Cengage Advantage Books: Understanding Arguments: An Introduction to Informal Logic / Edition 8

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Overview

Teaching you to construct sound and effective arguments, this lively introductory text uses extensive real-life examples to guide you through the use of both formal and informal logic in academia (and beyond), with:
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"With its lucid explanations, penetrating analysis of real-world issues, and its selection of exemplary, timely readings, Understanding Arguments should be required reading in any course whose objectives include improving critical thinking and analytical skills."

"This book is a well-crafted and philosophically-infused work. It gets students engaged with the material and genuinely challenges them to think critically. It works particularly well for courses on critical thinking that are aimed at developing students' skills in quantitative reasoning."

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495603955
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 2/10/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 560
  • Sales rank: 658,336
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong is Chauncey Stillman Professor of Practical Ethics in the Department of Philosophy and the Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University.

Robert J. Fogelin is Professor of Philosophy and Sherman Fairchild Professor in the Humanities at Dartmouth College.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Part I How to Analyze Arguments 1

Chapter 1 Uses of Arguments 3

What Arguments Are 3

Justifications 4

Explanations 7

Combinations: An Example 10

Chapter 2 The Web of Language 17

Language and Convention 17

Linguistic Acts 19

Speech Acts 22

Performatives 23

Kinds of Speech Acts 26

Speech Act Rules 28

Conversational Acts 32

Conversational Rules 34

Conversational Implication 37

Violating Conversational Rules 40

Rhetorical Devices 42

Deception 45

Bronston v. United States 46

Summary 48

Chapter 3 The Language of Argument 51

Argument Markers 51

If..., then... 53

Arguments in Standard Form 55

Some Standards for Evaluating Arguments 57

Validity 57

Truth 59

Soundness 60

A Tricky Case 60

A Problem and Some Solutions 62

Assuring 63

Guarding 65

Discounting 66

Evaluative Language 69

Spin Doctoring 72

Chapter 4 The Art of Close Analysis 77

An Extended Example 77

Clerk Hire Allowance, House of Representatives 77

Chapter 5 Deep Analysis 105

Getting Down to Basics 105

Clarifying Crucial Terms 109

Dissecting the Argument 109

Arranging Subarguments 111

Suppressed Premises 116

Contingent Facts 117

Linguistic Principles 119

Evaluative Suppressed Premises 120

Uses and Abuses of Suppressed Premises 121

The Method of Reconstruction 122

Digging Deeper 125

An Example of Deep Analysis: Capital Punishment 127

Part II How to Evaluate Arguments: Deductive Standards 139

Chapter 6 Propositional Logic 141

The Formal Analysis of Arguments 141

Basic Propositional Connectives 142

Conjunction 142

Disjunction 150

Negation 150

Process of Elimination 153

How Truth-Functional ConnectivesWork 154

Testing for Validity 156

Some Further Connectives 160

Conditionals 162

Truth Tables for Conditionals 163

Logical Language and Everyday Language 169

Other Conditionals in Ordinary Language 172

Chapter 7 Categorical Logic 179

Beyond Propositional Logic 179

Categorical Propositions 180

The Four Basic Categorical Forms 182

Translation into the Basic Categorical Forms 184

Contradictories 187

Existential Commitment 189

Validity for Categorical Arguments 190

Categorical Immediate Inferences 192

The Theory of the Syllogism 194

Appendix: The Classical Theory 203

The Classical Square of Opposition 205

The Classical Theory of Immediate Inference 209

The Classical Theory of Syllogisms 210

Part III How to Evaluate Arguments: Inductive Standards 213

Chapter 8 Arguments to and from Generalizations 215

Induction versus Deduction 215

Statistical Generalizations 219

Should We Accept the Premises? 220

Is the Sample Large Enough? 220

Is the Sample Biased? 222

Is the Result Biased in Some Other Way? 223

Statistical Applications 225

Chapter 9 Causal Reasoning 231

Reasoning About Causes 231

Sufficient Conditions and Necessary Conditions 233

The Sufficient Condition Test 236

The Necessary Condition Test 237

The Joint Test 238

Rigorous Testing 240

Reaching Positive Conclusions 242

Applying These Methods to Find Causes 243

Normality 243

Background Assumptions 244

A Detailed Example 245

Calling Things Causes 249

Concomitant Variation 250

Chapter 10 Inference to the Best Explanation and from Analogy 257

Inferences to the Best Explanation 257

Arguments from Analogy 267

Chapter 11 Chances 277

Some Fallacies of Probability 277

The Gambler's Fallacy 277

Strange Things Happen 278

Heuristics 279

The Language of Probability 282

A Priori Probability 283

Some Rules of Probability 285

Bayes's Theorem 291

Chapter 12 Choices 303

Expected Monetary Value 303

Expected Overall Value 306

Decisions Under Ignorance 308

Part IV Fallacies 315

Chapter 13 Fallacies of Vagueness 317

Uses of Unclarity 317

Vagueness 318

Heaps 320

Slippery Slopes 322

Conceptual Slippery-Slope Arguments 322

Fairness Slippery-Slope Arguments 325

Causal Slippery-Slope Arguments 327

Chapter 14 Fallacies of Ambiguity 333

Ambiguity 333

Equivocation 337

Definitions 343

Chapter 15 Fallacies of Relevance 353

Relevance 353

Ad Hominem Arguments 354

Appeals to Authority 360

More Fallacies of Relevance 364

Chapter 16 Fallacies of Vacuity 369

Circularity 369

Begging the Question 370

Self-Sealers 375

Chapter 17 Refutation 381

What Is Refutation? 381

Counterexamples 382

Reductio Ad Absurdum 386

Straw Men and False Dichotomies 390

Refutation by Parallel Reasoning 392

Part V Areas of Argumentation 401

Chapter 18 Legal Reasoning 403

Components of Legal Reasoning 404

Questions of Fact 404

Questions of Law 405

The Law of Discrimination 411

The Equal Protection Clause 411

Applying the Equal Protection Clause 412

The Strict Scrutiny Test 413

The Bakke Case 414

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 416

Legal Developments Since Bakke 418

Grutter v. Bollinger 419

Gratz v. Bollinger 425

Burden of Proof 430

Chapter 19 Moral Reasoning 433

Moral Disagreements 433

The Problem of Abortion 434

The "Pro-Life" Argument 435

"Pro-Choice" Responses 437

Analogical Reasoning in Ethics 442

Weighing Factors 444

"A Defense of Abortion," Judith Jarvis Thomson 446

"An Argument that Abortion Is Wrong," Don Marquis 459

Chapter 20 Scientific Reasoning 477

Standard Science 477

Scientific Revolutions 479

"Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference," Michael J. Behe 481

"Living with Darwin," Philip Kitcher 494

Chapter 21 Religious Reasoning 505

"Five Reasons to Believe in God," William Lane Craig 506

"Seven Deadly Objections to Belief in the Christian God," Edwin Curley 512

Chapter 22 Philosophical Reasoning 523

"Computing Machinery and Intelligence," A. M. Turing 524

"The Myth of the Computer," John R. Searle 536

Credits 543

Index 545

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