting called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM), so ICND2 must then cover subnetting to some degree. The CCNA exam covers all the topics covered on both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams.

While the popularity of the CCENT certification cannot be seen until a few years have passed, certainly the Cisco CCNA certification enjoys a position as the most popular entry-level networking certification program. A CCNA certification proves that you have a firm foundation in the most important components of the Cisco product line—namely, routers and switches. It also proves that you have a broad knowledge of protocols and networking technologies.

Format of the CCNA Exams

The ICND1, ICND2, and CCNA exams all follow the same general format. When you get to the testing center and check in, the proctor will give you some general instructions and then take you into a quiet room with a PC. When you're at the PC, you have a few things to do before the timer starts on your exam. For example, you can take a sample quiz, just to get accustomed to the PC and to the testing engine. Anyone who has user-level skills in getting around a PC should have no problems with the testing environment. Additionally, Chapter 18, "Final Preparation," points to a Cisco website at which you can see a demo of the Cisco test engine.

When you start the exam, you are asked a series of questions. You answer a question and then move on to the next question. The exam engine does not let you go back and change your answer. Yes, that's true—when you move on to the next question, that's it for the earlier question.

The exam questions can be in one of the following formats:

  • Multiple-choice (MC)
  • Testlet
  • Drag-and-drop (DND)
  • Simulated lab (Sim)
  • Simlet

The first three types of questions are relatively common in many testing environments. The multiple-choice format simply requires that you point and click a circle beside the correct answer(s). Cisco traditionally tells you how many answers you need to choose, and the testing software prevents you from choosing too many answers. Testlets are questions with one general scenario, with multiple MC questions about the overall scenario. Drag-and-drop questions require you to click and hold the mouse button, move a button or icon to another area, and release the mouse button to place the object somewhere else—typically into a list. So, for some questions, to get the question correct, you might need to put a list of five things into the proper order.

The last two types both use a network simulator to ask questions. Interestingly, the two types allow Cisco to assess two very different skills. First, Sim questions generally describe a problem, and your task is to configure one or more routers and switches to fix the problem. The exam then grades the question based on the configuration you changed or added. Interestingly, Sim questions are the only questions that Cisco (to date) has openly confirmed that partial credit is given.

The Simlet questions might well be the most difficult style of question on the exams. Simlet questions also use a network simulator, but instead of answering the question by changing the configuration, the question includes one or more MC questions. The questions require that you use the simulator to examine the current behavior of a network, interpreting the output of any show commands that you can remember to answer the question. While Sim questions require you to troubleshoot problems related to a configuration, Simlets require you to both analyze working networks and networks with problems, correlating show command output with your knowledge of networking theory and configuration commands.

What's on the CCNA Exam(s)?

Ever since I was in grade school, whenever the teacher announced that we were having a test soon, someone would always ask, "What's on the test?" Even in college, people would try to get more information about what would be on the exams. At heart, the goal is to know what to study hard, what to study a little, and what not to study.

Cisco does want the public to know both the variety of topics, and an idea about the kinds of knowledge and skills required for each topic, for every Cisco certification exam. To that end, Cisco publishes a set of exam objectives for each exam. The objectives list the specific topics, like IP addressing, RIP, and VLANs. The objectives also imply the kinds of skills required for that topic. For example, one objective might start with "Describe..." and another might begin with "Describe, configure, and troubleshoot...." The second objective clearly states that you need a thorough and deep understanding of that topic. By listing the topics and skill level, Cisco helps us all prepare for its exams.

While the exam objectives are helpful, keep in mind that Cisco adds a disclaimer that the posted exam topics for all its certification exams are guidelines. Cisco makes the effort to keep the exam questions within the confines of the stated exam objectives, and I know from talking to those involved that every question is analyzed for whether it fits within the stated exam topics.

ICND1 Exam Topics

Table I-1 lists the exam topics for the ICND1 exam, with the ICND2 exam topics following in Table I-2. Although the posted exam topics are not numbered at Cisco.com, Cisco Press does number the exam topics for easier reference. The table also notes the book parts in which each exam topic is covered. Because the exam topics might change over time, double-check the exam topics as listed on Cisco.com (specifically, http://www.cisco.com/go/ccna). If Cisco does happen to add exam topics at a later date, note that Appendix C of this book describes how to go to http://www.ciscopress.com and download additional information about those newly added topics.


NOTE - The table includes gray highlights that will be explained in the upcoming section "CCNA Exam Topics."

Table I-1 ICND1 Exam Topics

Reference Number

ICND1 Book Part(s) Where Topic Is Covered

Exam Topic

Describe the operation of data networks

1

I

Describe the purpose and functions of various network devices

2

I

Select the components required to meet a given network specification

3

I, II, III

Use the OSI and TCP/IP models and their associated protocols to explain how data flows in a network

4

I

Describe common networking applications including web applications

5

I

Describe the purpose and basic operation of the protocols in the OSI and TCP models

6

I

Describe the impact of applications (Voice Over IP and Video Over IP) on a network

7

I–IV

Interpret network diagrams

8

I–IV

Determine the path between two hosts across a network

9

I, III, IV

Describe the components required for network and Internet communications

10

I–IV

Identify and correct common network problems at layers 1, 2, 3 and 7 using a layered model approach

11

II, III

Differentiate between LAN/WAN operation and features

Implement a small switched network

12

II

Select the appropriate media, cables, ports, and connectors to connect switches to other network devices and hosts

13

II

Explain the technology and media access control method for Ethernet technologies

14

II

Explain network segmentation and basic traffic management concepts

15

II

Explain the operation of Cisco switches and basic switching concepts

16

II

Perform, save and verify initial switch configuration tasks including remote access management

17

II

Verify network status and switch operation using basic utilities (including: ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, ipconfig), SHOW & DEBUG commands

18

II

Implement and verify basic security for a switch (port security, deactivate ports)

19

II

Identify, prescribe, and resolve common switched network media issues, configuration issues, autonegotiation, and switch hardware failures

Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP services to meet network requirements for a small branch office

20

I, III

Describe the need and role of addressing in a network

21

I, III

Create and apply an addressing scheme to a network

22

III

Assign and verify valid IP addresses to hosts, servers, and networking devices in a LAN environment

23

IV

Explain the basic uses and operation of NAT in a small network connecting to one ISP

24

I, III

Describe and verify DNS operation

25

III, IV

Describe the operation and benefits of using private and public IP addressing

26

III, IV

Enable NAT for a small network with a single ISP and connection using SDM and verify operation using CLI and ping

27

III

Configure, verify and troubleshoot DHCP and DNS operation on a router. (including: CLI/SDM)

28

III

Implement static and dynamic addressing services for hosts in a LAN environment

29

III

Identify and correct IP addressing issues

Implement a small routed network

30

I, III

Describe basic routing concepts (including: packet forwarding, router lookup process)

31

III

Describe the operation of Cisco routers (including: router bootup process, POST, router components)

32

I, III

Select the appropriate media, cables, ports, and connectors to connect routers to other network devices and hosts

33

III

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RIPv2

34

III

Access and utilize the router CLI to set basic parameters

35

III

Connect, configure, and verify operation status of a device interface

36

III

Verify device configuration and network connectivity using ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH or other utilities

37

III

Perform and verify routing configuration tasks for a static or default route given specific routing requirements

38

III

Manage IOS configuration files (including: save, edit, upgrade, restore)

39

III

Manage Cisco IOS

40

III

Implement password and physical security

41

III

Verify network status and router operation using basic utilities (including: ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, ipconfig), SHOW & DEBUG commands

Explain and select the appropriate administrative tasks required for a WLAN

42

II

Describe standards associated with wireless media (including: IEEE, WI-FI Alliance, ITU/FCC)

43

II

Identify and describe the purpose of the components in a small wireless network. (including: SSID, BSS, ESS)

44

II

Identify the basic parameters to configure on a wireless network to ensure that devices connect to the correct access point

45

II

Compare and contrast wireless security features and capabilities of WPA security (including: open, WEP, WPA-1/2)

46

II

Identify common issues with implementing wireless networks

Identify security threats to a network and describe general methods to mitigate those threats

47

I

Explain today's increasing network security threats and the need to implement a comprehensive security policy to mitigate the threats

48

I

Explain general methods to mitigate common security threats to network devices, hosts, and applications

49

I

Describe the functions of common security appliances and applications

50

I, II, III

Describe security recommended practices including initial steps to secure network devices

Implement and verify WAN links

51

IV

Describe different methods for connecting to a WAN

52

IV

Configure and verify a basic WAN serial connection

ICND2 Exam Topics

Table I-2 lists the exam topics for the ICND2 (640-816) exam, along with the book parts in CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide in which each topic is covered.

Table I-2 ICND2 Exam Topics

Reference Number

ICND2 Book Part(s) Where Topic Is Covered

Exam Topic

Configure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications

101

I

Describe enhanced switching technologies (including: VTP, RSTP, VLAN, PVSTP, 802.1q)

102

I

Describe how VLANs create logically separate networks and the need for routing between them

103

I

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VLANs

104

I

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot trunking on Cisco switches

105

II

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot interVLAN routing

106

I

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VTP

107

I

Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RSTP operation

108

I

Interpret the output of various show and debug commands to verify the operational status of a Cisco switched network

109

I

Implement basic switch security (including: port security, unassigned ports, trunk access, etc.)

Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP Services to meet network requirements in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network

110

II

Calculate and apply a VLSM IP addressing design to a network

111

II

Determine the appropriate classless addressing scheme using VLSM and summarization to satisfy addressing requirements in a LAN/WAN environment

112

V

Describe the technological requirements for running IPv6 (including: protocols, dual stack, tunneling, etc)

113

V

Describe IPv6 addresses

114

II, III

Identify and correct common problems associated with IP addressing and host configurations

Configure and troubleshoot basic operation and routing on Cisco devices

115

III

Compare and contrast methods of routing and routing protocols

116

III

Configure, verify and troubleshoot OSPF

117

III

Configure, verify and troubleshoot EIGRP

118

II, III

Verify configuration and connectivity using ping, traceroute, and telnet or SSH

119

II, III

Troubleshoot routing implementation issues

120

II, III, IV

Verify router hardware and software operation using SHOW & DEBUG commands

121

II

Implement basic router security

Implement, verify, and troubleshoot NAT and ACLs in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network.

122

II

Describe the purpose and types of access control lists

123

II

Configure and apply access control lists based on network filtering requirements

124

II

Configure and apply an access control list to limit telnet and SSH access to the router

125

II

Verify and monitor ACLs in a network environment

126

II

Troubleshoot ACL implementation issues

127

V

Explain the basic operation of NAT

128

V

Configure Network Address Translation for given network requirements using CLI

129

V

Troubleshoot NAT implementation issues

Implement and verify WAN links

130

IV

Configure and verify Frame Relay on Cisco routers

131

IV

Troubleshoot WAN implementation issues

132

IV

Describe VPN technology (including: importance, benefits, role, impact, components)

133

IV

Configure and verify PPP connection between Cisco routers

CCNA Exam Topics

In the previous version of the exams, the CCNA exam covered a lot of what was in the ICND (640-811) exam, plus some coverage of topics in the INTRO (640-821) exam. The new CCNA exam (640-802) covers all the topics on both the ICND1 (640-822) and ICND2 (640-816) exams. One of the reasons for a more balanced coverage in the exams is that some of the topics that used to be in the second exam have been moved to the first exam.

The new CCNA (640-802) exam covers all topics in both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams. The official CCNA 640-802 exam topics, posted at http://www.cisco.com, include all the topics listed in Table I-2 for the ICND2 exam, plus most of the exam topics for the ICND1 exam listed in Table I-1. The only exam topics from these two tables that are not listed as CCNA exam topics are the topics highlighted in gray in Table I-1. However, note that the gray topics are still covered on the CCNA 640-802 exam. Those topics are just not listed in the CCNA exam topics because one of the ICND2 exam topics refers to the same concepts.

ICND1 and ICND2 Course Outlines

Another way to get some direction about the topics on the exams is to look at the course outlines for the related courses. Cisco offers two authorized CCNA-related courses: Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 1 (ICND1) and Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 2 (ICND2). Cisco authorizes Certified Learning Solutions Providers (CLSP) and Certified Learning Partners (CLP) to deliver these classes. These authorized companies can also create unique custom course books using this material, in some cases to teach classes geared toward passing the CCNA exam.

About the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide and CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide

As mentioned earlier, Cisco has separated the content covered by the CCNA exam into two parts: topics typically used by engineers who work in a small enterprise network (ICND1), with the additional topics commonly used by engineers in medium-sized enterprises being covered by the ICND2 exam. Likewise, the Cisco Press CCNA Exam Certification Guide series includes two books for CCNA— CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide and CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide. These two books cover the breadth of topics on each exam, typically to a little more depth than is required for the exams, just to ensure that the books prepare you for the more difficult exam questions.

The following sections list the variety of features in both this book and CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. Both books have the same basic features, so if you are reading both this book and the ICND1 book, you don't need to read the introduction to both books. Also, for those of you who are using both books to prepare for the CCNA 640-802 exam (rather than taking the two-exam option), the end of this introduction lists a suggested reading plan.

Objectives and Methods

The most important and somewhat obvious objective of this book is to help you pass the ICND2 exam or the CCNA exam. In fact, if the primary objective of this book were different, the book's title would be misleading! However, the methods used in this book to help you pass the exams are also designed to make you much more knowledgeable about how to do your job.

This book uses several key methodologies to help you discover the exam topics on which you need more review, to help you fully understand and remember those details, and to help you prove to yourself that you have retained your knowledge of those topics. So, this book does not try to help you pass the exams only by memorization, but by truly learning and understanding the topics. The CCNA certification is the foundation for many of the Cisco professional certifications, and it would be a disservice to you if this book did not help you truly learn the material. Therefore, this book helps you pass the CCNA exam by using the following methods:

  • Helping you discover which exam topics you have not mastered
  • Providing explanations and information to fill in your knowledge gaps
  • Supplying exercises that enhance your ability to recall and deduce the answers to test questions
  • Providing practice exercises on the topics and the testing process through test questions on the CD

Book Features

To help you customize your study time using these books, the core chapters have several features that help you make the best use of your time:

  • "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes: Each chapter begins with a quiz that helps you determine the amount of time you need to spend studying that chapter.
  • Foundation Topics: These are the core sections of each chapter. They explain the protocols, concepts, and configuration for the topics in that chapter.
  • Exam Preparation Tasks: At the end of the Foundation Topics section of each chapter, the Exam Preparation Tasks section lists a series of study activities that should be done at the end of the chapter. Each chapter includes the activities that make the most sense for studying the topics in that chapter. The activities include the following:
  • — Key Topics Review: The Key Topics icon is shown next to the most important items in the Foundation Topics section of the chapter. The Key Topics Review activity lists the key topics from the chapter, and the page number. While the contents of the entire chapter could be on the exam, you should definitely know the information listed in each key topic, so these should be reviewed.

    — Complete Tables and Lists from Memory: To help you exercise your memory and memorize some lists of facts, many of the more important lists and tables from the chapter are included in Appendix J on the CD. This document lists only partial information, allowing you to complete the table or list. Appendix K lists the same tables and lists, completed, for easy comparison.

    — Definition of Key Terms: While the exams are unlikely to ask a question like "Define this term," the CCNA exams do require that you learn and know a lot of networking terminology. This section lists the most important terms from the chapter, asking you to write a short definition and compare your answer to the glossary at the end of the book.

    — Command Reference Tables: Some book chapters cover a large amount of configuration and EXEC commands. These tables list the commands introduced in the chapter, along with an explanation. For exam preparation, use them for reference, but also read the tables once when performing the Exam Preparation Tasks to make sure that you remember what all the commands do.

  • CD-based Practice Exam: The companion CD contains an exam engine (from Boson software, http://www.boson.com) that includes a large number of exam-realistic practice questions. You can take simulated ICND2 exams, as well as simulated CCNA exams, with the CD in this book. (You can take simulated ICND1 and CCNA exams with the CD in CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide.)
  • Subnetting Videos: The companion DVD contains a series of videos that show how to calculate various facts about IP addressing and subnetting, in particular using the shortcuts described in this book.
  • Subnetting Practice: CD Appendix D contains a large set of subnetting practice problems, with the answers and with explanations of how the answers were found. This is a great resource to get ready to do subnetting well and fast.
  • CD-based Practice Scenarios: CD Appendix F contains several networking scenarios for additional study. These scenarios describe various networks and requirements, taking you through conceptual design, configuration, and verification. These scenarios are useful for building your hands-on skills, even if you do not have lab gear.
  • Companion Website: The website http://www.ciscopress.com/title/1587201828 posts up-to-the-minute materials that further clarify complex exam topics. Check this site regularly for new and updated postings written by the author that provide further insight into the more troublesome topics on the exam.

How This Book Is Organized

This book contains 18 core chapters—Chapters 1 through 18, with Chapter 18 including some summary materials and suggestions for how to approach the exams. Each core chapter covers a subset of the topics on the ICND2 exam. The core chapters are organized into sections and cover the following topics:

  • Part I: LAN Switching
  • — Chapter 1, "Virtual LANs": This chapter explains the concepts and configuration surrounding virtual LANs, including VLAN trunking and VLAN Trunking Protocol.

    — Chapter 2, "Spanning Tree Protocol": This chapter dives deeply into the concepts behind the original Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), as well as the newer Rapid STP (RSTP), including concepts, configuration, and troubleshooting.

    — Chapter 3, "Troubleshooting LAN Switching": This chapter explains some general ideas about how to troubleshoot networking problems, with most of the chapter focusing on the forwarding process used by LAN switches.

  • Part II: IP Routing
  • — Chapter 4, "IP Routing: Static and Connected Routes": This chapter examines how routers add both static routes and connected routes to the routing table, while also reviewing the concepts behind how routers route, or forward, packets.

    — Chapter 5, "VLSM and Route Summarization": This chapter explains how IP routing and routing protocols can support the use of different subnet masks in a single classful network (VLSM), as well as the math concepts behind how routers can summarize multiple routes into one routing table entry.

    — Chapter 6, "IP Access Control Lists": This chapter examines how ACLs can filter packets so that a router will not forward the packet. The chapter examines the concepts and configuration for standard and extended ACLs, including named and numbered ACLs.

    — Chapter 7, "Troubleshooting IP Routing": This chapter shows a structured plan for how to isolate problems related to two hosts that should be able to send packets to each other, but cannot. The chapter also includes a variety of tips and tools for helping attack routing problems.

  • Part III: Routing Protocols Configuration and Troubleshooting
  • — Chapter 8, "Routing Protocol Theory": This chapter explains the theory behind distance vector and link-state protocols.

    — Chapter 9, "OSPF": This chapter examines OSPF, including more detail about link-state theory as implemented by OSPF, and OSPF configuration.

    — Chapter 10, "EIGRP": This chapter examines EIGRP, including a description of the theory behind EIGRP, as well as EIGRP configuration and verification.

    — Chapter 11, "Troubleshooting Routing Protocols": This chapter explains some of the typical reasons why routing protocols fail to exchange routing information, showing specific examples of common problems with both OSPF and EIGRP.

  • Part IV: Wide-Area Networks
  • — Chapter 12, "Point-to-Point WANs": This short chapter reviews the basics of WANs and examines PPP, including CHAP, in more detail.

    — Chapter 13, "Frame Relay Concepts": This chapter focuses on the terminology and theory behind the Frame Relay protocol, including the IP addressing options when using Frame Relay.

    — Chapter 14, "Frame Relay Configuration and Troubleshooting": This chapter shows a variety of configuration options for Frame Relay, including both point-to-point and multipoint subinterfaces. It also explains how to best use show commands to isolate the root cause of common Frame Relay problems.

    — Chapter 15, "Virtual Private Networks": This chapter examines the concepts and protocols used to create secure VPNs over the Internet. This chapter includes the basics of IPsec.

  • Part V: Scaling the IP Address Space
  • — Chapter 16, "Network Address Translation": This chapter closely examines the concepts behind the depletion of the IPv4 address space, and how NAT, in particular the Port Address Translation (PAT) option, helps solve the problem. The chapter also shows how to configure NAT on routers using the IOS CLI.

    — Chapter 17, "IP Version 6": This chapter introduces the basics of IPv6, including the 128-bit address format, OSPF and EIGRP support for IPv6, and basic native IPv6 configuration. It also introduces the concept of IPv6 tunneling and migration strategies.

  • Part VI: Final Preparation
  • — Chapter 18, "Final Preparation": This chapter suggests a plan for final preparation after you have finished the core parts of the book, in particular explaining the many study options available in the book.

  • Part VII: Appendixes (in Print)
  • — Appendix A, "Answers to the 'Do I Know This Already?' Quizzes": Includes the answers to all the questions from Chapters 1 through 17.

    — Appendix B, "Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Table": Lists decimal values 0 through 255, along with the binary equivalents.

    — Appendix C, "ICND2 Exam Updates: Version 1.0": This appendix covers a variety of short topics that either clarify or expand upon topics covered earlier in the book. This appendix is updated from time to time and posted at http://www.ciscopress.com/ccna, with the most recent version available at the time of printing included here as Appendix C. (The first page of the appendix includes instructions on how to check whether a later version of Appendix C is available online.)

    — Glossary: The glossary contains definitions for all the terms listed in the "Definitions of Key Terms" section at the conclusion of Chapters 1–17.

  • Part VII: Appendixes (on CD)
  • The following appendixes are available in PDF format on the CD that accompanies this book:

    — Appendix D, "Subnetting Practice": Although not covered in any of the chapters printed in this book, subnetting is easily the most important prerequisite assumed skill for the ICND2 exam. This appendix, as well as Appendixes E, H, and I, include materials from CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide for those of you that bought this book, but not the ICND1 book. In particular, this appendix includes a large number of subnetting practice problems, with the answers listed. The answers use both binary and decimal-shortcut processes described in the ICND1 book's Chapter 12; Appendix H of this book is a duplicate of ICND1's Chapter 12.

    — Appendix E, "Subnetting Reference Pages": This appendix summarizes the process to find the answer to several key subnetting questions, with the details on a single page. The goal is to give you a handy reference page to refer to when practicing subnetting.

    — Appendix F, "Additional Scenarios": One method to improve your troubleshooting and network analysis skills is to examine as many unique network scenarios as is possible, think about them, and then get some feedback as to whether you came to the right conclusions. This appendix provides several such scenarios.

    — Appendix G, "Video Scenario Reference": The DVD includes several subnetting videos that show how to use the processes covered in Appendix H (copied from ICND1's Chapter 12). This appendix contains copies of the key elements from those videos, which can be useful when watching the videos (so that you do not have to keep moving back and forth in the video).

    — Appendix H, "ICND1 Chapter 12: IP Addressing and Subnetting": This appendix is a duplicate of Chapter 12 from CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. This chapter explains IP addressing and subnetting, which is considered prerequisite knowledge for the ICND2 exam. Appendix H is included with this book for those of you who do not have a copy of CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide, but you need to review and learn more about subnetting.

    — Appendix I, "ICND1 Chapter 17: WAN Configuration": This appendix is a duplicate of Chapter 17 from CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. Chapter 12 of this book (ICND2), "Point-to-Point WANs," makes a suggestion to review a few prerequisite points as listed in this chapter. This chapter is included in this book for those of you who do not have a copy of CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide.

    — Appendix J, "Memory Tables": This appendix holds the key tables and lists from each chapter, with some of the content removed. You can print this appendix and, as a memory exercise, complete the tables and lists. The goal is to help you memorize facts that can be useful on the exams.

    — Appendix K, "Memory Tables Answer Key": This appendix contains the answer key for the exercises in Appendix J.

    — Appendix L, "ICND2 Open-Ended Questions": This appendix is a holdover from previous editions of this book. The older edition had some open-ended questions for the purpose of helping you study for the exam, but the newer features make these questions unnecessary. For convenience, the old questions are included here, unedited since the last edition.

How to Use This Book to Prepare for the ICND2 (640-816) Exam

This book was designed with two primary goals in mind: to help you study for the ICND2 exam and to help you study for the CCNA exam by using both this book and the CCENT/ CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. Using this book to prepare for the ICND2 exam is straightforward—read each chapter in succession, and follow the study suggestions in Chapter 18, "Final Preparation."

For the core chapters of this book (Chapters 1–17), you do have some choices as to how much of the chapter you read. In some cases, you might already know most of or all the information covered in a given chapter. To help you decide how much time to spend on each chapter, the chapters begin with a "Do I Know This Already?" quiz. If you get all the quiz questions correct, or just miss one question, you might want to skip to the end of the chapter and the "Exam Preparation Tasks" section, and do those activities. Figure I-2 shows the overall plan.

Figure I-2
How to Approach Each Chapter of This Book

When you have completed Chapters 1–17, you can then use the guidance listed in Chapter 18 to detail the rest of the exam preparation tasks. That chapter includes the following suggestions:

  • Check http://www.ciscopress.com for the latest copy of Appendix C, which can include additional topics for study.
  • Practice subnetting using the tools available in the CD appendixes.
  • Repeat the tasks in all chapters' "Exam Preparation Tasks" chapter-ending sections.
  • Review the scenarios in CD Appendix F.
  • Review all the "Do I Know This Already?" questions.
  • Practice the exam using the exam engine.

How to Use These Books to Prepare for the CCNA 640-802 Exam

If you plan to get your CCNA certification using the one-exam option of taking the CCNA 640-802 exam, you can use this book along with CCENT/ CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide. If you've not yet bought either book, you can generally get the pair cheaper by buying both books as a two-book set, called the CCNA Certification Library .

These two books were designed to be used together when studying for the CCNA exam. You have two options for the order in which to read the two books. The first and most obvious option is to read the ICND1 book, and then move on to this (ICND2) book. The other option is to read all of ICND1's coverage of one topic area, then read ICND2's coverage of the same topics, and then go back to ICND1 again. Figure I-3 outlines my suggested option for reading the two books.

Figure I-3
Reading Plan When Studying for CCNA Exam

Both reading-plan options have some benefits. Moving back and forth between books can help you to focus on one general topic at a time. However, note that some overlap exists between the two exams, so you find some overlap between the two books as well. From reader comments about the previous edition of these books, those readers who were new to networking tended to do better by completing all of the first book and then moving on to the second, while readers that had more experience and knowledge before starting the books tended to prefer to follow a reading plan like the one shown in Figure I-3.

Note that for final preparation, you can use the final chapter (Chapter 18) of this book, rather than the final preparation chapter (Chapter 18) of the ICND1 book.

In addition to the flow shown in Figure I-3, when studying for the CCNA exam (rather than for the ICND1 and ICND2 exams), you must master IP subnetting before moving on to the IP routing and routing protocol parts (Parts II and III) of this book. This book does not review subnetting or the underlying math in the printed text, assuming that you know how to find the answers. Those ICND2 chapters, particularly Chapter 5 ("VLSM and Route Summarization"), will be much easier to understand if you can easily do the related subnetting math.

For More Information

If you have any comments about the book, you can submit those through Ciscopress.com. Just go to the website, click the Contact Us link, and type in your message.

Cisco might make changes that affect the CCNA certification from time to time. You should always check http://www.cisco.com/go/ccna for the latest details.

The CCNA certification is arguably the most important Cisco certification, with the new CCENT certification possibly surpassing CCNA in the future. CCNA certainly is the most popular Cisco certification, is required for several other certifications, and is the first step in distinguishing yourself as someone who has proven knowledge of Cisco.

CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide is designed to help you attain CCNA certification. This is the CCNA ICND2 certification book from the only Cisco-authorized publisher. We at Cisco Press believe that this book certainly can help you achieve CCNA certification—but the real work is up to you! I trust that your time will be well spent.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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  • Posted November 11, 2009

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    Great for CCNA

    I have used the INCD1 to obtain my CCENT and now using INCD2 to get my CCNA. I found when taking the INCD1 the practice exam on the CD is harder than the actual exam. I am assuming this is the same way for INCD2. I would use this book when trying to get your CCNA because it is made by Cisco Press(the same company that makes the test). There is actually too much information in the book but it is definitly for people who like to truely understand how something works.

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