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Overview

This timely volume provides an in-depth treatment of the important concepts for architecting, analyzing, developing, and implementing efficient, secure CDMA cellular networks. CDMA is an attractive technique for wireless access to broadband services and has emerged as the leading technology for today's new mobile communications systems, CDMA Cellular Mobile Communications and Network Security is your complete guide to planning, designing, and securing the efficient CDMA cellular systems.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a technique for wireless access to broadband services that has become widespread in mobile communications systems. Rhee (electrical engineering, Hanyang U., Seoul, Korea) explains the concepts for architecting, analyzing, developing, and implementing CDMA cellular networks. His purpose is to help practicing engineers plan and design an efficient network, and to help graduate students understand the principles underlying spread spectrum cellular systems. Most of the material is based on IS-95. Worked examples with quantitative values are included. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780135984185
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  • Publication date: 12/16/1997
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 7.37 (w) x 9.56 (h) x 1.05 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE: Preface

This book mainly covers topics that can be applied to Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) which is receiving a great deal of attention as a promising technology for future generations of mobile communications systems.


For the cellular industry, selection of the most appropriate access method is a challenging task. CDMA is an attractive technique for wireless access to broadband services. To meet this challenge, we have to be familiar with the technologies and system architectures on the CDMA digital cellular system.


In the last six years, the wireless (or radio) communications field has changed very rapidly. This book is intended to motivate the reader to further explore this challenging area. In early 1990, QUALCOMM Incorporated of San Diego, California, pioneered to introduce the intensive system concepts and the innovative implementation approaches on CDMA spread spectrum digital cellular systems. This CDMA system was standardized and is known as the IS-95 standard of the Telecommunications Industry Association and the Electronic Industries Association (TIA/EIA/IS-95).


A comprehensive analytical treatment is given for helping practicing engineers in planning and designing an efficient CDMA cellular network. It is also designed for graduate students to study the principles underlying spread spectrum cellular systems. Most materials, particularly CDMA channel structures, presented in this text are the embodiment of many of the principles and system architectures from IS-95.


Numerous worked-out examples contained within the book are presented by quantitative values in order for the beginnerto better understand the CDMA cellular system. The following is a summary of the contents of each chapter.


Chapter 1 presents a general overview of the CDMA digital cellular system which is simply explained in terms of modulation and multiple access based on spread spectrum communications.


Chapter 2 introduces fundamental and practical elements essentially required for CDMA channel operation.


Chapters 3 and 4 cover the overall structures of CDMA channel in detail and discuss their characteristics and functions. The forward CDMA channel consists of the pilot, sync, paging, and forward traffic channels. The pilot channel is an unmodulated, direct-sequence spread spectrum signal transmitted at all times by each CDMA base station. The mobile station monitors the pilot channel to acquire the timing of the forward CDMA channel and provides a phase reference for coherent demodulation. The sync channel transports the synchronization message to the mobile station in order to acquire initial time synchronization. The paging channel is also an encoded, interleaved, spread and modulated spread spectrum signal used for transmission of control information and pages from a base station to a mobile station. The forward traffic channel is used for the transmission of user and signaling traffic from the base station to a specific mobile station during a call. Each of these code channels except the pilot channel is convolutionally encoded, block interleaved, orthogonally spread by the appropriate Walsh function and is then spread by a quadrature pair of pilot PN sequences at a fixed chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps.


Data scrambling applies to the paging channel and the forward traffic channel as well. Data scrambling is performed on the block interleaver output at the modulation symbol rate 19.2 ksps. Data scrambling is accomplished by performing the modulo-2 addition of the interleaver output with decimated binary value of the long code. The long code is a PN sequence with period 242Ð1 that is used for scrambling on the forward CDMA channel (i.e., paging and forward traffic channels) and spreading on the reverse CDMA channel (i.e., access and reverse traffic channels). The reverse CDMA channel is composed of the access channels and reverse traffic channels. All data transmitted on the reverse CDMA channel are convolutionally encoded, block interleaved, orthogonally modulated by the 64-ary Walsh functions and direct-sequence spread by the long code chips prior to transmission. The data burst randomizer is used in the reverse traffic channel which generates a masking pattern of 0s and 1s that randomly masks out the redundant data generated by the code repetition.


Chapters 5 and 6 describe call processing of CDMA code channels, based on the Qualcomm system, including handoff procedures.


Chapter 7 presents a brief survey of one-way hash functions and message digest. One-way functions are a fundamental building block for most of the protocols for either conventional symmetric algorithm or public-key cryptography. A one-way hash function is relatively easy to compute but significantly harder to reverse. Hash code algorithms for authentication data are listed systematically.


Chapter 8 presents authentication and message privacy. The scope of analysis deals with numerous techniques for computation of 18-bit hash codes from the 152-bit message block for CDMA cellular systems. The mobile station operates in conjunction with the base station to authenticate the identity of the mobile station. Authentication is the process by which information is exchanged between a mobile station and base station for the purpose of confirming the identity of the mobile station. A successful outcome of the authentication process occurs only when it can be demonstrated that the mobile station and base station process identical sets of shared secret data (SSD). SSD is a 128-bit shared secret data to be stored in semi-permanent memory in the mobile station. SSD is divided into two distinct subsets: SSD-A and SSD-B. SSD-A is used to support the authentication procedure; and SSD-B is used for supporting voice privacy and message confidentiality. The SSD update procedure is completely explained to compute SSD-A-NEW and SSD-B-NEW as the SSD-generated output. It also includes signaling message encryption and network security.


Chapters 9 and 10 deal with Wideband CDMA links based on JTC (AIR)/95. Data rates of the reverse and forward information channels are 64, 32, or 16 kbps; PN chip rate is 4.096 Mcps; and the symbol rate is 64 ksps.


Chapter 9 presents the reverse W-CDMA channel which is the communication link from the personal station to the base station. The reverse W-CDMA channel is composed of the access channel and reverse traffic channels. The access channel consists of the reverse pilot channel and reverse access channel. The reverse traffic channel consists of three different channels: the reverse pilot, information, and signaling channels. All data transmitted on the reverse traffic channel are convolutionally encoded, interleaved, and modulated by direct-sequence spreading prior to transmission. In Chapter 10, the forward W-CDMA channel consists of one pilot channel, one sync channel, up to eight paging channels, and a number of forward traffic channels (i.e., forward information and signaling channels). Each of these code channels is orthogonally spread by the appropriate Walsh code and is then spread by a pilot PN sequence at a fixed chip rate of 4.096 Mcps. The forward signaling channel of the forward traffic channel is convolutionally encoded, block interleaved, orthogonally spread with a Walsh function, quadrature modulated by a pilot PN sequence at a fixed chip rate of 4.096 Mcps, filtered, and finally transmitted by QPSK waveform.


This book may be considered a fundamental text book on the technical aspects of digital cellular systems for helping further research and development. I hope that the inclusion of a total of 148 problems with complete solutions makes the book more profitable for independent study. It is a real challenge to write this book in the early stage of this very rapidly evolving field. I would like to hear from readers who may find any serious mistakes in this text. Your feedback is sincerely welcome and shall help in improving future editions of this book.


I have benefited from the Qualcomm system which proved a great influence on my selection of CDMA systems covered in this book. I wish to express my special appreciation to Ms. Karen J. Gettman, (Executive Editor-Acquisitions), and Ms. Eileen Clark (Production Editor), Professional, Technical and Reference Division at Prentice Hall, who provided the guidance and support throughout the publishing stages from acquisition to production. I am indebted to Dr. Robert K. Morrow Jr. who provided helpful comments and criticism to evaluate the manuscript at the early stages and Mr. Michael Schiaparelli (Copy Editor) who reviewed the manuscript for general sense and organization, ensuring consistency of usage. Special thanks are due to Dr. Ji Hong Kim for his computer programming of various examples contained in this book. I owe a special thanks to Ms. Shin Jean for word processing the entire manuscript and the revised versions.


Man Young Rhee
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Table of Contents

Preface
Ch. 1 Introduction to Cellular CDMA 1
Ch. 2 Elements Required for CDMA Channel Operation 23
Ch. 3 Reverse CDMA Channel 63
Ch. 4 Forward CDMA Channel 147
Ch. 5 Mobile Station Call Processing 221
Ch. 6 Base Station Call Processing 295
Ch. 7 Brief Survey of One-Way Hash Functions and Message Digest 349
Ch. 8 Authentication, Secrecy, and Identification 355
Ch. 9 Reverse W-CDMA Channel 433
Ch. 10 Forward W-CDMA Channel 463
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Preface

PREFACE: Preface

This book mainly covers topics that can be applied to Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) which is receiving a great deal of attention as a promising technology for future generations of mobile communications systems.


For the cellular industry, selection of the most appropriate access method is a challenging task. CDMA is an attractive technique for wireless access to broadband services. To meet this challenge, we have to be familiar with the technologies and system architectures on the CDMA digital cellular system.


In the last six years, the wireless (or radio) communications field has changed very rapidly. This book is intended to motivate the reader to further explore this challenging area. In early 1990, QUALCOMM Incorporated of San Diego, California, pioneered to introduce the intensive system concepts and the innovative implementation approaches on CDMA spread spectrum digital cellular systems. This CDMA system was standardized and is known as the IS-95 standard of the Telecommunications Industry Association and the Electronic Industries Association (TIA/EIA/IS-95).


A comprehensive analytical treatment is given for helping practicing engineers in planning and designing an efficient CDMA cellular network. It is also designed for graduate students to study the principles underlying spread spectrum cellular systems. Most materials, particularly CDMA channel structures, presented in this text are the embodiment of many of the principles and system architectures from IS-95.


Numerous worked-out examples contained within the book are presented by quantitative values in order for thebeginnerto better understand the CDMA cellular system. The following is a summary of the contents of each chapter.


Chapter 1 presents a general overview of the CDMA digital cellular system which is simply explained in terms of modulation and multiple access based on spread spectrum communications.


Chapter 2 introduces fundamental and practical elements essentially required for CDMA channel operation.


Chapters 3 and 4 cover the overall structures of CDMA channel in detail and discuss their characteristics and functions. The forward CDMA channel consists of the pilot, sync, paging, and forward traffic channels. The pilot channel is an unmodulated, direct-sequence spread spectrum signal transmitted at all times by each CDMA base station. The mobile station monitors the pilot channel to acquire the timing of the forward CDMA channel and provides a phase reference for coherent demodulation. The sync channel transports the synchronization message to the mobile station in order to acquire initial time synchronization. The paging channel is also an encoded, interleaved, spread and modulated spread spectrum signal used for transmission of control information and pages from a base station to a mobile station. The forward traffic channel is used for the transmission of user and signaling traffic from the base station to a specific mobile station during a call. Each of these code channels except the pilot channel is convolutionally encoded, block interleaved, orthogonally spread by the appropriate Walsh function and is then spread by a quadrature pair of pilot PN sequences at a fixed chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps.


Data scrambling applies to the paging channel and the forward traffic channel as well. Data scrambling is performed on the block interleaver output at the modulation symbol rate 19.2 ksps. Data scrambling is accomplished by performing the modulo-2 addition of the interleaver output with decimated binary value of the long code. The long code is a PN sequence with period 242Ð1 that is used for scrambling on the forward CDMA channel (i.e., paging and forward traffic channels) and spreading on the reverse CDMA channel (i.e., access and reverse traffic channels). The reverse CDMA channel is composed of the access channels and reverse traffic channels. All data transmitted on the reverse CDMA channel are convolutionally encoded, block interleaved, orthogonally modulated by the 64-ary Walsh functions and direct-sequence spread by the long code chips prior to transmission. The data burst randomizer is used in the reverse traffic channel which generates a masking pattern of 0s and 1s that randomly masks out the redundant data generated by the code repetition.


Chapters 5 and 6 describe call processing of CDMA code channels, based on the Qualcomm system, including handoff procedures.


Chapter 7 presents a brief survey of one-way hash functions and message digest. One-way functions are a fundamental building block for most of the protocols for either conventional symmetric algorithm or public-key cryptography. A one-way hash function is relatively easy to compute but significantly harder to reverse. Hash code algorithms for authentication data are listed systematically.


Chapter 8 presents authentication and message privacy. The scope of analysis deals with numerous techniques for computation of 18-bit hash codes from the 152-bit message block for CDMA cellular systems. The mobile station operates in conjunction with the base station to authenticate the identity of the mobile station. Authentication is the process by which information is exchanged between a mobile station and base station for the purpose of confirming the identity of the mobile station. A successful outcome of the authentication process occurs only when it can be demonstrated that the mobile station and base station process identical sets of shared secret data (SSD). SSD is a 128-bit shared secret data to be stored in semi-permanent memory in the mobile station. SSD is divided into two distinct subsets: SSD-A and SSD-B. SSD-A is used to support the authentication procedure; and SSD-B is used for supporting voice privacy and message confidentiality. The SSD update procedure is completely explained to compute SSD-A-NEW and SSD-B-NEW as the SSD-generated output. It also includes signaling message encryption and network security.


Chapters 9 and 10 deal with Wideband CDMA links based on JTC (AIR)/95. Data rates of the reverse and forward information channels are 64, 32, or 16 kbps; PN chip rate is 4.096 Mcps; and the symbol rate is 64 ksps.


Chapter 9 presents the reverse W-CDMA channel which is the communication link from the personal station to the base station. The reverse W-CDMA channel is composed of the access channel and reverse traffic channels. The access channel consists of the reverse pilot channel and reverse access channel. The reverse traffic channel consists of three different channels: the reverse pilot, information, and signaling channels. All data transmitted on the reverse traffic channel are convolutionally encoded, interleaved, and modulated by direct-sequence spreading prior to transmission. In Chapter 10, the forward W-CDMA channel consists of one pilot channel, one sync channel, up to eight paging channels, and a number of forward traffic channels (i.e., forward information and signaling channels). Each of these code channels is orthogonally spread by the appropriate Walsh code and is then spread by a pilot PN sequence at a fixed chip rate of 4.096 Mcps. The forward signaling channel of the forward traffic channel is convolutionally encoded, block interleaved, orthogonally spread with a Walsh function, quadrature modulated by a pilot PN sequence at a fixed chip rate of 4.096 Mcps, filtered, and finally transmitted by QPSK waveform.


This book may be considered a fundamental text book on the technical aspects of digital cellular systems for helping further research and development. I hope that the inclusion of a total of 148 problems with complete solutions makes the book more profitable for independent study. It is a real challenge to write this book in the early stage of this very rapidly evolving field. I would like to hear from readers who may find any serious mistakes in this text. Your feedback is sincerely welcome and shall help in improving future editions of this book.


I have benefited from the Qualcomm system which proved a great influence on my selection of CDMA systems covered in this book. I wish to express my special appreciation to Ms. Karen J. Gettman, (Executive Editor-Acquisitions), and Ms. Eileen Clark (Production Editor), Professional, Technical and Reference Division at Prentice Hall, who provided the guidance and support throughout the publishing stages from acquisition to production. I am indebted to Dr. Robert K. Morrow Jr. who provided helpful comments and criticism to evaluate the manuscript at the early stages and Mr. Michael Schiaparelli (Copy Editor) who reviewed the manuscript for general sense and organization, ensuring consistency of usage. Special thanks are due to Dr. Ji Hong Kim for his computer programming of various examples contained in this book. I owe a special thanks to Ms. Shin Jean for word processing the entire manuscript and the revised versions.


Man Young Rhee
Read More Show Less

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