Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments / Edition 7

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This Seventh Edition connects experimental material to key concepts of Cell Biology. The text offers streamlined information that reinforces a connection of key concepts to experimentation. Though the use paired art, and new science illustrations, readers benefit from a visual representation of experimental connections. Animations and video clips are tied to key illustrations with practice questions to provide a variety of ways to experience a key concept. This new edition offers an appropriate balance of concepts and experimentation. Experimental detail is offered when it helps to reinforce the concept being explained.

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Editorial Reviews

Intended for use in the single semester or two-quarter sophomore or junior year university course in cellular and molecular biology, this text presents an experimental approach to the field. Additions to this second edition include increased coverage of immunology, additional segments, and updated illustrations, as well as general editing and condensing. Includes a fairly detailed glossary of key terms and concepts. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
From The Critics
New edition of a text that emphasizes fundamental concepts, such as the relationship between molecular structure and function, the dynamic character of cellular organelles, the mechanisms that regulate cellular activities, as well as the use of chemical energy in running cellular activities and ensuring accurate macromolecular biosynthesis, unity and diversity at the macromolecular and cellular levels. The 18 chapters include new topics such as the use of molecular techniques to discover previously unsuspected prokaryote diversity, energy landscape models of protein unfolding, photoinhibition of the photosynthetic machinery of chloroplasts by bright light, recent insights from the sequencing of the human genome, and other information that has emerged since the last edition. The included CD-ROM contains animations of text illustrations and self tests. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Bruce A. Fenderson, PhD (Thomas Jefferson University)
Description: The author expertly organizes, explains, and illustrates the chemical and cellular basis of life on Earth in this comprehensive and exciting introduction to cell and molecular biology. The 18 fascinating chapters cover topics ranging from control of gene expression to mechanisms of immune response. There is even a chapter on laboratory techniques. The focus of the book is on biological chemistry, with an emphasis on core concepts and experimental approaches.
Purpose: The purpose is to provide a textbook for an introductory course in cell and molecular biology. The author hopes that students will visualize a world filled with "giant molecules and minuscule structures" that constitute the chemistry of life. He encourages students to consider the evidence that is presented to support a biological model, think of alternate explanations, and plan experiments that may lead to new hypotheses. One of the author's goals is to help students develop their independent, critical-thinking skills.
Audience: This is an excellent companion textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in cell and molecular biology. It is written for students across a wide range of life science disciplines including general biology, developmental biology, biochemistry, and biophysics. The author is an outstanding research scientist and highly skilled educator who knows how to communicate effectively.
Features: This updated edition is filled with new micrographs and computer-generated images. The large, glossy pages are visually stimulating. Each chapter includes an outline and brief introduction. Many sections include open-ended review questions to stimulate critical thinking. Color-coded boxes highlight topics of biomedical interest and details regarding important experimental pathways. Each chapter concludes with a short synopsis and a set of analytical questions that probe students' understanding. Chapters include nifty molecular models, sharp electron micrographs, and colorful data that highlight experimental results. A glossary of keywords and references for additional reading appear at the end of the book. The inside front cover lists Nobel prizes for research since 1958. The inside back cover lists topics covered in the book that are of medical interest (e.g., statins, prions, and transplant rejection). The cover artwork provides an important teaching opportunity: beautiful molecular models illustrate the complexity of synaptic membrane vesicles. The textbook comes with a full complement of ancillaries, including online access to quizzes, flash cards, animations, and complete answers to the end-of-chapter analytical questions. Pre-loaded assignments, teaching presentations, virtual meetings, student support, and short tutorials are also available. In brief, the author and publisher have pulled out all the stops to create an excellent learning resource.
Assessment: Readers will experience a sense of awe and wonder with this book. It is polished in every detail, from the cover art to the colorful illustrations and micrographs that highlight current research. This book is the right size and has the right balance of content for an introductory course in cell and molecular biology, comprehensive yet concise. The open-ended questions that accompany each chapter are thought provoking and will help students learn. The emphasis on topics of medical significance will be appreciated by students interested in the health professions. I highly recommend this textbook for students and faculty in the life sciences.
From the Publisher
"This is an excellent textbook for undergraduate students and would make for an excellent course. It could also be used as supplemental text for abnormal psychology for the discussion of assessment tools, an area to which most undergraduate students do not get adequate exposure. Strongly recommended!" (Doody's, November 2010)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118206737
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 1/22/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 864
  • Sales rank: 173,915
  • Product dimensions: 9.50 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Gerald C. Karp received a bachelor’s degree from UCLA and a Ph.D. from the University of Washington. He conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Colorado Medical Center before joining the faculty at the University of Florida. Gerry is the author of numerous research articles on the cell and molecular biology of early development. His interests have included the synthesis of RNA in early embryos, the movement of mesenchyme cells during gas- trulation, and cell determination in slime molds. For 13 years, he taught courses in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology at the University of Florida. During this period, Gerry coauthored a text in developmental biology with N. John Berrill and authored a text in cell and molecular biology. Finding it impossible to carry on life as both full-time professor and author, Gerry gave up his faculty position to concentrate on writing. He hopes to revise this text every three years.
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction to the Study of Cell and Molecular Biology 1

1.1 The Discovery of Cells 2

1.2 Basic Properties of Cells 3

1.3 Two Fundamentally Different Classes of Cells 7

1.4 Viruses 23

2 The Chemical Basis of Life 32

2.1 Covalent Bonds 33

2.2 Noncovalent Bonds 34

2.3 Acids, Bases, and Buffers 39

2.4 The Nature of Biological Molecules 40

2.5 Four Types of Biological Molecules 42

2.6 The Formation of Complex Macromolecular Structures 79

3 Bioenergetics,Enzymes, and Metabolism 86

3.1 Bioenergetics 87

3.2 Enzymes as Biological Catalysts 94

3.3 Metabolism 108

4 The Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane120

4.1 An Overview of Membrane Functions 121

4.2 A Brief History of Studies on Plasma Membrane Structure123

4.3 The Chemical Composition of Membranes 125

4.4 The Structure and Functions of Membrane Proteins 130

4.5 Membrane Lipids and Membrane Fluidity 138

4.6 The Dynamic Nature of the Plasma Membrane 140

4.7 The Movement of Substances Across Cell Membranes 147

4.8 Membrane Potentials and Nerve Impulses 164

5 Aerobic Respiration and the Mitochondrion 178

5.1 Mitochondrial Structure and Function 179

5.2 Oxidative Metabolism in the Mitochondrion 183

5.3 The Role of Mitochondria in the Formation of ATP 189

5.4 Translocation of Protons and the Establishment of aProton-Motive Force 198

5.5 The Machinery for ATP Formation 199

5.6 Peroxisomes 206

6 Photosynthesis and the Chloroplast 211

6.1 Chloroplast Structure and Function 213

6.2 An Overview of Photosynthetic Metabolism 214

6.3 The Absorption of Light 216

6.4 Photosynthetic Units and Reaction Centers 218

6.5 Photophosphorylation 225

6.6 Carbon Dioxide Fixation and the Synthesis of Carbohydrate226

7 Interactions Between Cells and Their Environment235

7.1 The Extracellular Space 236

7.2 Interactions of Cells with Extracellular Materials 244

7.3 Interactions of Cells with Other Cells 250

7.4 Tight Junctions: Sealing The Extracellular Space 260

7.5 Gap Junctions and Plasmodesmata: Mediating IntercellularCommunication 262

Plasmodesmata 265

7.6 Cell Walls 266

8 Cytoplasmic Membrane Systems: Structure, Function, andMembrane Trafficking 270

8.1 An Overview of the Endomembrane System 271

8.2 A Few Approaches to the Study of Endomembranes 273

8.3 The Endoplasmic Reticulum 279

8.4 The Golgi Complex 290

8.5 Types of Vesicle Transport and Their Functions 295

8.6 Lysosomes 303

8.7 Plant Cell Vacuoles 307

8.8 The Endocytic Pathway: Moving Membrane and Materials intothe Cell Interior 308

8.9 Posttranslational Uptake of Proteins by Peroxisomes,Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts 316

9 The Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility 324

9.1 Overview of the Major Functions of the Cytoskeleton 325

9.2 The Study of the Cytoskeleton 326

9.3 Microtubules 330

9.4 Intermediate Filaments 354

9.5 Microfilaments 356

9.6 Muscle Contractility 364

9.7 Nonmuscle Motility 371

10 The Nature of the Gene and the Genome 386

10.1 The Concept of a Gene as a Unit of Inheritance 387

10.2 Chromosomes: The Physical Carriers of the Genes 388

10.3 The Chemical Nature of the Gene 393

10.4 The Structure of the Genome 398

10.5 The Stability of the Genome 406

10.6 Sequencing Genomes: The Footprints of Biological Evolution411

11 Gene Expression: From Transcription to Translation426

11.1 The Relationship between Genes, Proteins, and RNAs 427

11.2 An Overview of Transcription in Both Prokaryotic andEukaryotic Cells 429

11.3 Synthesis and Processing of Eukaryotic Ribosomal andTransfer RNAs 435

11.4 Synthesis and Processing of Eukaryotic Messenger RNAs441

11.5 Small Regulatory RNAs and RNA Silencing Pathways 455

11.6 Encoding Genetic Information 461

11.7 Decoding the Codons: The Role of Transfer RNAs 464

11.8 Translating Genetic Information 468

12 Control of Gene Expression 483

12.1 Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria 484

12.2 Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes: Structure andFunction of the Cell Nucleus 488

12.3 An Overview of Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes 512

12.4 Transcriptional Control 514

12.5 RNA Processing Control 533

12.6 Translational Control 536

12.7 Posttranslational Control: Determining Protein Stability541

13 DNA Replication and Repair 545

13.1 DNA Replication 546

13.2 DNA Repair 564

13.3 Between Replication and Repair 568

14 Cellular Reproduction 572

14.1 The Cell Cycle 573

14.2 M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 581

14.3 Meiosis 602

15 Cell Signaling and Signal Transduction: CommunicationBetween Cells 617

15.1 The Basic Elements of Cell Signaling Systems 618

15.2 A Survey of Extracellular Messengers and Their Receptors621

15.3 G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Their Second Messengers621

15.4 Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation as a Mechanism for SignalTransduction 636

15.5 The Role of Calcium as an Intracellular Messenger 648

15.6 Convergence, Divergence, and Cross-Talk Among DifferentSignaling Pathways 653

15.7 The Role of NO as an Intercellular Messenger 655

15.8 Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) 656

16 Cancer 664

16.1 Basic Properties of a Cancer Cell 665

16.2 The Causes of Cancer 667

16.3 The Genetics of Cancer 669

16.4 New Strategies for Combating Cancer 687

17 The Immune Response 699

17.1 An Overview of the Immune Response 700

17.2 The Clonal Selection Theory as It Applies to B Cells704

17.3 T Lymphocytes: Activation and Mechanism of Action 707

17.4 Selected Topics on the Cellular and Molecular Basis ofImmunity 710

18 Techniques in Cell and Molecular Biology 732

18.1 The Light Microscope 733

18.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy 740

18.3 Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopy 746

18.4 The Use of Radioisotopes 748

18.5 Cell Culture 749

18.6 The Fractionation of a Cell’s Contents byDifferential Centrifugation 752

18.7 Isolation, Purification, and Fractionation of Proteins752

18.8 Determining the Structure of Proteins and MultisubunitComplexes 758

18.9 Fractionation of Nucleic Acids 760

18.10 Nucleic Acid Hybridization 762

18.11 Chemical Synthesis of DNA 764

18.12 Recombinant DNA Technology 764

18.13 Enzymatic Amplification of DNA by PCR 769

18.14 DNA Sequencing 771

18.15 DNA Libraries 773

18.16 DNA Transfer into Eukaryotic Cells and Mammalian Embryos775

18.17 Determining Eukaryotic Gene Function by Gene Eliminationor Silencing 778

18.18 The Use of Antibodies 780

Glossary G-1

Additional Readings A-1

Index I-1

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