Read an Excerpt
Welcome to the world of CCNA Voice! As technology continues to evolve, the realm of voice, which was traditionally kept completely separate from data, has now begun to merge with the data network. This brings together two different worlds of people: data technicianshistorically accustomed to working with routers, switches, servers, and the likeand voice technicians, historically accustomed to working with PBX systems, digital handsets, and trunk lines. Regardless of your background, one of the primary goals of the new CCNA Voice certification is to bridge these two worlds together.
In June 2008, Cisco announced new CCNA specialties, including CCNA Security, CCNA Wireless, and CCNA Voice. These certifications, released 10 years after the initial CCNA, represent Cisco's growth into new and emerging industries. Certification candidates can now specialize in specific areas of study. Figure I.1 shows the basic organization of the certifications and exams used to achieve your CCNA Voice certification.
Cisco Certifications and CCNA Voice Certification Path
As you can see from Figure I.1, a traditional CCNA certification is a prerequisite before you venture into the CCNA Voice certification. As of June 2009, the CCNA Voice certification will become a prerequisite before you are able to pursue the Cisco Certified Voice Professional (CCVP) certification. Goals and Methods
The most important and somewhat obvious goal of this book is to help you pass the Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications (IIUC) exam (640-460). In fact, if the primary objective of this book were different, then the book'stitle would be misleading. The methods used in this book to help you pass the IIUC exam are designed to also make you much more knowledgeable about how to do your job.
This book uses several key methodologies to help you discover the exam topics that you need to review in more depth, to help you fully understand and remember those details, and to help you prove to yourself that you have retained your knowledge of those topics. So, this book does not try to help you pass by memorization, but helps you truly learn and understand the topics. The CCNA Voice exam is the foundation for many of the Cisco professional certifications, and it would be a disservice to you if this book did not help you truly learn the material. Therefore, this book will help you pass the CCNA Voice exam by using the following methods:
Helping you discover which test topics you have not mastered
Providing explanations and information to fill in your knowledge gaps
Supplying exercises and scenarios that enhance your ability to recall and deduce the answers to test questions
Providing practice exercises on the topics and the testing process via test questions on the CD-ROM.
In addition, this book uses quite a different style from typical certification-preparation books. The newer Cisco certification exams have adopted a style of testing that essentially says, "If you don't know how to do it, you won't pass this exam." This means that most of the questions on the certification exam will require you to deduce the answer through reasoning or configuration rather than just memorizing facts, figures, or syntax from a book. To accommodate this newer testing style, the authors have written this book as a "real world" explanation of Cisco VoIP topics. Most concepts are explained using real-world examples rather than showing tables full of syntax options and explanations, which are freely available on Cisco.com. As you read through this book, you will definitely get a feeling of, "This is how I can do this," which is exactly what you need for the newer Cisco exams.Who Should Read This Book?
The purpose of this book is twofold. The primary purpose is to tremendously increase your chances of passing the CCNA Voice certification exam. The secondary purpose is to provide the information necessary to deploy a VoIP solution using Cisco Unified Communication Manager Express (CME) or the Smart Business Communications System (SBCS). Cisco's new exam approach provides an avenue to write the book with both a real-world and certification-study approach at the same time. As you read through this book and study the configuration examples and exam tips, you will have a true sense of understanding how you could deploy a VoIP system, while at the same time feeling equipped to pass the CCNA Voice certification exam.Strategies for Exam Preparation
Strategies for exam preparation will vary depending on your existing skills, knowledge, and equipment available. Of course, the ideal exam preparation would consist of building a small voice lab with a Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 2801 Integrated Services Router and Cisco Unity Express capabilities, a switch, and a few IP phones, which you could then use to work through the configurations as you read through this book. However, not everyone has access to this equipment, so the next best step you can take is to read through the chapters in this book, jotting notes down with key concepts or configurations on a separate notepad. Each chapter begins with a "Do I Know This Already?" quiz designed to give you a good idea of the chapter's content and your current understanding of it. In some cases, you might already know most of or all the information covered in a given chapter.
After you have read through the book, have a look at the current exam objectives for the CCNA Voice exam listed on Cisco.com (http://www.cisco.com/certification). If there are any areas shown in the certification exam outline that you would still like to study, find those sections in the book and review them.
When you feel confident in your skills, attempt the practice exam included on the CD with this book. As you work through the practice exam, note the areas where you lack confidence and review those concepts or configurations in the book. After you have reviewed the areas, work through the practice exam a second time and rate your skills. Keep in mind that the more you work through the practice exam, the more familiar the questions will become, so the practice exam will become a less accurate judge of your skills.
After you have worked through the practice exam a second time and feel confident with your skills, schedule the real IIUC (640-460) exam through Vue (http://www.vue.com). You should typically take the exam within a week from when you consider yourself ready to take the exam, so that the information is fresh in your mind.
Keep in mind that Cisco exams are very difficult. Even if you have a solid grasp of the information, there are many other factors that play into the testing environment (stress, time constraints, and so on). If you pass the exam on the first attempt, fantastic! If not, know that this happens commonly. The next time you attempt the exam, you will have a major advantage: you have experienced the exam first-hand. Although future exams may have different questions, the topics and general "feel" of the exam will remain the same. Take some time to study areas from the book where you felt weak on the exam. Retaking the exam the same or following day from your first attempt is a little aggressive; instead, schedule to retake it within a week, while you are still familiar with the content.640-460 IIUC Exam Topics
Table I.1 lists the exam topics for the 640-460 IIUC exam. This table also lists the book parts in which each exam topic is covered.
Table I.1 640-460 IIUC Exam Topics
Chapter Where Topic Is Covered
Describe the components of the Cisco Unified Communications Architecture
Describe the function of the infrastructure in a UC environment
Describe the function of endpoints in a UC environment
Describe the function of the call processing agent in a UC environment
Describe the function of messaging in a UC environment
Describe the function of auto attendants and IVRs in a UC environment
Describe the function of contact center in a UC environment
Describe the applications available in the UC environment, including Mobility, Presence, and Telepresence
Describe how the Unified Communications components work together to create the Cisco Unified Communications Architecture
Describe PSTN components and technologies
Describe the services provided by the PSTN
Describe time division and statistical multiplexing
Describe supervisory, informational, and address signaling
Describe numbering plans
Describe analog circuits
Describe digital voice circuits
Describe PBX, trunk lines, key-systems, and tie lines
Describe VoIP components and technologies
Describe the process of voice packetization
Describe RTP and RTCP
Describe the function of and differences between codecs
Describe H.323, MGCP, SIP, and SCCP signaling protocols
Describe and configure gateways, voice ports, and dial peers to connect to the PSTN and service provider networks
Describe the function and application of a dial plan
Describe the function and application of voice Gateways
Describe the function and application of voice ports in a Gateway
Describe the function and operation of call-legs
Describe and configure voice dial peers
Describe the differences between PSTN and Internet Telephony Service Provider circuits
Describe and configure a Cisco network to support VoIP
Describe the purpose of VLANs in a VoIP environment
Describe the environmental considerations to support VoIP
Configure switched infrastructure to support voice and data VLANs
Describe the purpose and operation of PoE
Identify the factors that impact voice quality
Describe how QoS addresses voice quality issues
Identify where QoS is deployed in the UC infrastructure
Implement UC500 using Cisco Configuration Assistant
Describe the function and operation of Cisco Configuration Assistant
Configure UC500 device parameters
Configure UC500 network parameters
Configure UC500 dial plan and voicemail parameters
Configure UC500 SIP trunk parameters
Configure UC500 voice system features
Configure UC500 user parameters
Implement Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express to support endpoints using CLI
Describe the appropriate software components needed to support endpoints
Describe the requirements and correct settings for DHCP, NTP, and TFTP
Configure DHCP, NTP, and TFTP
Describe the differences between key system and PBX mode
Describe the differences between the different types of ephones and ephone-dns
Configure Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express endpoints
Configure call-transfer per design specifications
Configure voice productivity features, including hunt groups, call park, call pickup, paging groups, and paging/intercom
Configure Music on Hold
Implement voicemail features using Cisco Unity Express
Describe the Cisco Unity Express hardware platforms
Configure the foundational elements required for Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express to support Cisco Unity Express
Describe the features available in Cisco Unity Express
Configure AutoAttendant services using Cisco Unity Express
Configure basic voicemail features using Cisco Unity Express
Although this book could be read cover-to-cover, it is designed to be flexible and allow you to easily move between chapters and sections of chapters to cover just the material that you need more work with. If you do intend to read all the chapters, the order in the book is an excellent sequence to use.
The core chapters, Chapters 1 through 12, cover the following topics:
Chapter 1, "Perspectives on Voice Before Convergence": This chapter discusses what would be known as the traditional telephony world. It begins where the telephone system originally started: analog connectivity. It then moves into the realm of digital connections and considerations and concludes with the primary pieces that you need to know from the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
Chapter 2, "Perspectives on Voice After Convergence": This chapter focuses primarily on the components of a Cisco VoIP network. By breaking down the voice infrastructure into four distinct areas, each component can be categorized and described. These components include endpoints, call processing agents, applications, and network infrastructure devices.
Chapter 3, "Connecting IP Phones to the LAN Infrastructure": This chapter discusses the preparation and base configuration of the LAN infrastructure to support VoIP devices. This preparation includes support for Power over Ethernet (PoE), voice VLANs, a properly configured DHCP scope for VoIP devices, and the Network Time Protocol (NTP).
Chapter 4, "Installing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express": This chapter covers everything you need to know to get Cisco Unified Communication Manager Express (CME) ready to support IP phones. It initially walks through the Cisco Unified CME overview and licensing information, then unpacks the installation and base configuration process.
Chapter 5, "Basic Cisco Unified CME IP Phone Configuration": This chapter focuses on the process to create and assign directory numbers to Cisco IP phones. In addition, the chapter walks through the configuration of IP phone auto-registration, which makes your initial network setup much easier, and the configuration of additional phone parameters such as phone locale and system messages.
Chapter 6, "Configuring Cisco Unified CME Voice Productivity Features": This chapter examines feature after feature supported by the CME router. By the time you're done with this chapter, you'll understand how to configure features such as intercom, paging, call park and pickup, and many others.
Chapter 7, "Gateway and Trunk Concepts": Now that the internal VoIP network is operational through the CME configuration, this chapter examines connections to the outside world through the PSTN or over an IP network. Concepts covered in this chapter include the process of converting voice to packetized format, codec considerations, and trunking methods.
Chapter 8, "Configuring and Verifying Gateways and Trunks": This chapter takes the concepts from Chapter 7 and puts them into configuration action. Topics from this chapter include the configuration of physical voice ports, dial-peer and digit manipulation configuration, and quality of service (QoS).
Chapter 9, "Cisco Unity Express Concepts": This chapter introduces the Cisco Unity Express (CUE), describing the differences between hardware platforms, the software components, and licensing options. The features, functions, and management of the voicemail and auto-attendant applications provided by CUE are explored.
Chapter 10, "Cisco Unity Express Configuration": This chapter discusses the configuration of the Cisco Unity Express platform. It begins with the Cisco Unity Express installation process and walks through configuring Cisco Unity Express global options, mailbox settings, and auto-attendant scripts. The chapter concludes with Cisco Unity Express troubleshooting methods.
Chapter 11, "Introducing the Smart Business Communications System": This chapter introduces the concept of Unified Communications (UC) and explains how the Smart Business Communications System (SBCS) is positioned to deliver UC to the small-medium business (SMB) market. Individual components of the SBCS suite and the most common ways they are deployed are discussed to lay a foundation for implementing the UC500 Series for Small Business.
Chapter 12, "Configuring and Maintaining the UC500 Series for Voice": This chapter discusses the process of provisioning the UC500 Series for Small Business. The chapter begins with a discussion of the UC500's function in the SBCS family, moves into a discussion about the Cisco Configuration Assistant (CCA), and then concludes with step-by-step instructions for deploying and maintaining telephony and voice-mail services on the UC500.
In addition to the 12 main chapters, this book includes tools to help you verify that you are prepared to take the exam. Chapter 13, "Final Preparation," includes guidelines that you can follow in the final days before the exam. Also, the CD-ROM includes quiz questions and memory tables that you can work through to verify your knowledge of the subject matter.
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