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Advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) standard. AMPS is the cellular standard that was developed for use in North America. This type of system operates in the 800-MHz frequency band. AMPS systems have also been deployed in South America, Asia, and Russia.
Code-division multiple access (CDMA). CDMA is an alternative digital cellular standard developed in the United States. No systems of this type are in operation at this time.
Digital AMPS (D-AMPS). D-AMPS [also known as time-division multiple access (TDMA) and/or IS-54] is the digital standard for cellular systems developed for use in theUnited States. The AMPS standard was developed into the D-AMPS digital standard instead of a completely new standard. This was done to quickly provide a means to expand the existing analog systems that were growing at a rapid pace.
DCS1800. DCS1800 is a digital standard based upon the GSM technology, with the exception that this type of system operates at a higher frequency range, 1800 MHz. The DCS1800 technology is intended for use in PCS-type systems. Systems of this type have been installed in Germany and England.
Global System for Mobile communications (GSM). GSM is the European standard for digital cellular systems operating in the 900-MHz band. This technology was developed out of the need for increased service capacity due to the analog system's limited growth. This technology offers international roaming, high speech quality, increased security, and the ability to develop advanced systems features. The development of this technology was completed by a consortium of 80 pan-European countries working together to provide integrated cellular systems across different borders and cultures.
Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) standard. NMT is the cellular standard that was developed by the Nordic countries of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Normandy in 1981. This type of system was designed to operate in the 450- and 900-MHz frequency bands. These are noted as NMT 450 and NMT 900. NMT systems have also been deployed throughout Europe, Asia, and Australia.
Personal communication system (PCS). PCS is a general name given to systems that have recently developed out of the need for more capacity and design flexibility than that provided by the initial cellular systems.
Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) standard. PDC is a digital cellular standard developed by Japan. PDC-type systems were designed to operate in the 800-MHz and 1.5-GHz bands.
Total Access Communications Systems (TACS). TACS is a cellular standard that was derived from the AMPS technology. TACS systems operate in both the 800- and 900-MHz band. The first system of this kind was implemented in England. Later these systems were installed in Europe, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and the Middle East. A variation of this standard was implemented in Japan.
1.1 The Cellular Concept
Cellular radio was a logical progression in the quest to provide additional radio capacity for a geographic area. The cellular system as it is known today has its primary roots in the MTS and IMTS, which are similar to cellular except that no handoff takes place with these networks.
Cellular systems operate on the principle of frequency reuse. Frequency reuse in a cellular market gives a cellular operator the ability to offer higher radio traffic capacity. The higher radio traffic capacity enables many more users in a geographic area to utilize radio communication than are available with an MTS or IMTS system.
The cellular systems are broken into metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), and rural statistical areas (RSAs). Each MSA and RSA has two different cellular operators that offer service. They are referred to as A-band and B-band systems. The A-band system is the nonwireline system and the B-band is the wireline system for the MSA or RSA.
1.2 Generic Cellular System Configuration
A generic cellular system configuration is shown in Fig. 1.1. It involves all the high-level system blocks of a cellular network. Many components comprise each of the blocks shown. Each of the individual system components of a cellular network is covered in later chapters of this book. Referring to Fig. 1.1, the mobile communicates to the cell site through use of radio transmission, which utilize a full duplex configuration that involves a separate transmit and receive frequency used by the mobile and cell site. The cell site transmits on the frequency the mobile unit is tuned to, and the mobile unit transmits on the radio frequency the cell site receiver is tuned to.
The cell site acts as a conduit for the information transfer converting the radio energy into another medium. The cell site sends and receives information from the mobile and the mobile telephone system office (MTSO). The MTSO is connected to the cell site either by leased T1 lines or through a microwave system. The cellular system is made up of many cell sites which all interconnect back to the MTSO.
The MTSO processes the call and connects the cell site radio link to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The MTSO performs a variety of functions involved with call processing and is effectively the brains of the network. The MTSO maintains the individual subscriber records, the current status of the subscribers, call routing, and billing information, to mention a few items.
1.3 Generic MTSO Configuration
Figure 1.2 is a generic mobile telephone switching office configuration. The MTSO is the portion of the network which interfaces the radio world to the public service telephone network. In mature systems there are often multiple MTSO locations, and each MTSO can have several cellular switches located within each building.
1.4 Generic Cell Site Configuration
Figure 1.3 is an example of a generic cell site configuration. The cell site configuration shown in Fig. 1.3 is a picture of a monopole cell site. An equipment but associated with it houses the radio-transmission equipment. The monopole, which is next to the equipment hut, supports the antennas used for the cell site at the very top of the monopole...
|Ch. 1||Cellular Communication||1|
|Ch. 2||Radio Engineering Topics||13|
|Ch. 3||Basic Network Components and Key Concepts||79|
|Ch. 4||RF Design Guidelines||105|
|Ch. 5||Network Design Guidelines||147|
|Ch. 6||RF System Performance and Troubleshooting||167|
|Ch. 7||Network Performance Measurement, Optimization, and Troubleshooting||269|
|Ch. 8||System Documentation and Reports||303|
|Ch. 9||Network and RF Growth Planning||331|
|Ch. 10||Organization and Training||357|