CCNP Switching Exam Prep with Cdrom

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Includes a comprehensive tutorial on the curriculum objectives for the new CCNP Switching exam (640-504), and all necessary study materials to pass the new CCNP Switching exam. Offers a proven method for in-depth study, review, and real-life practice. Provides all of the overviews, concepts, and terminology necessary to help candidates get up to speed on the new certification as quickly as possible. Provides focused sample exams with skill assessment to help the candidate test ...
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Includes a comprehensive tutorial on the curriculum objectives for the new CCNP Switching exam (640-504), and all necessary study materials to pass the new CCNP Switching exam. Offers a proven method for in-depth study, review, and real-life practice. Provides all of the overviews, concepts, and terminology necessary to help candidates get up to speed on the new certification as quickly as possible. Provides focused sample exams with skill assessment to help the candidate test their knowledge.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781576106891
  • Publisher: Coriolis Value
  • Publication date: 7/28/2000
  • Series: Exam Prep Series
  • Pages: 700
  • Product dimensions: 7.83 (w) x 9.58 (h) x 1.79 (d)

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: The Need for Swithcing

To fully understand the need for switches on a network, you must have a clear understanding of how networks have evolved from their beginnings to where they are now.This chapter will discuss this history, and will show the limitations that exist with traditional local area networks (LANs). We will also examine some of the methods that network designers used to overcome the constraints of these older network topologies. Although traditional network architectures are still being used in corporations all over the world, highbandwidth applications such as video, voice, and the Internet have forced networks to adapt to meet today's challenges. We will also cover the components of the network in depth in this chapter, from repeaters to hubs, routers, and switches. The advantages and disadvantages of each device will be discussed, as well as when they should be used in the network. Last, we will show the different types of switches in use in today's networks. We will describe the various types of switching used on these devices and discuss the challenges involved with this technology.

The first LANs began as a result of the introduction of PCs into the workplace. As more computers were used, a need arose for sharing resources, such as printers or files. These early networks were simple, with a handful of computers and printers and not much more. Before long, however, the increasing numbers of computers, along with applications that could take advantage of the network, pointed out the weaknesses in traditional network designs.

The limitations of traditional Ethernet technology brought forth a number of innovations to the Ethernetprotocol-such as full-duplexing, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet-that have made possible a transition to switches from shared hubs. Because of the limitations to the way networks operated in a shared environment, alternative methods had to be designed to permit the use of bandwidth-intensive applications such as video and voice. Switches are one of these alternative methods. In many respects, switches are relatively simple devices. By design, they require very little configuration to get them up and running. To properly use these devices in your network, though, it's important to have an in-depth knowledge of the issues involved when using switches. This includes knowing the basics of Ethernet technology. To effectively do your job, you need a good grasp of the technology and how it works, as well as the constraints of each type of device you may use in the network. We will cover the basics of Ethernet technology in depth.

The types of devices you use in the network have important implications for network performance. For example, bridges and routers are both devices that network administrators use to extend the capabilities of their networks. Both of them have advantages and disadvantages. Bridges, for example, can easily solve distance limitations and increase the number of stations you can have on a network, but they can have real problems with broadcast traffic. Routers can be used to prevent this problem, but they increase the time it takes to forward the traffic.

This has been the pattern throughout the history of networking. A new product is introduced. Problems are found that limit the product's usefulness. Innovations are made to the product to make it perform better.As we will see in upcoming sections, this pattern began in the earliest days of networking and continues to this day.

Traditional Network Architectures

From the beginning of networking, designers of networks were faced with the limitations of the LAN topologies they were using. Modern-day corporate networks use LAN topologies such as Ethernet,Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) to provide network connectivity. Network designers try to deploy a design that uses the fastest functionality that can be applied to the physical cabling. Although networks have been designed using all these methods, Ethernet LANs have won the battle for market share and remain the dominant type of network in most corporations.

A few years ago, many analysts saw a competing technology, Token Ring, as a technically superior product and a viable alternative to Ethernet. Many installations still have Token-Ring networks, but very few new installations are being done. This is due in part to the fact that Token Ring was basically an IBM product with little support from other vendors, and prices were substantially higher than for its Ethernet counterparts.

FDDI networks share some of the same limitations ofToken Ring. Like Token Ring, it offers excellent benefits in the areas of performance and redundancy. Unfortunately, it has the same limitations of high equipment costs and limited vendor support. FDDI has been used in many organizations to provide a highspeed backbone that could withstand the problems that happen to networks. However, it was not widely embraced by the networking community due to its complexity and high costs.

Ethernet networks, by contrast, are open-standards-based, cost-effective, and have a large base of vendors supporting the products. In addition, a huge number of professionals understand how Ethernet works. Even IBM now recognizes the hold that Ethernet LANs have on the market and supports the technology...

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Table of Contents

Exam Insights xxi
Self-Assessment xxxv
Chapter 1 The Need for Switching 1
A Bit of History 2
Traditional Network Architectures 3
Traditional LANs Limit Productivity 4
Ethernet Technology Basics 4
Repeaters 6
Hubs 6
Bridges 7
Routers 10
Switching 11
Benefits of Switches 11
The 80/20 Rule 13
Switched Ethernet Innovations 13
Switching Methods 15
Types of Switching 17
Internetworking Challenges 18
The Roles of Routers, Switches, and Bridges 19
Chapter 2 Elements of Campus Design 25
Network Design Issues 26
Basic Design Principles 27
Design Factors 27
Hierarchical Network Models 28
Campus Models 29
OSI Model 32
How Communication Occurs between Layers 36
Switching at the OSI Layers 38
Layer 2 Switching 38
Layer 3 Switching 39
Layer 4 Switching 40
Multilayer Switching 41
Network Building Blocks 41
Switch Block 41
Core Block 42
Network Services 42
Backbone Routing Options 43
Chapter 3 Components of Switches 53
Switch Basics 54
Connecting to the Console 54
Types of Switches 56
Functions of ASICs 56
Enhanced Address Recognition Logic 57
Synergy Advanced Multipurpose Bus Arbiter 58
Synergy Advanced Interface and Network Termination 59
Synergy Advanced Gate-Array Engine 59
Phoenix ASIC 59
Cisco Express Forwarding ASIC 60
The Bus and Component Operations 66
Switching Architecture 67
Second Generation Features 69
Dedicated Token Ring 69
High-Speed Links 70
Remote Network Monitoring 70
Broadcast Control 72
Filtering 73
Bridging vs. Routing 73
Source Route Bridging 75
Transparent Bridging 75
Source Route Translational Bridging 76
Source Route Transparent Bridging 76
Source Route Switching 77
Catalyst Processors 77
Line Module Communication Processor 77
Master Communication Processor 78
Network Management Processor 78
Arbiter 78
Local Target Logic 78
Color Blocking Logic 79
ROM Monitor 79
Chapter 4 Choosing A Cisco Switch 85
Chapter Terms 86
Switch Features 86
Core Layer Catalyst Switches 87
Distribution Layer Catalyst Switches 88
Access Layer Catalyst Switches 88
Switch Descriptions and Features 88
Cisco Catalyst 8500 Series 89
Cisco Catalyst 6000 Series 92
Cisco Catalyst 5000 Series 95
Cisco Catalyst 4000 Series 99
Cisco Catalyst 3900 Series 102
Cisco Catalyst 3500 Series XL 105
Cisco Catalyst 3000 Series 107
Cisco Catalyst 2900 Series 108
Cisco Catalyst 2820 Series 113
Cisco Catalyst 1900 114
Chapter 5 Configuring a Cisco Switch 125
Connecting to the Switch Block 127
Media Types 127
Connecting to the Console Port 131
Types of RJ-45 Cabling 132
Connecting the Console to a PC 133
Configuring the Switch 134
Default Configuration 135
Switch Setup Tasks 135
Basic Configuration Tasks for Set/Clear Devices 136
Basic Configuration Tasks for IOS-Based Devices 141
Chapter 6 Advanced Switch Configuration 155
Configuration Tasks for Set/Clear Devices 156
Backing Up and Restoring a Switch's Configuration 157
Upgrading a Switch to a Newer Version of Software 159
Setting Up Logging on a Switch 161
Configuring the Network Time Protocol 163
Setting Up Domain Name Services 165
Connecting a Modem to Your Switch 166
Strengthening Security on a Catalyst Switch 167
Configuration Tasks for Cisco IOS-Based Switches 170
Backing Up and Restoring a Switch's Configuration 171
Upgrading a Switch to a Newer Version of Software 171
Setting Up Logging on a Switch 174
Configuring the Network Time Protocol 176
Setting Up Domain Name Services 177
Connecting a Modem to Your Switch 177
Strengthening Security on a Catalyst Switch 178
Recovering a Lost Password 179
Chapter 7 The Standard Edition IOS 193
The 1900 and 2820 Standard Editions 194
Cisco Catalyst 1900 and 2820 Standard Edition Basic Configuration 196
Chapter 8 Virtual Local Area Networks 225
Introduction to VLANs 226
Scalability Issues 227
Security Issues: Man-in-the-Middle Attacks 228
Frame Tagging and Encapsulation Methods 228
VLAN Components and Standards 231
Dynamic Trunk Protocol 236
VLAN Trunking Protocol 237
Single and Multi-VLAN Configuration 241
Configuring Trunks 243
Configuring Pruning 247
Chapter 9 Redundant Link Management 265
Spanning Tree Algorithm 267
STA and Graph Theory 268
Root Bridge Assignment 269
Designated Ports and Bridges 271
Equal Path Costs 272
Transparent Bridging 273
Bridge Protocol Data Units 274
BPDU Timers 276
Switch Diameter 276
Timer Operations Using Default Values 277
Convergence Time Calculation for STP 278
STP Port States 278
Topology Changes in the Network 281
Configuring Spanning Tree Protocol 281
Set/Clear Command-Based Switch Configuration 282
STP Configuration on CLI-and IOS-Based Switches 284
Redundant Link Management and Scaling 285
Switch and Transparent Bridge Differences 285
Scaling Spanning Tree Protocol 288
Root Bridge Location 288
Assigning Port Costs 290
Configuring Port Priority 291
Setting VLAN Port Priority 292
Default Timers 293
EtherChannel 294
PortFast 297
UplinkFast 298
BackboneFast 300
Chapter 10 Implementing a Switched Network Design 309
Flat Network Topology 310
Network Performance 311
Switched Network Design 101 312
Collision Domains vs. Broadcast Domains 314
Switched Network Bottlenecks 318
Components of Routing VLANs 322
Switch Route Processors 323
InterVLAN Routing Configuration 329
Configuring the Route Switch Module 330
Chapter 11 Multilayer Switching 351
Overview of Multilayer Switching 352
MLS Hardware and Software Requirements 353
Types of Components 353
How MLS Works 354
MLS Traffic Flow 354
MLS Flow Masks 356
Effect of IP Features on MLS 356
IP Access Lists and MLS Interaction 357
Configuring MLS 357
Configure the MLS Route Processor 358
Configure the MLS Switch Engine 361
Monitoring MLS 363
Chapter 12 Hot Standby Routing Protocol 375
Problems to Overcome 376
Proxy ARP 377
Routing Information Protocol 377
ICMP Router Discovery Protocol 377
The Solution 378
The HSRP States 382
Configuring HSRP 383
Basic Configuration of HSRP 384
Enabling HSRP Interface Tracking 386
Show standby Command 387
Debug Command 387
Chapter 13 ATM and Lane 395
Overview of ATM Technology 396
ATM Cell Header 397
ATM Reference Model 398
ATM Addressing 400
Local Area Network Emulation (LANE) 401
LANE Components 402
Integrated Local Management Interface 404
LANE Guidelines 404
How LANE Works 405
Configuring LANE 406
Determining the Default Addresses 406
Configuring the LES/BUS 407
Configuring a LEC for an ELAN 408
Configuring the LECS 410
Setting Up a Restricted ELAN 410
Activating the LECS 411
Chapter 14 IP Multicast 421
IP Multicasting Overview 422
Multimedia Traffic Types 423
Multicasts 425
IP Multicasting Addresses 425
The Multicast IP Structure 426
Mapping Addresses in an IP Multicast Environment 428
Delivery of Multicast Datagrams 428
Internet Group Management Protocol 429
The Join Process 429
IGMP Version 2 429
Time to Live 430
IGMP Protocols 430
Cisco Group Management Protocol 432
Configuring IP Multicast Routing 433
Enable IP Multicasting on a Cisco Router 434
Enable PIM on the Router Interface 434
Configure IGMP on the Router 436
Enable CGMP 437
Chapter 15 Policy Networking 447
Chapter Terms 448
Creating an Access Security Policy 449
Policies at the Core Layer 450
Policies at the Distribution Layer 450
Distribution Layer Policies 450
Access Lists 451
Security at the Access Layer 461
Configuring Passwords 461
Limiting Telnet Access 461
Implementing Privilege Levels 462
Configuring Banner Messages 464
Physical Device Security 464
Port Security 465
VLAN Management 468
Chapter 16 Managing Cisco Switches 477
Overview of Network Management 478
Goals of Network Management 479
Components of Network Management 480
SNMP 480
Remote Network Monitoring (RMON) 481
Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN) 482
Cisco Switch Management 484
Show Commands 484
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) 488
Cisco Works2000 489
CiscoWorks for Windows 494
Chapter 17 Sample Test 503
Chapter 18 Answer Key 523
Appendix A Answers To Review Questions 541
Appendix B Study Resources 561
Appendix C Hexadecimal Conversion 567
Appendix D Internet Multicast Addresses 577
Glossary of Acronyms 591
Glossary of Terms 599
Index 625
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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 27, 2000

    if you care about details, pick a differnt book

    the best thing about this book is that it will test how much you really know about Cisco switches. the technique it uses is that it has an endless number of typos and nearly as many inaccuracies. when you read any section regarding the specifics and details of a switch, check Cisco's site to verify. the test will ask some spec driven questions (regarding which switch can do what and would be best suited given these variables) and if you go strickly by this book, you will answer wrongly. if you have already purchased this book, don't let it be your only resource. oh, BTW, the customer service department is a little on the weak side. i submitted four separate feedbacks, regarding the inacuracies and typos, and never heard, read, or saw any feedback. go for cisco press. if you want to pass and take training and certification seriously.

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