Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets: 2G, 3G and Beyond / Edition 1

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Overview

In this book, the author addresses technologies that are being used in emerging cellular markets. These include GSM/EGPRS and CDMA which are being deployed at a rapid pace, while technologies such as UMTS (3G)/ HSPA (3.5G) which have started to find a place in these high growth markets, are also considered. The book examines other technologies including LTE (3.9G) which have already moved out of research labs into the commercial world. 2G-CDMA is widely used, while further developments, e.g. CDMA2000 are also finding acceptance in the commercial arena. IMS/Convergence is increasingly popular all over the world; UMA, which is deployed mostly in North America; and DVB which is gaining worldwide popularity, especially in South Asia, are all reviewed.

Each chapter discusses a different technology and is structured into three parts. The technology is examined at an overview level, first explaining what the technology is and then considering the technical features of the technology. The chapter concludes by looking at the planning/implementation aspects of the technology.

Key Features:

  • Useful for all cellular industry professionals as provides an overview of the currently deployed technologies in mass scale, and the forthcoming technologies that are expected to make an impact in the future, such as 4th Generation Cellular Networks.
  • One of the first books on the market to encompass all the major cellular technologies, as well as considering the design and implementation perspective.

Wireless Technology will play a key role in uplifting the economies of the Emerging countries globally. Ashok Chandra, Wireless Advisor to Govt. of India

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Useful for all cellular industry professionals as provides an overview of the currently deployed technologies in mass scale, and the forthcoming technologies that are expected to make an impact in the future, such as 4th Generation Cellular Networks." (IP Communication, 31 October 2010)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470779477
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/21/2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 326
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

AJAY RANJAN MISHRA received his M. Tech in Microwave Electronics from University of Delhi in 1997. Since then, he has been working with Nokia Networks and Nokia Siemens Networks. He has been involved not only in the research and development of network designing and optimization for all three generations of the networks, but also in the deployment of these networks globally. He is a founding member of Indian Telecom Standards body GISFI (Global ICT Standards Forum for India) and sits on panels of top institutes and telecom bodies. His current interests are issues related to the design and performance of cellular networks - 3G and Beyond. He has several publications to his credit, including most recently Fundamentals of Cellular Network Planning and Optimisation: 2G/2.5G/3G... Evolution to 4G and Advanced Cellular Network Planning and Optimisation: 2G/2.5G/3G...Evolution to 4G.

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Read an Excerpt

http://catalogimages.wiley.com/images/db/pdf/9780470779477.excerpt.pdf

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Table of Contents

Foreword 1 Role of Technology in Emerging Markets

Foreword 2 Connecting the Unconnected

Preface

Acknowledgements

1 Cellular Technology in Emerging Markets 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 ICT in Emerging Markets 1

1.3 Cellular Technologies 5

1.3.1 First Generation System 5

1.3.2 Second Generation System 6

1.3.3 Third Generation System 6

1.3.4 Fourth Generation System 7

1.4 Overview of Some Key Technologies 7

1.4.1 GSM 7

1.4.2 EGPRS 8

1.4.3 UMTS 8

1.4.4 CDMA 8

1.4.5 HSPA 9

1.4.6 LTE 10

1.4.7 OFDM 10

1.4.8 All IP Networks 11

1.4.9 Broadband Wireless Access 11

1.4.10 IMS 12

1.4.11 UMA 13

1.4.12 DVB-H 13

1.5 Future Direction 14

2 GSM and EGPRS 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 GSM Technology 16

2.2.1 GSM Network 16

2.2.2 Signalling and Interfaces in the GSM Network 22

2.2.3 Channel Structure in the GSM 23

2.3 Network Planning in the GSM Network 25

2.3.1 Network Planning Process 25

2.3.2 Radio Network Planning and Optimization 25

2.3.3 Transmission Network Planning and Optimization 35

2.3.4 Core Network Planning and Optimization 41

2.4 EGPRS Technology 44

2.4.1 EGPRS Network Elements 45

2.4.2 Interfaces in the EGPRS Network 46

2.4.3 Channels in the EGPRS Network 48

2.4.4 Coding Schemes 49

2.5 EGPRS Network Design and Optimization 50

2.5.1 Parameter Tuning 52

3 UMTS 55

3.1 The 3G Evolution-UMTS 55

3.2 UMTS Services and Applications 57

3.2.1 Teleservices 57

3.2.2 Bearer Services 58

3.2.3 Supplementary Services 58

3.2.4 Service Capabilities 58

3.3 UMTS Bearer Service QoS Parameters 59

3.4 QoS Classes 60

3.4.1 Conversational Class 60

3.4.2 Streaming Class 61

3.4.3 Interactive Class 61

3.4.4 Background Class 61

3.5 WCDMA Concepts 62

3.5.1 Spreading and De-Spreading 62

3.5.2 Code Channels 63

3.5.3 Processing Gain 64

3.5.4 Cell Breathing 64

3.5.5 Handover 65

3.5.6 Power Control 66

3.5.7 Channels in WCDMA 66

3.5.8 Rate Matching 67

3.6 ATM 68

3.6.1 ATM Cell 68

3.6.2 Virtual Channels and Virtual Paths 69

3.6.3 Protocol Reference Model 70

3.6.4 Performance of the ATM (QoS Parameters) 72

3.6.5 Planning of ATM Networks 75

3.7 Protocol Stack 76

3.8 WCDMA Network Architecture-Radio and Core 77

3.8.1 Radio Network 78

3.8.2 Core Network 80

3.9 Network Planning in 3G 81

3.9.1 Dimensioning 81

3.9.2 Load Factor 85

3.9.3 Dimensioning in the Transmission and Core Networks 88

3.9.4 Radio Resource Management 89

3.10 Network Optimization 89

3.10.1 Coverage and Capacity Enhancements 92

4 CDMA 95

4.1 Introduction to CDMA 95

4.2 CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access 96

4.3 Spread Spectrum Technique 98

4.3.1 Direct Sequence CDMA 98

4.3.2 Frequency Hopping CDMA 100

4.3.3 Time Hopping CDMA 100

4.4 Codes in CDMA System 100

4.4.1 Walsh Codes 100

4.4.2 PN Codes 101

4.5 Link Structure 102

4.5.1 Forward Link 102

4.5.2 Reverse Link 102

4.6 Radio Resource Management 103

4.6.1 Call Processing 103

4.6.2 Power Control 105

4.6.3 Handoff 107

4.7 Planning a CDMA Network 107

4.7.1 Capacity Planning 107

4.7.2 Parameters in a CDMA Network 109

4.8 CDMA2000 111

4.8.1 CDMA2000 1X 112

4.8.2 CDMA2000 1XEV-DO Technologies 112

4.8.3 Channel Structure in CDMA2000 114

4.8.4 Power Control 115

4.8.5 Soft Handoff 115

4.8.6 Transmit Diversity 115

4.8.7 Security 115

4.8.8 CDMA2000 Network Architecture 115

4.8.9 Key Network Elements (CDMA2000) 116

4.8.10 Interfaces of the CDMA2000 Network 117

4.8.11 Call Set Up Processes 118

4.9 TD-SCDMA 119

4.9.1 Services in TD-SCDMA 122

4.9.2 Network Planning and Optimization 124

5 HSPA and LTE 125

5.1 HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) 125

5.1.1 Introduction to HSPA 125

5.1.2 Standardization of HSPA 125

5.2 HSDPA Technology 125

5.2.1 WCDMA to HSDPA 127

5.2.2 HSDPA Protocol Structure 127

5.2.3 User Equipment 128

5.3 HSDPA Channels 129

5.3.1 HS-DSCH (High Speed Downlink Shared Channel) 129

5.3.2 HS-SCCH (High Speed Shared Control Channel) 129

5.3.3 HS-DPCCH (High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel) 130

5.4 Dimensioning in HSDPA 130

5.5 Radio Resource Management in HSDPA 131

5.5.1 Physical Layer Operations 131

5.5.2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding Scheme 132

5.5.3 Power Control 132

5.5.4 H-ARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest) 132

5.5.5 Fast Packet Scheduling 133

5.5.6 Code Multiplexing 134

5.5.7 Handover 134

5.5.8 Resource Allocation 134

5.5.9 Admission Control 135

5.6 High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) 135

5.6.1 HSUPA Technology 135

5.6.2 HSUPA Protocol Structure 135

5.6.3 HSUPA User Terminal 136

5.7 HSUPA Channels 136

5.7.1 E-DPDCH 136

5.7.2 E-DPCCH 137

5.7.3 E-AGCH 137

5.7.4 E-RGCH 137

5.7.5 E-HICH 138

5.8 HSUPA Radio Resource Management 138

5.8.1 HARQ 138

5.8.2 Scheduling 138

5.8.3 Soft Handover 138

5.9 HSPA Network Dimensioning 139

5.10 LTE (Long Term Evolution) 141

5.10.1 Introduction to LTE 141

5.11 LTE Technology 143

5.11.1 Access Technology 143

5.11.2 LTE Network Architecture 145

5.11.3 Channel Structure 146

5.11.4 LTE Protocol Structure 147

5.12 Radio Resource Management 149

5.13 Security in LTE 149

5.13.1 Network Access Security 150

6 OFDM and All-IP 153

6.1 Introduction to OFDM 153

6.2 OFDM Principles 155

6.2.1 Frequency Division Multiplexing 155

6.2.2 Orthogonality 155

6.2.3 Modulation in OFDM 156

6.2.4 Inter-Symbol and Inter-Carrier Interference 158

6.2.5 Cyclic Prefix 158

6.2.6 Coded OFDM (C-OFDM) 159

6.3 MIMO Technology 159

6.3.1 MIMO System 159

6.3.2 MIMO Mode of Operation 160

6.4 OFDM System 161

6.4.1 OFDM Variants 161

6.5 Design of OFDM Channel 163

6.6 Multi-User OFDM Environment 163

6.7 All-IP Networks 164

6.7.1 Core/IP Network Evolution in Cellular Networks 165

6.7.2 Advantages of All-IP Network 169

6.8 Architecture of All-IP Networks 169

7 Broadband Wireless Access: WLAN, Wi-Fi and WiMAX 173

7.1 Wireless Technology Differentiation 173

7.1.1 Broadband Wireless Access 173

7.1.2 IEEE 802.16 174

7.1.3 BWA Technologies 175

7.2 Wireless LAN 176

7.2.1 IEEE 802.11 176

7.2.2 Channel Structure 178

7.2.3 Efficient Channel Sharing 178

7.2.4 Parameters in WLAN Planning 178

7.2.5 Coverage and Capacity in WLAN 179

7.2.6 Security and Authentication 179

7.2.7 WLAN Network Architecture 179

7.2.8 WLAN Network Types 180

7.2.9 Network Planning in WLAN 180

7.3 Wi-Fi Networks 181

7.3.1 Introduction to Wi-Fi Technology 181

7.3.2 Wi-Fi Network Architecture 182

7.3.3 Wi-Fi Network Design 183

7.4 WiMAX Networks 183

7.4.1 Introduction to WiMAX 183

7.4.2 OFDMA: Modulation in WiMAX 186

7.4.3 WiMAX Network Architecture 188

7.4.4 Protocol Layers in WiMAX 194

7.4.5 Security 196

7.4.6 Mobility Management 198

7.4.7 Network Design in WiMAX 199

8 Convergence and IP Multimedia Sub-System 201

8.1 Introduction to Convergence 201

8.2 Key Aspects of Convergent Systems 202

8.2.1 Types of Convergence 202

8.2.2 Applications 206

8.3 Architecture in Convergent Networks 207

8.3.1 Business and Operator Support Networks 207

8.3.2 Technology 208

8.4 IMS 209

8.4.1 Introduction to IMS 209

8.4.2 IMS Development 210

8.4.3 Applications of IMS 211

8.5 IMS Architecture 211

8.5.1 Service or Application Layer 211

8.5.2 Control Layer 212

8.5.3 Connectivity or Transport Layer 212

8.5.4 IMS Core Site 213

8.5.5 Functions and Interface in IMS 215

8.5.6 Reference Points 217

8.5.7 Protocol Structure in IMS 217

8.6 IMS Security System 222

8.7 IMS Charging 223

8.7.1 Offline Charging 223

8.7.2 Online Charging 223

8.8 Service Provisioning in IMS 224

8.8.1 Registration in IMS 224

8.8.2 De-Registration in IMS 226

9 Unlicensed Mobile Access 229

9.1 Introduction to UMA 229

9.1.1 History and Evolution of UMA 230

9.1.2 Benefits of UMA 230

9.2 Working on UMA Network 230

9.3 Architecture of UMA 231

9.4 Up Interface in UMA 233

9.5 Protocols in UMA 234

9.5.1 Standard IP-Based Protocol 234

9.5.2 UMA Specific Protocols 234

9.6 Security Mechanism of UMA 235

9.7 Identifiers and Cell Identifiers in UMA 235

9.8 Mode and PLMN Selection 236

9.8.1 Mode Selection 236

9.8.2 PLMN Selection 237

9.9 UMAN Discovery and Registration Procedures 237

9.9.1 Registration 237

9.9.2 De-Registration 239

9.9.3 Registration Update 241

9.9.4 'Keep Alive' 242

9.10 UNC Blocks 242

9.11 Comparison between Femtocells and UMA 243

9.12 Conclusion 243

10 DVB-H 245

10.1 Mobile Television 245

10.1.1 Bearer Technologies for Handheld TV 245

10.1.2 Service Technology for Handheld TV 247

10.2 Introduction to DVB 247

10.2.1 Digital Video Broadcasting---Terrestrial 248

10.2.2 Digital Video Broadcasting---Handheld 249

10.2.3 History of DVB-H 249

10.3 DVB-H Ecosystem 249

10.4 DVB-H System Technology 250

10.4.1 Time Slicing 251

10.4.2 IPDC (Internet Protocol Datacasting) 252

10.4.3 MPE/FEC (Multiple Protocol Encapsulation/Forward Error Correction) 252

10.4.4 Protocol Stack for DVB-H 253

10.4.5 4k Mode and In-Depth Interleaves 254

10.4.6 Multiplexing and Modulation 254

10.4.7 DVB-H Signalling 255

10.4.8 SFN 255

10.4.9 Power Consumption 255

10.4.10 Signal Quality in DVB-H Networks 255

10.5 DVB-H Network Architecture 256

10.5.1 Content Provider 256

10.5.2 Datacast Operator 256

10.5.3 Service Operator 256

10.5.4 Broadcast Network Operators 257

10.6 DVB-H Network Topologies 257

10.6.1 Multiplexing - DVB-T and DVB-H Networks 257

10.6.2 Dedicated DVB-H Networks 257

10.6.3 Hierarchal DVB-T and DVB-H Networks 258

10.7 Network Design in the DVB-H Network 258

10.7.1 Site Planning 261

10.7.2 Coverage Planning 261

Appendix A VAS Applications 265

A.1 Multimedia Messaging Service 265

A.2 Push-to-Talk over Cellular 267

A.3 Streaming Service 270

A.4 Short Message Service 271

A.5 Wireless Application Protocol 272

Appendix B Energy in Telecommunications 275

B.1 The Solution Exists - But It's Not Very Good 275

B.2 Renewable Energy - a Better Solution 276

B.2.1 Solar 277

B.2.2 Wind 277

B.2.3 Biofuels 278

B.2.4 Fuel Cells 278

B.2.5 Hydro and Geothermal 279

B.3 The Optimal Design for a Base Station Site 279

B.4 Business Case for Renewable Energy in Mobile Base Station Sites 279

B.5 Effects of Climate Change on Mobile Networks 281

Bibliography 283

Index 291

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