CCNP Routing and Switching Quick Reference

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As a final preparation tool providing a review of CCNP exam topics, the CCNP Quick Reference 2/e complements official Cisco curriculum, other books, or other exam preparatory material in a candidates preparation for the four CCNP exams. This concise guide provides you with detailed, graphical-based information, highlighting only the key topics on the latest CCNP exams in a review-style format. This fact-filled Quick Reference allows you to get all-important information at a glance, helping you to focus your study...
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As a final preparation tool providing a review of CCNP exam topics, the CCNP Quick Reference 2/e complements official Cisco curriculum, other books, or other exam preparatory material in a candidates preparation for the four CCNP exams. This concise guide provides you with detailed, graphical-based information, highlighting only the key topics on the latest CCNP exams in a review-style format. This fact-filled Quick Reference allows you to get all-important information at a glance, helping you to focus your study on areas of weakness and to enhance memory retention of important concepts. This book provides a comprehensive final review for candidates taking any of the CCNP exams. It steps through exam objectives one-by-one, providing concise and accurate review for all topics. Using this book, you will be able to easily and effectively review test objectives without having to wade through numerous books and documents for relevant content for final review.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587202841
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 4/15/2010
  • Series: Quick Reference Sheets
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 287
  • Sales rank: 617,480
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Denise Donohue, CCIE No. 9566, is a senior solutions architect for ePlus Technology, a Cisco Gold partner. She works as a consulting engineer, designing networks for ePlus’ customers. Prior to this role, she was a systems engineer for

the data consulting arm of SBC/AT&T. She has co-authored several Cisco Press books in the areas of route/switch and voice. Denise has worked as a Cisco instructor and course director for Global Knowledge and was a network consultant for many years. Her areas of specialization include route/switch, voice, and data center.

Brent Stewart, CCNP®, CCDP®, CCSI, MCSE, is the manager of Connectivity Services at CommScope. He is responsible for designing and managing a largescale worldwide voice, video, and data network. Previously he was a course director for Global Knowledge and participated in the development of BSCI with Cisco and has written and taught extensively on CCNA® and CCNP. Brent lives in Hickory, NC, with his beautiful wife, Karen, and their mischievous children Benjamin, Kaitlyn, Madelyn, and William.

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Planning for Complex Networks 1

Network Design Models 1

Hierarchical Design Model 1

Enterprise Composite Model 2

Cisco Enterprise Architecture 7

SONA and IIN 7

Understanding Routing Protocols 9

Administrative Distance 9

Routing Protocol Characteristics 10

Building the Routing Table 11

Choosing a Route 11

Planning a Routing Implementation 12

Creating an Implementation Plan 12

Creating Implementation Documentation 13

Chapter 2 EIGRP 14

EIGRP Overview 14

EIGRP Messages 15

Packet Types 15

Neighbor Discovery and Route Exchange 15

EIGRP Route Selection 16

EIGRP Metric 16

Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) 17

Route Selection Example 18

Planning an EIGRP Implementation 19

Basic EIGRP Configuration 20

Creating an EIGRP Default Route 20

Verify and Troubleshoot EIGRP 21

EIGRP Across a WAN 21

EIGRP over EoMPLS 21

EIGRP over MPLS 22

EIGRP over Frame Relay 23

WAN Bandwidth 24

Customizing the EIGRP Configuration 25

Passive Interface 25

Unicast Neighbors 25

Summarization 26

Load Balancing 26

EIGRP Authentication 27

EIGRP Scalability 29

EIGRP Stub 29

Active Process Enhancement 30

Graceful Shutdown 30

Chapter 3 OSPF 31

OSPF Overview 31

OSPF Network Structure 31

OSPF Metric 33

Link State Advertisements (LSA) 34

LSA Operation 34

LSDB Overload Protection 34

LSA Types 35

OSPF Operation 35

OSPF Packets 36

OSPF Neighbor Relationships 36

Establishing Neighbors and Exchanging Routes 37

Planning for OSPF 37

Basic OSPF Configuration 38

Router ID 39

Verify and Troubleshoot OSPF 39

OSPF Network Types 40

Designated Routers 41

Nonbroadcast Multiaccess (NBMA) Networks 42

OSPF over Layer 2 and Layer 3 MPLS 42

Advanced OSPF Configuration 42

OSPF Summarization 43

Passive Interface 43

OSPF Default Routes 44

Stub and Not-So-Stubby Areas 44

Virtual Links 45

OSPF Authentication 46

Chapter 4 Optimizing Routing 48

Controlling Routing Updates 48

Route Maps 48

Prefix Lists 52

Distribute Lists 54

Passive Interfaces 54

Using Multiple Routing Protocols 54

Configuring Route Redistribution 55

Seed Metric 55

Administrative Distance 56

Planning Route Redistribution 58

Redistribution Techniques 59

Redistribution Notes 59

Chapter 5 Path Control 61

Using Offset-lists 61

Using IOS IP SLA 62

Policy-Based Routing 64

OER and VRF 66

Chapter 6 BGP and Internet Connectivity 67

Planning an Internet Connection 67

To Route or Not to Route? 67

BGP Route Options 68

Types of ISP Connections 68

BGP Overview 69

BGP Databases 70

BGP Message Types 71

Internal and External BGP 71

BGP Next-Hop Selection 72

BGP Next Hop on a Multiaccess Network 73

BGP Synchronization Rule 73

Configuring BGP 74

BGP Network Command 74

BGP Peering 75

BGP Peering States 75

BGP Path Selection 76

BGP Attributes 76

BGP Path Selection Criteria 77

Influencing BGP Path Selection 78

Filtering BGP Routes 78

BGP Authentication 79

Verifying BGP 80

Chapter 7 Branch Office Connectivity 83

Branch Office Design Considerations 83

Small Branch Office Design 83

Medium Branch Office Design 84

Large Branch Office Design 84

Implementing Branch Offices 84

Verifying Existing Services 85

Configuring a Backup DSL Connection 85

Configuring an IPsec VPN 89

Configuring a Floating Static Route 90

Configuring Dynamic Routing over a GRE Tunnel 90

Load Sharing with EIGRP 92

Chapter 8 Mobile Worker Connectivity 93

Components of a Mobile Worker Solution 94

Implementing a Mobile Worker Solution 95

Chapter 9 IPv6 Introduction 99

IPv6 Addressing 99

Simplifying an IPv6 Address 100

Special Addresses 101

IPv6 Host Addressing 101

IPv6 Routing 104

Static Routing 105

RIPng for IPv6 105

EIGRP for IPv6 106

OSPFv3 107

MP-BGP for IPv6 109

RIPng Redistribution 109

Integrating IPv4 and IPv6 110

Tunneling IPv6 over IPv4 111

Using Address Translation 113

Static NAT-PT 113

Dynamic NAT-PT 113

IPv6 Link Types 114

Point-to-Point Links 114

Point-to-Multipoint Links 115

Multiaccess Links 115

Appendix A Understanding IPsec 117

IPsec Headers 117

Authentication Header 117

Encapsulating Security Payload 118

IPsec Modes 118

Authentication Methods 119

Encryption Methods 119

Symmetric Key Algorithms 119

Asymmetric Key Algorithm 120

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange 120

Key Management 120

Establishing an IPsec VPN 121

Configuring a Site-to-Site VPN Using IOS 121

Configuring an ISAKMP Policy 122

Configuring an IPsec Transform Set 123

Configuring a Crypto ACL 123

Configuring a Crypto Map 124

Applying the Crypto Map to an Interface 124

Configuring an Optional Interface Access List 124

Monitoring and Troubleshooting IPsec VPNs 125

Using GRE with IPsec 125

Configuring a GRE Tunnel Using IOS 126

Appendix B IPv6 Header Format 127


Chapter 1 Campus Network Design 129

The Hierarchical Design Model 129

Core Layer 130

Small Campus Design 131

Medium Campus Design 131

Data Center Design 131

Network Traffic Flow 133

Service-Oriented Network Architecture 134

Planning a Network Implementation 135

Chapter 2 VLAN Implementation 137

VLAN Overview 137

VLAN Planning 139

Creating a VLAN and Assigning Ports 139

Verifying VLAN Configuration 139

VLAN Trunking 141

Configuring a Trunk Link 142

VLANs Allowed on the Trunk 143

Best Practices for Trunking 143

VLAN Trunking Protocol 143

VTP Switch Roles 144

Configuring VTP 145

Verifying and Monitoring VTP 145

Adding a New Switch to a VTP Domain 146

EtherChannels 146

Configuring an EtherChannel 147

Verifying an EtherChannel 148

Troubleshooting VLAN Issues 148

Troubleshooting User Connectivity 148

Troubleshooting Trunking 149

Troubleshooting VTP 149

Chapter 3 Spanning Tree 150

Understanding the Spanning Tree Protocol 150

Spanning Tree Election Criteria 151

STP Election 152

Bridge Protocol Data Units 154

Spanning Tree Port States 155

Per-VLAN Spanning-Tree 155

Configuring Spanning Tree 156

Portfast 156

Rapid Spanning Tree 157

RSTP Port Roles 157

BPDU Differences in RSTP 157

RSTP Fast Convergence 158

Multiple Spanning Tree 159

Spanning Tree Stability Mechanisms 159

UplinkFast 159

BackboneFast 160

BPDU Guard 160

BPDU Filtering 161

Root Guard 161

Unidirectional Link Detection 161

Loop Guard 162

Troubleshooting STP 163

Identifying a Bridging Loop 163

Spanning-Tree Best Practices 164

Chapter 4 InterVLAN Routing 166

InterVLAN Routing Using an External Router 166

InterVLAN Routing Using Multilayer Switches 167

The Layer 2 and Layer 3 Forwarding Process 167

Understanding the Switching Table 168

MLS Interfaces 168

Understanding Switch Forwarding Architectures 170

CEF Switching 170

Configuring and Troubleshooting CEF 171

Chapter 5 Implementing High Availability 173

Components of High Availability 173

Redundancy 173

Technology 173

People 174

Processes 175

Tools 175

Resiliency and High Availability 176

Network Level Resiliency 176

Fast Failover 176

Optimizing Redundancy 177

NSF with SSO 177

Designing for Redundancy 178

Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 Access Design 178

Using Nonchassis Based Access Switches 181

Network Management for High Availability 181

Syslog 182

SNMP 182

IP SLA 183

Chapter 6 First Hop Redundancy 185

Hot Standby Router Protocol 185

HSRP States 186

Configuring HSRP 186

Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol 188

GLBP 189

Planning Router Redundancy Implementation 190

Chapter 7 Campus Network Security 191

MAC Address-Based Attacks 191

MAC Address Flooding 192

Port Security 192

Port-Based Authentication 193

VLAN-Based Attacks 194

Switch Spoofing 194

802.1Q Double-Tagging 195

VACLs 195

Private VLANs 196

Protected Ports 197

Spoof Attacks 197

DHCP Spoofing 198

IP Source Guard 198

ARP Spoofing 198

Securing Your Switch 199

Chapter 8 Voice and Video in a Campus Network 200

VoIP in a Campus Network 201

Preparing the Network for VoIP 202

Voice VLANs 203

QoS for VoIP 204

Configuring VoIP Support on a Switch 206

Video over IP 208

QoS Requirements for Video 208

Chapter 9 Wireless LANs in a Campus Network 210

Cisco Unified Wireless Network 210

Characteristics of Wireless LANs 211

Service Set Identifiers (SSID) 211

WLAN Topologies 211

Client Connectivity 212

Cisco Wireless Network Components 213

Autonomous (Stand-alone) APs 213

Lightweight Access Points 214

Wireless LAN Controllers 215

Hybrid Remote Edge Access Point (H-REAP) 216

Integrating Wireless into the LAN 216

Switch Configuration 217

Planning for a Wireless Implementation 217


Chapter 1 Maintenance 219

Methodology 219

Common Tasks 220

Tools 223

Configurations 223

Other Tools 228

Chapter 2 Troubleshooting Methodology 230

Principles 230

Structured Troubleshooting 231

The Troubleshooting Method 232

Integrating Troubleshooting into Maintenance 233

Chapter 3 Troubleshooting Tools 235

IOS Filtering Tools 235

Output Redirection 242

IOS Troubleshooting Tools 242

Hardware Diagnostics 246

Working with External Tools 249

Packet Sniffing 249

Netflow 250

SNMP and EEM 250

Chapter 4 Troubleshooting Switches 252

Spanning Tree 254

VLANs 257

Switched Virtual Interfaces and InterVLAN routing 258

First-Hop Redundancy 258

Chapter 5 Troubleshooting Routing 261

Network Layer Connectivity 261

Routing Protocols 261


Is the Correct Route Advertised? 262

Is the Correct Route Communicated? 263

Is There a More Desirable Path? 264

OSPF 264

Is the Correct Route Advertised? 264

Is the Correct Route Communicated? 264

Is There a More Desirable Path? 265

BGP 265

Is the Correct Route Advertised? 265

Is the Correct Route Communicated? 266

Is There a More Desirable Path? 266

Route Redistribution 267

Router Performance 268

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting Security Features 270

Troubleshooting Security Features 271

Index 273

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